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c yP(^ cT. :s<r 


Reproduced from the painting by James Sharpies. 



In such a work as the one to whicli the reader is introduced through 
these pages, one traverses over many countries and down the centuries to 
the present time, following along the way marked by woman's course, her 
paths of thought and activities, her genius, skill and achievements, modi- 
tied or enlarged and increased by conditions, circumstances and environ- 
ments, such as birth, inheritance, education and opportunities incident to 
the period of time in which she lived, and other possibilities or hindrances ; 
but always the ''eternal womanly ' * is apparent, making the distinct difference 
in sex as given by the divine Creator when He made them male and female, 
and in thfa the beauty and harmony of life lias its highest culmination and 
brings to pass the full fruition of the hopes and aspirations of mankind. 

This book shows what woman's power for good has been in the past and 
in the present, and, looking forward and judging from the spirit of the times 
and the civilization and enlightenment of future periods compared to the 
past and even to our own day and time, the women of the future will he so 
far advanced in all things beautiful and glorious that the past will sink into 
insignificance by contrast. And yet, however grand the structure woman 
may build for herself hereafter, she must remember, with some degree of 
reverence, that she has only reached a hii^her pinnacle because her prede- 
cessors laid so deep, so strong and so endurable a foundation for her to 
climb upward upon to a higher attainment of excellence. 

The devotion and consecration of the lives of such women, as some 
whose biogniphies are herein written (and many more whose record is as 
noble and worthy to be handed down to j)osterity), provtr they have been 
in-^trumental in paving the wav through difficulties and overcoming obstacles 
that sfeme<l ff>rmidable ; and they are therefore worthy the honor of future 
generations h(»wever great may Ixr the success of their achievements. 

The value of the lessons to Ix* learned from reading such a hook as the 
publishers of " Woman " offer to thtr |)ubli<: cannot he estimated. To know 
what has been done by women, or to judge of their inner life by outward 


acts (even only by the few representatives of their time), combines a goodly 
part of the world's progress, for woman is essentially a character builder. 

As a whole, the work is unsurpassed in its general character by any 
of its kind known to the writer ; as it deals with no one question, no one 
country, but with woman in a universal sense as a part of the world's history 
in the great drama of life. 

Every library, public or private, will be more complete by adding to its 
list a copy of this valuable work, and every home in city, town or village 
would be enriched by its possession and perusal. 

The typographical work and illustrations commend it at a glance, and 
the first impression one has in looking at the book is favorable, because of 
the excellence of material used and durability of its workmanship generally; 
aside from the subject and general tone of its contents. 

r^^ ^i^ii^ . ^^^^ife^^ife-:^ j 


4 I 

I t I Her 

^ s^fe - I Position, 

\ Designed ! Influence, 

^ and I ' 

^ Arranged i And 

% vviuiam'c. King. ! Achievement 

^ z — Throughout the 

^ -^^^ Civilized World. 

^ « Her Biography m Her History. # 



1 Garden of Eden ^ r n o 1 1 

t Careiuiiy oelected 

-! TO THE TT7^* 

; Writers. 

< I'wentieth Century. , .0^. 


J Springfield, Mass. 

^ The King-Richardson Co. 

< San Jose. Chicago. Indianapolis. 

-^ IQ02. 

JUL 1 1914 






Henry AVoldmar Ruoff, D.C.L. Marcus Benjamin, Ph.D. 

A utkar of » * Home and State ^ * * * * Ongin Superintendent of U, S. National Museum . 

of the Family ^^^ Etc. Co-editor of the Universal Cyclopedia. 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, LL.D. 

Historian J Essayist, Lecturer. 

May Wright Sewall, Rev. James W. Cole, 

Author^ Educator y Lecturer. Author of * ' Our Noblest Birthright, ' ' ^^ Dignity 

President of the Women *s international Council. of Labor, ' * Etc. 

W. H. P. Faunce, D.D., LL.D. 

President of Brown University . 

Anna A. Gordon, Rev. Willard E. Waterbury, 

I'lcePres. Woman s Christian Temperance Author of "■ Religion in the 

Union. Home,'" Etc. 

David Starr Jordan, LL.D. 

President Lcland Stanford fr. University. 

Edward W. Bok, Anna Le Porte Diggs, 

Author and four ttalist. fournalist; Author of ^^ Liberalism in the 

Editor Ladies' Home fournal. West,'" Etc. 

Helen^i Modjeska, 

Shakesperian Actress and Scholar. 

William C. King, Bishop John H. Vincent, LL.D. 

Pretidtnl of The King- Richardson Company. Author, Preacher, Educator. 


i )K ¥ 

IV [O one fact in the progress of civilization has been more 
J prominent than the advancement of woman. This is 

especially true since the discovery of the New World ; 
but at no period of the world's history, when great movements 
were taking place, was it inconspicuous. The level of civilized 
life has rarely been above the condition of woman ; the one iS, 
in a sense, the measure of the other. 

If to-day we boast of a higher civilization than the past 
vouchsafed to our ancestors, it is because the potent influences 
of womanly life and grace have been extended to almost every 
phase of modern activity, refining it, modulating it, and uplift- 
ing it. Not only the home, but literature, art, and the multi- 
fold enterprises of the workaday world have felt the impress 
of this higher personality, and have been ennobled and bet- 
tered by it. 

Such being true, can any story exceed in interest and inspi- 
ration this drama of woman's development, — a drama whose 
prologue is set in the midst of beautiful legends, whose charac- 
ters embrace the most renowned female actors in history — 
queens and peasants, the bond and the free — and whose 
epilogue lies in the far distant future, approachable by prophecy 
only ? Woman has been the theme of poets, the ideal of artists 
and sculptors, the regent of the home, a creator and patroness 



of literature, a powerful leader of men, and the record of her 
achievements deserves to be perpetuated as an important part 
of the heritage of the race. 

Under, such convictions the following pages have resulted 
from long maturing plans. It has been designed to give a 
complete and succinct narrative of the development of woman 
from the earliest, almost prehistoric, times down to the begin- 
ning of the twentieth century, with so much of its detail as 
may be properly included in a work of this scope. A very 
important part of the plan is the selection of a large number 
of biographies of the celebrated women of the various periods 
to both vividly picture the social conditions of the times and 
to afford illustrations of the power for good or evil of these 
extraordinary personages. 

To aid in the consummation of this plan, specially equipped 
writers have been enlisted and assigned to various tasks in 
connection with the work. 

This joint authorship is in itself, we hope, a feature of 
strength and gives a variety of treatment that could not well 
be gained in any other way. 

The illustrations have been drawn from the best sources, 
and the pictures of the most eminent artists are thus made to 
supplement and embellish the work of the biographer and 
the historian. 

^OO ' ^g ' OQ c 




From Bden to Christ 




To Fall of the Roman Empire 




From the Fall of Rome to the Crusades 




To Discovery of America 

( I lcx> to 1500) 




Period of Intellectual Awakening 

( 1500 to 1800) 



A Century of Unparalleled Progress. 

(1800 to 1900) 

' .|. - 




-»— m— ^- 

Prepared by REV. JAMES W. COLE. 


Eve, Ancestress of the Human Race, 

Sarah, the Princess, 

Hagar. Mother of Ishniael, 

Rebekah, Mother of Jacob and Esau, 

Miriam, the Prophetess, 

Deborah, Deliverer of Israel at Mt. Tabor, 

Rachel, the Beloved 

The Witch of Endor, .... 

Nofritari, Wife of Ahmosis Pharaoh, 

Hatasu, Egyptian Queen and Explorer, 

Out^n Tii. Mother of Amenothes IV., 

Thermuthis, Foster Mother of Moses, 

Helen of Troy, .... 

Semiramis, (^)u(en of Assyria, 

Jephthahs Daughter, 

Delilah, Betrayer of Samson, 








Ruth, the Gleaner, 

Hannah, Mother of Samuel the Prophet, 
Queen of Sheba, .... 
Abigail, the Beautiful Peacemaker, 
Jezebel, the Tyrannical Queen, 
Princess Dido, Founder of Carthage, 
Judith, Slayer of Holofernes, 
Sappho, Greatest Greek Poetess, . 
Queen Esther, the '* Lily of Shushan,'* 
Lucretia, Victim of the Tarquins, 
Aspasia, Athenian Courtesan, 
Xantippe, Wife of Socrates, . 
Artemisia, Queen of Caria, 
Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, 
Octavia, Wife of Marc Antony, 
Mariamne, W^ife of Herod, 
Cleopatra, Egyptian Queen, . 


The Bible — First Woman — Primeval Civilization — The Ancient World — Aque- 
ous Belt — The Deluge — Euphrates Valley — Story of the Tablets — Cities 
and pbuses — Position of the Wife — Children — Slaves — The Priesthood — 
The Temple — Planetary Worship — Egypt — Husband and Wife — Palestine 
— Moloch — Priests of Jezebel — Europe — India and China — The Suttee — 
Caste in India — Transmigration — China — Teachings of Confucius — Re- 















Elizabeth, Mother of John the Baptist, 105 

Mary, Mother of Christ, 106 

Mary Magdalene, . . . . . . . / . 108 

Herodias and Salome, ........ 109 

Agrippina, Mother of Nero, . . . . . . . .110 

Martha and Mary, . . . . . . . .113 

D< 'rcas, Oiieen of the Needle, . . . . . . . 1 14 

L<»is and Eunice, .......... 115 

Lydia. Christian Convert, . . . . . .116 

Kf>>nina, Heroine of Conjugal Affection, . . . . .117 

Priscilla. Missionary Tent-maker, . . . . . . 118 

Phcebe. Deaconess of Cenchrea, . . . . . .119 

B'viidicea, British Queen, . . . . . . . .120 

Bcrnice, Daughter of Herod Agrippa, . . . . .123 

Blandin.i. Slave (jirl, . . . . . . . .124 

IVrjKt\ia and Kelicitas, . . . . . . . .125 

Julia Mainmaa, Mother of Severus, . . . . . .126 

H»'l«n.i. Mother of Constantine the Great, . . . . . 127 

Zenohia. r)ueen of Palmyra, .... ... 128 

Alines and .Anastasia, Martyrs, . . . . .129 

N'»na, M«»thtT of (iregory, ........ 130 

M*»nica, Mother of Augustine, ....... 133 

I'aula. Friend of Kducation, . . . . . . . .134 

Olympian, Christian Philanthropist, . . . . .135 

Hvf.-itia. Philosopher of Alexandria, ...... 136 

pill* heria and Fudocia, .... ... 137 

r,f'nf\ieve, Patrf»n Saint of Paris, . . . .139 

Fabiola, Founder of Roman Hospital, . . . . .140 


Koman Empire — Emperors — Claudius— Ser*) — Causes of 1 )fcay — Teutonic ][\- 
\ asion'< — Social Conditions — Infanticide - - Public Ciames — Christian Legis- 
lation — Human Equality 14;? 1 54 





A. D. 500 TO 1 100. 




Brunehaut, Queen of the Franks, . 
Amalasontha, Victim of Intrigue, . 
Radegonde, Courageous and Pious Queen, 
Queen Bertha, Founder of Church in Canterbury, 
Chrodielde, Nun, ...... 

Theodora, Wife of Justinian, .... 

Fredegonda, Rival of Brunehaut, . 
Ayeshah, Second Wife of Mahomet, 
Fatima, Daughter of Mahomet, ^. 
Theodelinda, Zealous Christian, 
Ermengarde, Queen of Charlemagne, 
Irene, Empress of Constantinople, 
Abassa, Sister of Haroun al Raschid, 
Judith, Queen of Louis I., . 
Angelberga, Queen of Louis II. of Italy, 
Ethelfleda, Wife of Etheldred, 
Gerberge, Wife of Louis IV. of France, 








Social and Political Changes — Feudal System — Feudal Institutions — Feudal 
Castle — Castle Life — Children — Advance of Woman — Rise of Chivalry 

— Morals and Amusements — Elevation of the Wife — I^gal Restraints — 
Position of the Church — Chu/ch and Everyday Life — Conventual System 

— Influence of Monasticism — Divorce 181-190 




A. D. iioo TO 1500. 
-•H-X-h-* — 



Anna Comnena, Greek Scholar, 
Heloise, Pupil and Mistress of Abelard, . 
Countess of Tripoli, .... 
Eleanor, Queen of Louis VI L of France, 
Berengaria, Wife of Richard the Lion Hearted 
Blanche of Castile, .... 

Philippa, Founder of Queen's College, Oxford 
Mary, Anglo-Saxon Poetess, . 
Elizabeth of Hungary, Saindy Princess, . 
Beatrice, Inspiration of Dante, 
Laura, Immortalized by Petrarch, . 
Jane of Flanders, ..... 
Catharine of Siena, .... 

Juliana Berners, Founder of Sopewell Nunnery, 
Catharine of Valois, Queen of France, 
Joan of Arc, French Heroine, 
J<^n Beaufort, Mother of James II. of Scotland 
Aj^nes Sorel, '* Fairest of the Fair," 
Mari^aret of Anjou, Queen of Henry VII., 
Mar>iaret Beaufort, Mother of Henry VII., 
Isal>ella. Queen of Spain, 
.•Xnne, Daughter of Louis XI. of France, 
Anne of Bretagne, Patroness of Learning, 
LucTc/ia Borgia, Daughter of Alexander VI., 







Hereditan' Rights — Woman's Marital Position — Religion and Love — Trouba- 
dours — Kffects of Chivalry — The Feminine Sphere — Castle Education — 
Decline of Chivalry — Teachings of True Chivalry — Among the Masses — 
The Tavern — A Medieval Picture — Public Baths — Town Life — Morals 
— Superstitious Devotion — Convents — Learning — Dress — National Pecul- 
iarities in Dress — Fashions 231-242 




A. D. 1500 TO 1800. 




Catharine, First Wife of Henry VIII., 245 

Margaret, Queen of Navaire, ....... 246 

Anne Boleyn, Second Wife of Henry VIII., 247 

Anne Askew, Martyr, ......... 248 

Margaret Roper, Daughter of Sir Thomas More, .... 249 

Mary I., Queen of England, ........ 250 

Lady Jane Grey, . . . . . . . . . .251 

Catharine de* Medici, ......... 252 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, ....... 255 

Mary, Queen of Scots, ......... 257 

Eleonora D'Este, Beloved by Tasso, . . . . . .261 

Gabrielle D'Estrees, ......... 262 

Beatrice of Cenci, ** Beautiful Parricide," ..... 263 

Margaret of Valois, Profligate Queen, ...... 264 

Pocahontas, Indian Heroine, ........ 265 

Anne of Austria, .......... 266 

Anne Hutchinson, Religious Reformer, ...... 267 

Lady Fanshavve, . . . . . . . . . 268 

Catharine Philips, Early English Writer, 269 

Christina of Sweden, ......... 270 

Lady Pakington, Authoress and Moralist, . . . . .271 

Madame de Maintenon, . . . . . . . . ,272 

Tarquinia Molsa, Beauty and Wit, . . . . . .273 

Louise de la Valliere, 274 



Anne Dacier, Scholar and Linguist, 

Anne Killigrew, Artist and Poetess, 

Queen Anne, English Sovereign, . 

Mar>' Astell, English Authoress and Linguist, 

Abigail Masham, Favorite of Queen Anne, 

Mar>' IL, Queen of England, 

Catharine L of Russia, 

Lady Montagu, Social Leader, 

Marie Deffand, 

Marquise du Chatelet, . 

I^dy Huntingdon, Religious Philanthropist, 

Maria Theresa, Empress of Germany, 

Catharine IL, Empress of Russia, . 

Madame de la Roche, German Authoress, 

Martha Washington, .... 

Charlotte Corday, French Heroine, 

Madame de Stael, .... 

Abigail Adams, ..... 

Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, 

NLidame Roland, Martyr of the French Revolution, 

Louise, Queen of Prussia, . . . . . 

Elizal>eth Hamilton, Irish Authoress, 

Josephine, Wife of Napoleon, .... 








sixteenth Century — Renaissance — Study of Languages — Spread of Learning 
— Revival in England — Notable Personages — Seventeenth Century — Lng- 
land in the Eighteenth Century — Germany — Spain — America — (icneral 
Social Conditions in Europe — Imitation of French Manners — Example of 
rerversion — Courts of Turin and Milan — Forms of Pleasure and P^lniploy- 
ment — (lerman Court — Vienna — Maria Theresa — Court of Frederick 
William — Saxon Women — French Influence in (iermany — P^ffects of the 
Seven Years* War — French Revolution — Causes - Society Under Louis 
XVL— Grand Opera — Beginning of the Carnage — A Vital (Question — 
Woman's Patriotism — Madame I^ Hon — Public Executions - - Chariotte 
Corday and Marie Antoinette — Scenes at Execution — Diffusion of French 
Manners — Th« English Woman — Inequality of Woman's Rights — (Ger- 
man Law Touching Woman — Later Property Rights 315 340 




A. D. 1800 TO 1900. 



<> - ►^— <>^ 



Hannah More, .......... 343 

Caroline Herschel, ......... 344 

Hannah Adams, 345 

Joanna Baillie, 346 

Madame D'Arblay, 347 

Elizabeth Inchbald, 348 

Sarah Siddons, 349 

Maria Edgeworth, 350 

Jane Austen, . , . . 353 

Madame R6camier, ......... 354 

Frances Trollope, . , . . . . . . . -355 

Jane and Anna Porter, 356 

Mary F. Somerville, . 357 

Mary Russell Mitford, 358 

Emma Willard, 359 

Ann Hasseltine Judson, . 360 

Catherine M. Sedgwick, . 361 

Felicia Hemans, . . . . . . . . . . 362 

Lydia H. Sigourney, 365 

Lucretia Mott, .......... 366 



Agnes Strickland, 
Mary Lyon, . 
Anna Jameson. 
Fredrika Bremer, 
Harriet L. Martineau, 
Dorothea L. Dix, 
Henriette Sontag, 
Lydia Maria Child, 
Madame Diidevant, 
Elizabeth B. Browning, 
Margaret Fuller Ossoli, 
Elizabeth C. Gaskell, 
** Fanny Fern,** 
Harriet Beecher Stowe, 
I.uise Muhlbach, . 
Charlotte Cushman, 
Charlotte Bront^, . 
Lucy Stone, . 
Maria Mitchell, 
Alice and Fhcebe Cary, 
" (»eorge Eliot," 
Jenny Lind, . 
Madam Hlavatsky, 
Lucy Larcom, 
Dinah NLiria Mulock, 
kosii Bonheur, 
Christina i>. Rossetti, 
Catherine Booth, . 
Helen Hunt Jackson, 
Jean Ingclow, 








Amelia B. Edwardsj 
Lucy Webb Hayes, 
Louisa May Alcott, 
Euphrosyne Parepa Rosa, 
Mary Abigail Dodge, 
Frances E. Willard, 
Susan B. Anthony, 
Frances Power Cobbe, . 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 
Julia Ward Howe, 
Harriet G. Hosmer, 
Harriet Prescott Spofford, 
Belva A. Lock wood, 
Louise Chandler Moulton, 
Lady Henry Somerset, 
Mary N. Murfree, 
Queen Victoria, 
Anna E. Dickinson, 
Fanny J. Crosby, 
Mary H. Hunt, 
Margaret Oliphant, 
Mrs. Humphry Ward, 
Clara Barton, 
Florence Nightingale, 
Adelaide Ristori, . 
Elizabeth Blackwell, 
Charlotte M. Yonge, 
Empress Eugenie, 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts, 
Mary A. Livermore, 











** Grace Greenwood/* 445 

Clara Louise Kellogg, ......... 446 

Frances Hodgson Burnett, 449 

Mrs. Frank Leslie, ......... 450 

* 'Marian Harland,** 451 

Vinnie Ream Hoxie, 452 

Margaret E. Sangster, 453 

Adelina Patti, . 454 

Elizabeth Storrs Mead 455 

Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, ........ 456 

Mrs. Potter Palmer, 459 

Pundita Ramabai, . . ' . . . . . . 460 

Empress Dowager of China, .462 

Helen Miller Gould, . 464 

Marie Corelli, . 465 

Mrs. Frances Cleveland, ........ 466 

\arina Anne Davis, ......... 467 

Mrs. Leland Stanford, ......... 468 



Nineteenth Century — General Advancement — Civil War — The Awakening — 
Sanitary ('onimission — Its First Marked Influence — Aid Associations — 
Methods of Securing Money — Nursing — Work of Clara Barton — Mrs. Liv- 
ermore — Mrs. Iloge — Women in Battle — " Mother " Bickerdyke — Profes- 
sional Nursing — Nursing in England — Women of the South — Recent 
Advance — Woman and the Ballot — Worcester Convention — Wyoming 
KesolatioD — Status in Colorado — W^oman and Property Rights — Beginning 
of Reform — In Europe — Epitome of Rights — Teaching 469-490 






Woman in Literature, 493 

By Thomas Wentworth Higginson. 

Woman's Achievement in Invention and Science, . 506 

By Marcus Benjamin. 

Woman in the Professions, 517 

By Rev. Willard E. Waterbury. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 526 

By Anna A. Gordon. 

What Woman has done with her Pen, .... 543 
By Edward W. Bok. 

Woman and the Stage 552 

By Helena Modjeska. 

Woman's Higher Education, 563 

By David Starr Jordan. 

Woman as an Artist, 570 

By Several Writers. 

Woman in the Alliance Movement, 581 

Qy Anna Le Porte Diggs. 

Woman as a Wage-Earner, 601 

By Rev. Willard S. Waterbury. 

Woman in Philanthropy, 611 

By Several Writers. 

Woman in Educational Progress, 624 

By President William H. P. Faunae. 

Woman in Social Reform, 630 

By May Wright Sewall. 

Woman in World-Wide Missions, 648 

By William C. King. 

Woman in the Home, 656 

By Bishop John H. Vincent. 




Portrait of Martha Washington, 

Type of the Egyptian Woman, 

Departure of Hagar, 

Finding of Moses, 

Samson and Delilah, 


Antony and Cleopatra, 

Mary. Mother of Christ, 

Shipwreck of Agrippina, 

Queen Boadicea, . 

Augustine and His Mother, Monica, 

A Roman Boudoir, 

Death of Brunehaut, 


Mohammedan Woman, 

Court Life in Granada, 

Alnwick Castle, 

Blanche of Castile, 

Petrarch and Laura, 

Jo.m <»f Arc, . 

Isabella Hearing Columbus, 

Castle Life in the Middle Ages, 

Trial of Oueen Catharine, 

Oueen Llizabeth Signing the Death Warrant of Mar 

Kleonora D'Este Entertaining Tasso, 

Portrait <>f Queen Anne, 

Portrait of Catharine II. of Russia, 

Portrait of Madame de Stael, 

Madame Roland in Prison, 

First Meeting of Dante and Beatrice, 

Empress Maria Theresa, 

Marie Antoinette Condemned, 

F\»rtrait of Queen Victoria, 

Portrait Group, .... 

Abigail Adams — Hannah More — Jane Austen — 
D'Arblay — Sarah Siddons. 


Queen of 











Portrait Group, .......... 

Felicia Hemans — Madame R^camier — Emma Willard — Lydia 
H. Sigourney — Frederika Bremer. 
Poitrait Group, .......... 

Harriet Martineau — Catherine M. Sedgwick — George Sand — 
Lucretia Mott — Mary Lyon. 
Portrait Group, ......... 

Henrietta Sontag — Charlotte Bronte — Charlotte Cushman — 
Margaret Fuller Ossoli — Lucy Stone Blackvvell. 

Portrait Group, .......... 

George Eliot — Christina Rossetti — Maria Mitchell — Jean 
Ingelovv — Dinah Maria Craik. 

Portrait Group, .......... 

Amelia B. Edwards — Lucy Webb Hayes — Helen Hunt Jack- 
son — Parepa Rosa — Baroness Burdett-Coutts. 

Portrait Group, .......... 

Frances Power Cobbe — Julia Ward Howe — Adelaide Ristori — 
Harriet Beecher Stowe — Mary A. Livermore. 

Portrait Group, .......... 

Harriet G. Hosmer — Marian Harland — Empress Eugenie — 
Mrs. Belva A. Lock wood — Clara Barton. 

Portrait Group, .......... 

Rosa Bonheur — Mrs. Frank Leslie — Mary N. Murfree — Clara 
Louise Kellogg — Mrs. Jane Stanford. 

Portrait Group, .......... 

Mrs. Grover Cleveland — Lady Henry Somerset — Mrs. Hum- 
phry Ward — Mrs. Potter Palmer — Winnie Davis. 


Portrait of Frances E. Willard, 

Portrait of Harriet Prescott SpofTord, 

Portrait of Jenny Lind, . 

Plowing in Nivernais, 

Portrait of Lucy Larcom, 

In the Hospital, .... 

Queen Louise Visiting the Poor, 

Breaking Home Ties, 













been seen, for sin was unknown on earth. All was at peace ; there was 
harmony between man and God above him and between man and the 
beasts below him. 

The whole wide, genial planet, with its myriad teeming creatures on hill, 
in dale, in river, sea, and sky, was then before our mother Eve ; who, so 
vast were her endowments, could and did intelligently converse, not only 
with the Deity, but even with the beasts of the field. So usual was this, 
her speech both with God and with the, to us, dumb creatures of earth, 
that when one possessed of an evil spirit sought to tempt her to evil, its 
speech was readily understood, and caused her no surprise ; and then, woe 
to the world ! those half-truths told her were believed and acted upon, and 
Eve fell, and, falling, dragged down Adam with her, and *' by one man sin 
entered into the world, and death by sin." 

Man had placed upon him by Deity but one prohibition. There can be 
no development of moral character where self-restraint is wanting. What 
was designed for discipline became the occasion of the fall. By the subtle 
insinuations of the evil one. Eve was led to doubt the Creator* s justice and 
love in withholding anything from her. Fidelity to God was undermined ; 
self-gratification gained the ascendency. 

Disobedience causes a child to seek to avoid the parent who has been 
disobeyed. So it was with the first pair — these children of God in Eden ; 
they sought to hide away from their loving Creator. The dread heritage 
of sin in all these succeeding centuries has been such that men have been 
driving themselves away from God, while he has sought to win them back. 

This is not the place to discuss the great problem of the origin of evil. 
But it may safely be said that it cannot yet i)e understood how vast was the 
change then wrouglit in the nature and person of Eve, and in the destiny 
of mankind. It may never be comprehended by mortals. It brought a 
change in the operation of the Creator's plans. She and Adam were ban- 
ished from Eden, and thereafter led a life of toil and sorrow, until in the 
evening of ''the day" foretold them, death brought the next great change 
in their hist<^ry. 

Nor can it now he dcterniiiucl at what point in the world's history this 
most tremendous of all its great events — the coming of sin — took place. 



That oldest of all histories that have come down to u.?, the Bible, purposely 
leaves indeterminate the time when Eve was created, and how long she 
lived in Eden. More than two hundred different dates have been assigned 
to the period, each professedly based upon the Bible, and varying from that 
of Rabbi Lipman's of B.C. 3438 to that of Regiomontanus of B.C. 6984. 

Archbishop Usher, whose time reckonings are yet put in the English 
Bible, professed to determine it so accurately that he named Friday, 
October 28th, of the year 4004 B.C., as the time, an effort long since 
laughed at as childish. 

Where was Eden, the first home of Eve ? No man can tell, but proba- 
bly near the upper region of the present Euphrates river. An immense 
number of books have been written, and a vast number of theories proposed, 
concerning the site of Eden. Some, despairing of finding any locality on 
earth correspK)nding to the Genesis account, have put it in that "third 
heaven '* to which Paul was caught up, and- where he heard "unspeakable 
things.'' Others have located it in the fourth heaven ; some in the seventh 
heaven ; some at a point within the moon's orbit ; while recently the 
learned president of a great university put forth a labored treatise showing 
that Eden was situated at the present North Pole region. Others have 
been equally sure that at the Asiatic equator upon a supposed region now 
submerged by the Indian Ocean and called Lenniria, was the spot where 
the first woman of earth had her home. Other learned men ha\'e as stoutly 
arj^cii that Ethiopia in Equatc^rial Africa is tlie original site of Kden. 
Millions <»f Moslems Ix^lieve that the island of Ceylon was the place, and 
ihey yet show the print of Adam's feet. China, Tartary, the Bahylonian 
Plains. .Assyria, Arabia, Mesopotamia, .Syria, Palestine, Western and Cen- 
tnil Europe, each have had their many or earnest adxocates who ha\ e 
<>tablished. at least to their own satisfaction, where h.\e first lixcd. No 
place on earth now answers to the deseription ^ixeii in the Hihh*. The 
I'Kality, as such, long ago disappeared. And it is well for hmnanity that its 
identity cinnot now be established. The interminable j)il^rinia^('s that man- 
kind in every age has been making to the so-ealled holy places of earth hut 
iainily show how disiistrous to the race would ha\'c been its prrser\ation. 

There remain only hints in the ( Genesis narrative as to Eve's home anrl 



manner of life after leaving Eden. That life was long and full of pathos, 
for, with the human instinct for home strong within her, she doubtless lin- 
gered in the vicinity of the loved and lost Eden. And, remembering her 
Creator's loving promise that her seed should recover what the deceiver 
had caused her to lose, when her firstborn son Cain came to her breast, 
we are told that she joyfully cried, "I have gotten a man — the Lord." 
Bi:t when the second son appeared we are then told that she called him 
Abel, i, ^., *' vanity." Human nature and its law of heredity existed then 
as now. 

And was it in human nature for Adam to have refrained from reproach- 
ing her for the bitter change thit had come to them ? He was not pres- 
ent when she transgressed. What wonder then, that Cain was sullen, 
morose, and at length a murderer of the favorite brother? And, so it is 
told, God afterward pitied while he blamed Cain, just as he had before 
pitied Adam, his father, and Eve, his mother. But what a volume of family 
discord and bitterness lies hid in that one word, Abel, "vanity." How 
her hopes had perished ! 

It is recorded that Adam lived 930 years **and he begat sons and 
daughters." No names of Eve's daughters are given in the Bible, and 
only three of her sons are called by name. When the third son whose 
name appears in the Bible was born to Eve, she called his name Seth, i. r. , 
** consolation," apparently now discerning that through this child, instead 
of by her firstborn, the Messiah was to come to redeem her and regenerate 
the earth. 

Of the after events of her long life, of her influence over husband and 
children, and the conduct of her home, no record remains, save we are told 
that her firstborn son builded him "a city," from which it may be safely 
concluded that this great fore-mother of mankind, of wondrous intellect 
and many virtues, who had known and conversed with her Creator in Eden, 
was not the gentle savage that some of her descendants imagine her to have 
been, but dwelt in a home suitable to the nt-eds of her numerous household, 
busy with the cares, and sorrows, and joys that ever come to the matron 
with many children, and longing evermore for the coming of that better 
Eden that yet awaits the earth and man. 



y ^IL» - ZZ ^ 


f HE wife of the founder of the most remarkable of all the ancient 
\ ^ religions was born in Ur, the most ancient capital town of Chaldea. 
T From one of the oldest and most important of the clay tablets 

recently exhumed, we learn that people in Sarah's city worshiped the 
planets ; while from other sources it is learned that her father, Terah, was 
the chief of the priests of Nergal (the planet Mars), and a great prince or 
lord of the city, and was, according to the Koran, a son-in-law of that 
mighty overlord of the land, Nimrod, who was the great grandson of 

The Bible informs us that the year Terah was seventy there was 
bom to him Abram, Nahor, and Haran. This Abram was afterward 
the husband of Sarah. 

It will be remembered that; on a notable occasion, Abraham declared 
this very relationship, saying of Sarah, *' And moreover, she is indeed my 
sister, the daughter of my father but not the daughter of my mother, and 
bhe became my wife." 

Repugnant as this may be to our modern thought, it was then a very 
a»mmon law or custom, not only in Chaldea, but in Egypt, and it prevailed 
in cultured Athens and elsewhere in Oreecc* so late as the time of Philo, 
and yet exists more or less in most polygamous countries. 

In Sarah's country, polygamy was, as the tablets show, the rule 
amon^ the nobles and well-to-do, women being, as in modern Turkey, an 
anicle of merchandise. Fathers then bartered their daughters to whomso- 
ever they chose, without regard to the daughter's wishes. 

Terah was not only owner of several wives, and a prince of the land and 
chief of the priests, but he was also a maker of statuary of the gods, being 
the 6rst of which there is any record. 

When the University of Pennsyhania's expedition recently exhumed 
ancient Nippur (the Calneh of the Bible), a vast number of phallic images, 
the symbols of Terah's gods, were found in the oldest of these temple ruins. 



Sarah was married while living at Ur, and remained in that rich, luxu- 
rious, and grossly licentious city of idols, until the great change in her hus- 
band's religious views forced the whole family to migrate. The Bible notes 
this migration and also the previous idolatry of Terah and Abram. From 
other sources we learn that Abram, while a heathen priest of Ur, and not- 
ing, as was his wont, the planets in order to predict coming events, after 
the manner of the ancient and modern astrologers, became convinced that 
these planets were not gods, but moved in obedience to natural law. He 
consequently renounced his Sabianism, which, according to the Koran, 
so enraged his priestly father Terah, and the mighty despot Nim- 
rod, that they persecuted him and imprisoned him for ten years. At 
length they ordered him to be burned, on which last occasion he was 
divinely rescued. 

This led to Terah' s renouncing his idolatry, whereupon the whole 
family was thrust out from their greatly profitable and hooorable position, 
and fled up the Euphrates valley seven hundred miles beyond Nimrod's 
dominions, and located at Haran, the Moon-god city. 

This place was in those old times " a great city," and was located on 
the main line of travel and commerce between Central and Western Asia. 
Great caravan roads met there, and then branched out to the great fords 
on the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Long after it passed under the 
dominion of the Roman Empire, its people spoke the ancient Chaldean 
language and worshiped Chaldean gods. 

Here Sarah resided for some thirty- five years, and became, as the Bible 
tells, wealthy and prominent, her husband then owning ''many slaves" 
and much ' ' substance. ' ' 

The manner of life of well-to-do women at Haran (with the exception ot 
religious customs) may be seen illustrated in modern Bagdad and other 
towns of the Euphrates. 

At her father's death, Abram received that great call from God to leave 
his "country," "kindred," and "father's house," and go "unto the 
land that I will show thee," which resulted in Abram' s leaving Haran and, 
with his fatherless nephew Lot, migrating to southern Palestine, while the 
other members of the family remained at Haran. It may be conjectured 



that the old idolatry, with its amazing licentiousness and horrid human 
sacrifices, was yet too strong for Abram even at Haran. 

The sixty or more years that Sarah lived in Palestine were full of stirring 
incidents, and her life now differed greatly from either that at old priestly 
Ur. or at commercial Haran. As detailed in twelve chapters of Genesis 
iChap. 12-24) it was now almost wholly spent in tents, her husband's life 
being an almost exact duplicate of that of a modern Bedouin sheik. 

Some time after the arrival in the Negib district, one of the periodical 
famines of that section occurred, and they went to Egypt, where Sarah's 
Inrauty attracted the attention of the Pharaoh, who, after the custom of his 
kind, took her into his harem and gave Abram many presents of slaves, 
camels, cattle, sheep, and draft animals, so making him "very rich in 
cattle, in silver, and in gold." 

On being sent out of Egypt by the Pharaoh, Sarah and her husband 
lived at Hebron, while Lot chose the plain of Jordan, and finally settled at 
Sodom, both that district and its people closely resembling his native Ur. 
Here Lot was captured by marauding kings from Chaldea, and was rescued 
by Abram and his fellow sheiks. 

During this h)ng residence at Hebron, God made that memorable 
covenant with Abraham, with its sanitary seal of circumcision and of 

Sarah does not appear to have shared greatly in her husband's piety, 
and certainly did not possess his faith in the divine j)redictions. Because 
'►f this unVx.'lief she gave him her slave-girl, Hagar, to wife, and then so 
dbusetl the slave through her furious jealousy and selfishness as to make 
herself appear to our modern eyes inhuman. 

According to the divine promise, Sarah became the motlK-r of Isaac at 
a |>eriod that then began to be accounted "old," in contrast with the 
lormer great length of life. She lived to see her idolized son reach man- 
h<xKl, and then, it is conjectured, died of grief and fright at the time 
.Abraham's faith in the resurrection of the body prompted him to offer Isaac 
in accordance with the divine command. She was buried in the historic 
Cave of MachiK-lah, and has been greatly reverenced by the Jews in every 
age as their great ance*stress. 




I RABIA, a country four times as large as France, is of peculiar inter- 
est to all Bible students. No other, save little Palestine, holds so 
many hallowed and impressive associations. Here Hagar lived 
and died ; and here her descendants yet literally fulfill the prediction made 
to her concerning her unborn babe. Here lived, and suffered, and tri- 
umphed, the patriarch Job. Here Moses fled from Egypt, >and, at that 
burning, unconsuming, bush, was commissioned by Jehovah to rescue his 
brethren from Egyptian bondage. Here for forty years he led them, and 
saw those marvelous displays of divine power and guidance. Here 
Elijah found shelter from Jezebel's wrath, and Saul of Tarsus a refuge after 
his conversion. 

Through its northern border ran the great road from Egypt to Pales- 
tine, over which Hagar had traveled as a poor slave from Egypt some years 
before tlic time in which her name appears in the Bible. She was the child 
of the Pharaoh by Abraham's wife Sarah, at the time the latter was an 
inmate of his harem. When Sarah left Egypt for Palestine, the young girl 
was taken with her, and, fearing lest the Dammesck-Eliezer should finally 
be the *' possessor of my house," she proceeded after the manner of her 
native Chaldea to give Hagar as wife to Abram, her lawful husband. 
Hagar, whose rights and lot in those far-off times were no higher than those 
of our cattlt! now, had no choice but to obey the owner's command. 

In old Egypt, as in tlie present Turkish Empire, if one of the concubines 
bore the sultan an heir in advance of the wife, she then became the chief 
Kadin of the harem and as principal wife had authority over the others. It 
was then but natural that when Hagar **savv that she had conceived, her 
mistress was despised in her eyes.** In Sarah's country, however, it was 
different. At that period and later, in Chaldea, the husband had absolute 
power over his wives, even to the taking of their lives. Th« penal code of 
Asshur relating to divorce set out that "if a husband say unto his wife 





RBprnducad frnm the painting of W. Hamll- 
tan, R, A,, an English artist. Hamlltan studied 
under Zucchi In Rditlb, and after his return to 
England was elected to the Royal Academy. 
He made numernus pictures far the " Shakes- 
peare G-allery," 


* Thou art not my wife/ he shall pay half a mina, and be free ; but i£ a 
woman repudiate her husband, she shall be drowned in the river. * ' 

Sarah, now being unwilling to face the consequences of her own con- 
duct, apf)ealed to Abram, who meekly turned his slave wife over to her 
Jealous rival. The latter at once proceeded to wreak her vengeance on 
,Hagar, and that, too, so ''hardly" that Hagar fled, taking the road to 
Eg\'pt, 150 miles distant, with the apparent purpose to seek her own kin. 
While resting at a fountain on the lonely, perilous road, the " Angel of the 
Lord" called her, and advised her to return, telling her in few words the 
great future of her unborn child, and describing so accurately the character 
of the .Arab race, as they have been seen in all ages and as they yet are, as 
to thenceforth constitute the Ishmaelite the living miracle of the world for 
all time. Obedient to this divine command, Hagar returned to Abram, and 
when her child was born called him Ishmael, ** God heareth," as she had 
been directed. 

Fourteen years later, Sarah, the free-born wife of Abram, bore him a 
son, who was called Isaac. 

Among the Jews, in after years, the legal age for boys was thirteen, and 
the firstborn son inherited the patrimony. But under the Chaldean law 
the children inherited through the mother ; the children of the free-born 
wife only l)eing direct heirs, which led to the seemingly unjust distribution 
of .Abram's property among his children that was made in after years, and 
also to the seemingly unjust divorce of Hagar that occurred when Ishmael, 
his son, was seventeen. 

\Vh<n the second son, Isaac, was three years of age, his mother, Sarah, 
afttr the Chaldean custom at weaning, made a feast and at this feast arrayed 
him in the sacred robe which was the formal badge or symbol of the birth- 
right that then constituted him the heir and head of the family or clan. 
Ishmael, to whom this formal change of fortune in his father's family meant 
much, "laughed derisively" at both the actors and the occasion, which so 
enrai^ed the imperious Sarah that she now instantly demanded the divorce- 
ment of Hagar and the disinheriting of Ishmael. 

This " thing was very grievous in Ai)raiiam's sight, on account of his 
son," and not until told by God to comply, did he do so. The reason for 



such direction is not given, beyond this statement, ** for in Isaac shall thy 
seed be called. ' ' 

And now occurred that pathetic and cruel incident that has been the 
subject for poets and painters for many ages ; namely, '* The casting out of 
Hagar. * ' Whether her relatives in Egypt were now dead or the condi- 
tions in that country such that she dared not go there, or whether she 
resolved to remain in the region of the old home, cannot be known ; but it 
is certain she did not take the highway to Egypt, but was wandering and 
nigh unto death when found by the *' Angel of the Lord " in that arid, up- 
land region in south Palestine, known as the Wilderness of Beersheba. 

Being now once more providentially rescued, she afterward went, ac- 
cording to the record, with her son to the plain of Paran at the foot of 
Mount Sinai, where, many years later, she is said to have died. The 
Mohammedans, however, who claim her, and also Abraham, as of their 
faith, say she married again and lived at Medina, "and was there buried. 

Her son Ishmael married an Egyptian woman, according to the Bible. 
But the Arabs say he also married a daughter of Sheik Mudad, whence 
sprang Adnan, the ancestor of Mohammed, the founder of the Moham- 
medan religion. 

. The children of Keturah, Abraham's third wife, also settled in Arabia, 
as did most of Esau's descendants, and these mingled with the Ishmaelites ; 
the latter, however, were the ruling or predominating element according to 
Arab historians through all the ages until now. 

In the sixth century of our era, Mohammed arose and succeeded in 
rallying these ancient nomads under their petty chiefs, and within less than 
fifty years he had planted the triumphant standards of the Crescent over the 
earth, from the Straits of Gibraltar to the regions far beyond the Oxus. 

The Bedouins of to-day are the lineal descendants of the prophet 
Abraham by the * * Egyptian handmaid * ' Hagar. Though not so stated 
in the Bible, it may be inferred that wealthy Abraham looked after the 
comfort of the cast-out Hagar, for, seventy-two years later, we are told that 
Ishmael, with Isaac, reverently buried their father by the side of Sarah in 
the Cave of Machpelah, a statement otherwise unaccountable, unless the 
son Ishmael was far more forgiving and magnanimous than his father. 




IN the marriage ceremony of the Episcopal Church are these words : 
*'That as Isaac and Rebekah lived faithfully together, so these per- 
sons may surely perform and keep the vow and covenant betwixt them 
made.** Their lives stand as a shining example of domestic felicity in 
ancient times. 

How Isaac obtained his wife is a charming oriental love story. Abra- 
ham sent his old servant back to Haran in northern Chaldea, to secure a 
wife for Isaac. Parents usually provided wives for their sons without con- 
sulting them. We cannot wonder that often the union was a business 
transaction rather than, as in this case, a love marriage. 

"Rebekah at the Well," so familiar to all, represents the toil-worn 
travelers who have made the long overland journey and have halted at the 
well at evening time. Rebekah comes with pitcher upon her shoulder to 
draw water for the family. The old ser\ant feels that he has found a bride 
for his master's son. He is entertained at the damsel's -home and makes 
known his mission. Arrangements are consummated, and, with her slaves 
and dowry. Rebekah leaves her home to go into the distant west to become 
the wife (A the man she has never seen. 

Isaac is walking alone in the field i?t evening when the caravan arrives. 
He sees his future wife and loves her. He had been devoted to his mother 
Sarah. She is now dead and Rebekah has his undivided aflfection. 

Twin sons, Jacob and Esau, are born to thcni. Unfortunately there is 
iavoritism in the family. The mother is especially devoted to Jacob, who is 
•^•t a shrewd turn of mind like herself. Esau loves hunting and general out- 
of-do<^^r life and is the father's favcjrite. 

Rel>ekah plot^ to secure the inheritance fur Jacob, and, though she suc- 
ceeds, the wrath of Esau is such that Jacob is obliged to flee, and spends 
many years in exile. Not until after his mother's death does he return. 

The story is replete with the peculiarities of ancient marriage. 




'TTVE first see her as a young girl beside the Nile, watching at a dis- 
\f^ tance the water-tight basket among the reeds of the river, in 
which her little baby brother has been placed. 

When Pharaoh's daughter discovers the infant in his queer cradle, 
Miriam hurries to the scene and suggests that a nurse be secured. This 
meets the approval of the princess and the girl hurries away to get her 
mother, who becomes the royally appointed nurse of her own babe, and so 
his life is saved. 

When that brother was weaned, he was taken to the royal palace and 
his education in all the arts and sciences of Egypt began, and was con- 
tinued for forty years. The sister who watched him in his boat cradle, 
watched his career amid royalty. 

Then came a change. He fled into exile, where he remained for forty 
years until God called and sent him back to lead Israel out of bondage. 

Regretting this great loss to his kingdom, and recovering from his awful 
fright at those divine ' * wonders ' ' done in the field of Zoar, Pharaoh 
gathered his legions and, pursuing, was overwhelmed as he followed them 
through the divinely parted Red Sea. 

When the fugitive Israelites JTave crossed the Red Sea, we see Miriam 
leading the women in the antiphonal jubilee chorus. 

Her j)rophetic power showed itself somewhat as in the later times of 
Samuel and David — which was exhibited in poetry accompanied with 
music and procession. 

When Moses married a Cushite wife, Miriam took the lead with Aaron 
in the complaint against him. She felt that, as an older sister, she could 
not relinquish her right to some part in the control of her brother's afifairs. 
As a punishment she was smitten with leprosy. This was afterward re- 
moved. The affliction and the cure form the last public event in Miriam's 
life. She died at Kadesh and was there buried. 




^^HE migrating hordes of Israel, in the time of Deborah, poured into 

«lfe Palestine, — driving out and displacing, after the custom of those 

times, the former terribly depraved and demonized people. 

But their long residence in Egypt and familiarity with the licentious 

worship of the gods had left its inevitable impress on these Israelites, and, 

. spite of Jehovah's miraculous leadings through the wilderness for forty 

years, they seemed unable to live according to the new code of pure ethics 

given them. 

On reaching Palestine they fell, after the '* death of Joshua and the 
elders that outlived him," into that gross sexual debasement, if not also 
into the demoniacal idolatry, for which God had decreed the annihilation of 
ihe Canaanite people. As a result, the divine plans for them were now 
changed, and ** he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about 
^and they were sore distressed." 

For twenty years the Canaanite king Jabin had '\mightily oppressed 
the children of Israel," robbed their fields, taxed them and forced them 
t'j unpaid work with his huge marauding army that inchided in its cavalry 
' nine hundred chariots of iron." 

**And the children of Israel cried unto the Lord," who commissioned 
Deborah, the seeress, to call to arms Barak, who, with 10,000 men, as- 
H:mbk'd at Mount Talx)r. But when he saw the vast army of Jabin, led i)y 
its ^Teat general , .Sisera, he would have fled, had not the proj^hetess, whom 
he insisted should accompany his soldiers, now ordered an immediate 
charge in the midst of a furious hail storm that drove full in the face of 
the enemy, by which they were thrown into a panic and completely an- 
nihilated by Barak's forces, the general Sisera being killed by Jael, the 
wife of Heber. 

This deliverance is commemorated in the ancient Hebrew poem found 
w Judges V. 




IFTER Jacob bargained with his brother Esau for the birthright, 
obtaining it for a mess of pottage, and then gained his father's 
blessing by deception, he fled, according to his mother's directions, 
to Haran, her girlhood home. Esau had already married two wives out- 
side the tribe, and so had forfeited his inheritance. 

Jacob, at his parents' directions, seeks a wife from among their kindred 
in the far east. He comes to the home of his uncle Laban, meets his cousin 
Rachel, and loves her. According to the Chaldean custom, he serves 
for her, as he has no property. The contract is made, and shrewd Laban 
gets seven years of Jacob's time, but to the lover the time seems short. 

There was a Chaldean custom of which Jacob was ignorant. Daughters 
must be married in the order of their ages. At the end of the seven years 
the older sister Leah was given him instead of Rachel, and he was obliged 
to serve seven years more for the woman he loved. 

There was a strife for maternity between these wives, and each gave 
Jacob a slave wife to multiply offspring to her own account. From these 
four wives came the heads of the twelve tribes of Israel. 

Sharp business practices indulged in by Jacob and his father-in-law, and 
jealousy of Jacob's success, induced the latter, after secret conference with 
his wives, to flee to Palestine, which, as he had become a member of his 
wives' clan, was contrary to law without iheir father's consent. When 
Laban returned, gathering his armed retainers, he pursued Jacob, but was 
restrained from capturing him by a divine admonition, but he added to the 
marriage contract of Jacob a proviso that no wives of another tribe should 
be taken by Jacob. 

Subsequently, as the outcome of frequent family quarrels, Rachel's 
eldest son Joseph was sold as a slave in Egypt, and there became the 
second ruler or prime minister, and at a time of famine saved his father and 
family by bringing them to Egypt. 



O 8 O t C < 


TT\ HE ancients were full of superstitious faith in the visits of the supernal 
JL powers and their vast influence over mankind. This lay at the bot- 
tom of all their religions — was their religion; and, coupled with 
gross, licentious rites and practices among every ancient people, save where 
the Mosaic statutes prevailed, it gave those religions that tremendous power 
over man that is everywhere seen. 

With them, the unfortunate dumb, deformed, or epileptic, and even the 
barren woman, were controlled or cursed by demons, good or bad. 

Like the moderns, they were acquainted with that as yet unexplained 
d>*namic-psychic control of one human being by another that we call hyp- 
notism or mesmerism, and, as an average of one person in five may be 
hypnotized, there was never a lack of subjects, but with them it was solely 
the doings of the *' genii " and those so affected were bewitched. 

Saul doubtless read that injunction of the Mosaic statutes not to suffer a 
vitch to live with them as a command not to let them live anywhere at all. 
And so he had vigorously killed and driven them out. But now, forsaken 
otQxi, he secretly visits at night " a woman mistress of an ol)i in Endor," 
2Uid requests her to bring up for consultation the spirit of the dead prophet 
Samuel. This obi, according to the account, produced the spirit of Sam- 
uel, who foretold Saul's death and that of his sons on the morrow's battle 
*ith the Philistines, which took place as predicted. 

Did dead Samuel really appear? The writer of the Apocryphal Book of 
Ecdesiasticus, the Jewish historian Josephus, the early Christian Father 
]er(>me, and others held that it was an actual occurrence. Others main- 
tain that Satan or an evil spirit personated Samuel ; others that a miraculous 
•nipress was upon the senses of the obi and Saul so that they actually saw 
^muel ; others concluded from the words of the Septuagint that the 
*oman was a ventriloquist and used the common trick of the profession to 
ddude Saul. 



B.C. 1680? 


^^HE Nile valley, like the Euphrates, was one of the earliest homes of 
\2/ civilization. Its great enterprises and buildings, and the millions of 
' human beings who made them, lie moldered to dust in those great 
graveyards of the ancient world. Their names and memorials have alike 
perished, save as the spade of the explorer fortunately turns up some broken 
pieces of pottery on which their scribes were wont to record their doings, or 
the learned decipher their long dead languages, written on the walls of their 
rock tombs or on the boundary stones of their great empires. 

Their historians diligently recorded the deeds of the times, but, unfor- 
tunately, all these have vanished, save here and there a fragment of the 

These explorations show that, in the narrow Nile valley extending 600 
miles upward from the Mediterranean, a great empire existed whose begin- 
nings date back, it is supposed, to B.C. 3893, to Menes, whose tomb is said 
to have been recently found in Upper Egypt. 

Some six hundred years before the birth of queen Nofritari, the regions 
of the Delta, with its great cities, had been occupied by Scythians from Asia, 
who, by B.C. 2061, captured the country of Egypt and ruled it for 340 
years, being known as Hyksos, Shepherd Kings. 

Salatis, their chief, began ruling at Memphis, and constructed a military 
encampment, Avaris, near Tanis, sheltering 240,000 soldiers. The native 
Theban kings resisted, and for six generations they kept the country in a 
perpetual warfare, desirous of tearing up Egypt by the very roots. 

The Theban Ahmosis besieged the Hyksos camp with 480,000 men, 
driving them out beyond Beershcba, and Ahmosis was worshiped as a god 
for 800 years later. 

Nofritari had six children, one of whom, Amenothis I., minor at his 
father's death, became king. She reigned with him, the real ruler, some 
forty years. As the great queen she was afterwards worshiped as goddess 
for nine centuries. Her mummy was recently found at Deitel-Bahari. 



B. C. 1690? 


{ \) CELEBRATED queen of Egypt and the eldest daughter of Ahmasi 
X\ and Sonisonbu. According to Professor Maspero, her father gave 
her to wife when young to her junior brother, known in history as 
Thotmosis IL, but she being of solar, /. e., *»' divine " birth, and thus 
higher than her husband, was the real ruler of Egypt, and sought to con- 
ceal her sex by changing the termination of her name, and appearing on all 
public occasions in male attire. On the Theban monuments she appears 
as male, with false chin beard, and minus breasts, but with her feminine 
pronoun, and claiming to be the betrothed of the god Amon. 

Her husband died at thirty, leaving two daughters by Hatasu and a son 
by a slave Isis. This son, Hatasu proclaimed as her successor and married 
her sur\'iving daughter to him. He appears in history as Thotmosis III. 

Her reign was prosperous, as appears by the great buildings she caused 
to be erected, by her famous architect Sanmut, throughout the province of 
Thebes. One of those immense obelisks is yet standing among the ruins 
'>^ Karnak. 

The monuments give an account of her expedition lo the unknown land 
of Perfumes for a cargo of perfumes for the gods ; and of the wonder 
Mcited at Thebes on the return from the long voyage to the Somali coast. 
She is represented as reigning eight years after this memorable expedi- 
tion, and as opening the Sinai mines, and the canals in the Delta that had, 
h^^use of the previous long continued wars, been silled up. 

She was averse to war and so lost nearly all that her father had con- 
n^ereil in Syria ; nevertheless she developed Egypt as but few before her 
had done. She resolutely kept the reins of government in lier own hands 
loni^' after her son-in-law had come of age, dying when Thotmosis III. was 
t»eniy-five years old : he revenged himself by seeking lo destroy the very 
^^embrance of her from the earth. 

A richly car\'ed chair belonging to this great cjueen was found in one of 
the royal tombs of Egypt recently. 



B. C. 1500? 


J^ECAME wife of Amenothes III. in the tenth year of his reign, being 
j[2r ^"^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ wives. She was not of the blood of the Pharaohs, 
her father being one Iiiia and her mother Tiiia. 

Hincks supposes that she was a Syrian of the tribe of Levi and that her 
influence brought about that strange revolution in the religion of Egypt 
seen during her lifetime and that of her son Amenothes IV\, who is now 
known as Khu-en-aten or Khuniaton. 

Her husband gave her the town Zau as dowry and raised her above his 
other princess wives and concubines, even those of the "solar rank," to be 
the Queen of the Empire, and permitted her to appear at his side at pubHc 
ceremonies, and on the monuments. 

She had vast influence over him, and busied herself greatly in all afifairs 
of state, and after her husband's death, while not officially known as regent, 
she exercised that power during her lifetime under the reign of her son, 
giving that strange oriental impress to her son's religious policy that then 
appears on the monuments. 

She is supposed to have been born near Heliopolis, that ancient seat of 
the sun (Ra) worship, where under its priests Plato studied, and where tra- 
dition says Joseph and Mary stayed when in Egypt. The place is called 
**the abode of the sun," and known as On in the Bible. The High 
Priest's daughter, Asenath, the Pharaoh gave Joseph to wife. 

In the Tel-el- Amarna correspondence, Tii is called "Thy mother," 
/. ^. , of Amenothes 1\^. 

During her life the power of the great hierarchy of the god Amon at 
Thebes was temporarily overthrown, and a new religious cult, that of 
Antonu, the invisible disk, prevailed. 

Her son builded an immense palace and temple and a town devoted to 
this form of sun worship whose ruins have recently yielded those celebrated 
tablets known as the Tel-el- Amarna correspondence, that confirm in so 
many points the historic accuracy of Genesis. 



ReprDducBd froni the painting by Schnpin, a 
German painter of French extraction. His works 
are principally historical pictures, At one time 
Schcpi:: was a pupil of Baron Bros. 







B. C. 1600. 


FNCIENT Thebes, on both sides of the Nile for over fifteen miles, con- 
tains remains of once gigantic buildings erected by Egypt's greatest 
king, Rameses II., the Sesostris of the Greek historians. 

His mummified body was discovered at Thebes in 1881, and may now 
be seen in the museum at Gizeh. 

When M. Naville unearthed Pithom, one of the treasure cities built by 
the Israelite slaves, the niins showed him to have been the great oppressor, 
who by their labor constructed those immense cities, temples, canals, and 
frontier walls, that were the astonishment of after ages. 

Whether she who adopted Moses was Rameses' daughter, or daughter 
of his brother, Armais, who occupied the throne as regent while the great 
Rameses with his army of 600,000 foot soldiers, 24,000 cavalry, and 27,000 
war chariots, was for nine years conquering the surrounding nations, cannot 
now be told. 

But through her, Moses "was skilled in all the wisdom of Kgypi." 
As elsewhere told, learning was wholly confined to the priests, of whom the 
king was head ; these great schools were connected with the temples, and, 
at timtrs, had thousands of students. In them were taught such ancient 
vkLMiom as that found in chapter 64 of the Book of Dead, hooks and forms 
«•? devotion ; hymns to and of the gods ; war and lo\e souths : moral and 
:.hil*JSOphical treatises : letter writing ; h-j;al documents : mathematics, 
.i-m»nomy, and military tactics ; astrology and mechcine : sur\eying, nui- 
-«:«:al composition, and business in general. 

M«>st of our prizeil fables and folklore have come (uit of Mgypt's 
-^ h'K»ls, which <iid not hesitate to appropriate whatever of ancient or con- 
:rmp<'>rar\' knowledge the stranger might bring. 

According to Josephus, Moses became the commanding otticer of the 
rigyptian army, and defeated the Kthiopiaus in a noted cam|)aiun. captiu'ed 
their capital Meroe, and married the Ethiopian king's daughter. 



B. C. 1S18. 



YHER E is lack of agreement as to the parentage of Helen of Troy, 
but she was generally represented as the daughter of Jupiter and 
Leda, who was wife of King Tyndareus. 

When Helen was but ten years of age she was carried of! by Theseus, 
who made his mother the keeper of his captive. 

Helen had two famous brothers, Castor and Pollux, who came to her 
rescue, and in turn carried away Theseus' mother as Helen's slave. 

Having returned to her home she was sought by many noted men ; 
among them, the Homeric hero, Ulysses. She finally accepted Menelaus 
as her husband. 

Paris, the son of Priam, King of Troy, was entertained by Menelaus, 
and basely repaid the hospitality by carrying ofl Helen to his home in 
Troy, but, as it would seem, not against her will. The Greek princes, 
many of whom had been her suitors, vowed to restore her to her husband 
and the result was the Trojan war. 

Paris was killed during the siege, and Helen married his brother, but 
when Troy was taken she betrayed him into the hands of the enemy to win 
favor with her former husband, Menelaus. She received his forgiveness. 

There are various stories of her death. One is that, after the death of 
Menelaus, she fled to the Island of Rhodes, where the queen of the island, 
whose husband had been killed in the Trojan war, caused her to be seized, 
tied to a tree and strangled. 

The Spartans counted her a goddess and dedicated a temple to her 
name. It was supposed that women worshipers at this temple, however 
homely, would become beautiful. 

Homer's Iliad and Odyssey give vivid pictures of the social life, man- 
ners, customs, religion, and government of the Greeks and the condition of 
women in the davs of Helen. Among later poets the tales of Helen are 
much complicated, and her character often sufiFers severely at their hands. 



B.C. 1200? 


BOR nearly two thousand years Nineveh, the ancient Babylon, was 
lost to the world. Ancient history was full of its fame, yet so com- 
plete was its ruin that Herodotus, B.C. 460, passing over its site, 
did not even know it. Sixty years later Xenophon and his 10,000 on that 
iamous retreat from Persia did not hnd so much as its name. 

Lucian. B.C. 137, affirms that it had so utterly perished that its very 
site was unknown. For 1500 years men doubted its existence, and until 
about fifty years ago the Bedouin fed his flocks over it all unmindful of the 
tact that scores of feet beneath lay the great palaces of the most famous city 
of ancient, if not of all, time ; a city whose area was ten times that of London 
oil«)-(iay. But the huge statues, obelisks, monuments, marble slabs, exca- 
vatttl hy Layard, and now in the Assyrian room of the British Museum, 
^vc abundantly confirmed the classic stories of the amazing greatness of 
thbcity toundi'd by Ninus and his greater spouse, Semiramis. 

Stmiramis was first the wife of his captain, ( )nnes, but won the king's 
'"Vfbvan hi-roic exploit, the capture of Bactria, which had dertcd the royal 
^Tci-s. Ninus died, and Semiramis, succeeding to his i)o\\t:r, traversed all 
;»art> of the Assyrian empire, erecting great cities, particularly Babylon. 
•»r»d stupendous monuments, or opening road^ through savage mountains, 
•''ntuas unsuccessful only in an attack on India. At length, after a reign 
'•forty-two years, she delivered up the kingdom to her son Xinyas, and 
'disappeared : or, according to what seems to be the original form of the 
>*'^'r\. was turned into a dove and thenceforth worsniped as a deity. 

This is the k*gend which the (ireeks received irom Ctesias, and which is 
^v preserved by Diodorus, though it has been modified by traits borrowed 
•r'^-m the history of .Alexander the ( ireat. 

<'»n the statue of the god Nebo in the British Museum occurs the name 
'•f King Vul-Lush and his queen Semiramis, a princess of Babylon. 



B. C. 1188? 


(Jj\OR hundreds of years after the Israelites settled in Palestine they were 
-L governed by men called Judges (an elective office) who interpreted 
and enforced the Mosaic statutes, and whose position was somewhat like 
the Greek " Kphors " or Roman "Consuls," and whose office seemed to 
have been a life one, but was not hereditary. 

In the intervals between these judges, the people seem immediately to 
have adopted the customs and idolatry of their neighbors, and as a punish- 
ment fell under the rule of the nomad chiefs or petty kings surrounding 

Jephthah was such a nomad chief who had been expelled from among the 
Israelites because of his birth. ¥ot eighteen years the Israelites had been 
subject to the oppressive rule of the Philistines and Ammonites, and they 
now entreated the aid of Jephthah, promising him their rulership if he would 
lead their army in attempt to gain independence. 

He consented, and made, after the custom of his time, a vow to sacri- 
fice, as a burnt offering in case of victory, whatsoever should first meet him 
on his return to his own house. This proved to be his daughter, and it is 
recorded that, after the two months of delay she asked for, " he did with 
her according to his vow." 

Human sacrifices were then common. Was his daughter burned alive? 
Probably not, for these reasons : Jephthah was not an idolater ; it was 
forbidden as an abomination by his Mosaic law ; only the priests could offer 
sacrifices ; only the Levite could take the victim's life ; he was neither. 
Only a male \ ictim could be offered ; burnt sacrifices could only then be 
offered at Shiloh ; there the high priest, Phineas, would not have allowed 
it : redemption could havr l)een secured l)y paying a small sum ; his con- 
duct is conunended in Heb. ix: 32, which would be atrocious if he had 
burned her. The word he used was ne'-der, "consecration," not che- 
run, "destruction." The probabilities are that she was only condemned to 
a life of celibacy, which event the women of that time celebrated yearly. 



ReproducBd frnm a picture by the cBlehratBd 
Van Eyck, "w/hn "for nnbls use nf calnr, ElegaiicB, 
and style ranks as one of ths first paintars." Van 
Eyck was barn at Antwerp, and studiad under 
Rubens. In pcrtraitura ha was unsurpassed. 
Among his many works ara, " Portrait of Charles 
I.," " Tha P.nyal Family," " MlraculDr:S Draught 
of FlshBS," and " Christ Lrownad with Thorns." 

^'^ /\^^ 








B. r. 1187? 


'«^— *—■ ^ - 

(J^OR twenty years Samson had been the leader of his people against 

£* the sore oppression of the Philistines. He was a Nazarite by birth, 

and at manhood married a PhiHstine woman, against whose clan his 

uralh was chiefly directed. He was simply irresistible : new ropes, a 

thousand men, city gates with bolts and bars, were of no avail against him. 

But he had with his physical strength an ungoverned animal nature. 

Fur a time he broke through every snare laid for him. He became 

tnamored of Delilah. The lords of the Philistines inchiced her to entice 

him to reveal the secret of his strength. They offered, as a reward, to 

c-ach give her eleven hundred pieces of silver. 

Samson, in lying jest, told her that if she were to bind him with green 
withes he would be powerless. This was tried and found to be false. He 
then proposed being bound with new ropes, which proved equally futile. 
He next told her to weave the seven locks of his hair with the web of the 
l'X)m. This she did, and when she cried '' The Philistines are upon thee " 
hi- awoke and carried off loom, web and all. 

The Ixiftled courtesan now complained that he did not lo\ e her. Over- 
'''»mt at last by her complaining and coaxing, Ik* revealed the secret of his 
^a/arite v<.»w. She cut his locks and he was ea])ture(l by the Philistines. 

His enemies put out his eyes, bound him with fetters of brass, and 
^»a<le him grind in the i)rison house, while Delilah, like all of her kind, 
protiu'd by ht-r treachery and no doubt mocke(l her \ ictini. 

There is a sad irony in his fate of beinii made blind. The eyes which 
l"oked nn depraved beauty and led to his fall were destroyed. 

At a great festival in honor of their ^od Hagon, blind Samson was 
•'roiight forth to be gh)ried over at the innnense temple, then holding thoii- 
MHils «»f people*. Hen-, asking ( iod t«> ri >tore hi> ^treni^th, he pulled 
'l^'wn two main piihirs, wrecking the building and perished with the thou- 
Mnds of idolatrous onlookers. 

The story is relati'd in the book of Judges, chapters xiv-xvi. 


B. C. 1120? 


^^HE present Turkish district of Kerah, bordering some forty miles on 
\[y the east of the Dead Sea, and now almost wholly a wilderness over 

' which the wild Bedouins roam, was once a densely populated and 
wealthy country as the extraordinary number of ruins scattered over it 

The lowland part of the district south of the Arnon was Ruth's home. 
A famine caused by incessant Midianite raids prevailed in South Palestine, 
and Klimelech of Bethlehem, with his family, crossed the Jordan into Moab, 
and Mahlon, one of his sons, married the Ruth of the Bible. 

Ten years later Elimelech and his sons being dead, Naomi, his widow, 
hearing that Gideon had destroyed the Midianite robbers, and her home- 
land was now prosperous, resolved to return to Bethlehem, and took leave 
of her daughter-in-law. But Ruth now refused to be parted from Naomi, 
and together they reached Bethlehem " at the beginning of th^ barley har- 
vest," their arrival causing a deal of excitement in the little hamlet. 

After the custom of the poor, Ruth at once went into the fields to glean 
after the reapers, * ' and her hap was to light on the portion of the field 
belonging unto Boaz, who was of the family (clan) of Elimelech — a mighty 
man of wealth. 

In the Biblical book of Ruth, finest of all pastoral narratives, is given 
the thoroughly oriental courtship of the widow Ruth, and the ancient 
device adopted by Boaz, who stood only in the relation of a goe/ to Ruth 
(one having privilege only of redeeming an inheritance ) and not that of a 
/evir (one whose duty according to Mosaic law it was to redeem), to 
induce the near kinsman to renounce his rights to the widow that he might 
take her. The kinsman, on learning that he must take the widow as an 
incumbrance on the estate, refused the inheritance, whereupon Boaz mar- 
ried her and she became the mother of Obed, the grandfather of David, 
King of Israel. 



B. C. 1116? 


YHROUGHOUT all the ancient world, motherhood was the aim and 
ambition of all married women. A numerous offspring was the 
goal of those ancient worthies. If a wife was childless, her lot was 
indeed a hard one ; for if she bore no children, she alone was blamed and, 
il not then divorced, another wife was added to the household and the 
childless one's life made bitter. 

Hannah's life was embittered by the taunts of the woman who shared 
the husband's name with her, and which was but little mitigated by the 
fact that she was the best beloved wife. 

The ancients also held that barrenness was due not to physical causes 
hut to the su|>ernal powers. 

And so it is recorded that at the great annual religious festival at 
ShJoh, Hannah prayed earnestly to "the Lord of hosts" for offspring, 
consecrating such, if granted her, to the service of God as priest. In 
answer to her prayer, Samuel, the great prophet-priest of Israel, was born 

When he was three years old he was weaned and in ac rord with her 
vow Hannah presented him at Shiloh to VA'i, the high priest, and thereafter 
"the child did minister unto the Lord before Kli the priest/' The mother 
VNtwi him each year bringing a little coat upon which she had i>cstowed 
months of loving skill. 

When Kli's prie^st sons were slain because of their lew(hi«*ss, roi)l^ery, 
^nd oppression, and the father died of grief thereat, Sanuiel became the 
priestly ruler of the people, and under his j^overninent Israel had such 
r*ace and prosperity as had not i)een hitherto known by them. 

When he became too old and feel)l(.- longer to tra\(l as judge among 
the pe»»ple, he appointed his three sons to the ot"fu<\ who, unfortunately, 
"walked not in his ways, but turned aside after lucre, and took bril^jes and 
p^Aertetl judgment," and the ine\itable c onse(juences soon came, the de- 
>tructit»n of the government. 


». C. 1004? 


■ - - - - .}e;;-H-H^. 

HEBA was the name of the great South Arabian kingdom. Sol- 
omon's fame for wisdom and wealth had reached that kingdom. 
The queen of the South no doubt thought it would be politic to 
keep on good terms with this rapidly rising power. There was also a 
curiosity to verify the stories of his wisdom and regal splendor. 

She prepared her royal caravan and started on her thousand mile jour- 
ney. Solomon was accustomed to royal gifts from surrounding nations 
but the camels laden with the choicest of spices from the land of spices, 
surprised even the king. ' ' There came no more such abundance of spices 
as these which the Queen of Sheba gave to king Solomon," and the hun- 
dred and twenty talents of gold, over fifteen millions of dollars, was a gift 
that the wealthiest of kings could not ignore. 

We may presume that Solomon and his people had not held the people 
of Arabia in high esteem. They had neither the history nor the deeds of 
Egypt and the far East to boast of. But they had gold mines, which made 
that metal an abundant commodity. The coming of that caravan to 
Jerusalem gave the peoi)le a new estimate* of that great south land. 

The Queen of Sheba i)rouglit surprises and found more. Day after 
day she listened lo vSolonion's words, putting to him hard questions in 
philosophy and religion, especially seeking information concerning the God 
of the Jews. She gazed on the splendid architecture of palace and temple, 
and at last was led to exclaim, " It was a true report that I heard in mine 
own land of thy acts and of thy wisdom. Howbeit, I believed not the 
words until 1 came and mine eyes had seen it ; and behold the half was 
not told me ! " 

Then follows a noble acknowledgment of the source of vSolomon's great- 
ness which he so soon forgot. 

" Blessed be the Lord thy God which delighted in thee, to set thee on 
the throne of Israel. Because the Lord loved Israel forever, therefore 
made he thee king, to do judgment and justice.*' 



B. C. 1060? 


r^ABAL was a wealthy sheepmaster, pasturing his four thousand ani- 
lY mals on the southern slopes of Carmel. 

^ David having fled from the jealous and insane king Saul, gathered 
about him a band of debtors and malcontents to the number of six hundred. 
Once a year the sheepmaster and his men held a great banquet at the time 
o\ sheep shearing. David's men, at one of their encampments, had pro- 
tected the shepherds and flocks of Nabal, instead of making depredations ; 
and, at sheep shearing time, partly requested, partly demanded, a gift as 
iood for themselves and their outlaw band. Nabal peremptorily refused, 
and. in so doing, placed himself at the mercy of David and his men. 
Nabal' s men perceived the danger, but did not dare approach him ; so 
they told Abigail, his wife; who, it is said, was of "good understanding 
and of a beautiful countenance. ' ' 

With offerings of bread, wine, grain, raisins, figs, and dressed sheep, 
^^c. with her attendants, liastened down to David's encampment. And 
n«'netoo scmui. Four hundred men, fully armed, were on the way to exter- 
ininate Nabal and his men. Her womanly tact and beauty softened the 
fit^artof David, and the little army turned l^ack. 

When >he reached home Nabal was in the midst of revelry, too drunk 
'^f'know or care al)out the danger. When he was told next (hiy how near 
ne had been to death, the shock was so great that he died from the effects 
of it, 

Ahigail was summoned to the camp of David, and became his wife. 
Prom h<.-ing an outlaw chieftain, he became king after th(.- death of Saul, 
i^duiih him Abigail shared the honors of royalty. One son, Chileah, was 
^'m to them. 

Her pn>mptitude, courage, and tact are womanly virtues which we 
^^imire. She was, unfortunately, obliged to submit to a division of David's 
afiections with his other wives. 


B. C. 917? 


-^>— )K-<^ 

ER ancestors, the Phoenicians, were the inventive and commercial 
Yankees of the ancient world and emigrated, according to Herod- 
otus, from the Euphrates valley, near the Persian Gulf, to Pales- 
tint-, settling, according to tradition, in the vicinity of the Dead Sea. 
When that region was shaken and sunken by an earthquake, such as 
escaped fled to the Mediterranean coast, and founded Sidon, Tyre, and 
Byblus, and planted a colony in Ireland as early as the days of Abraham. 

Jezebel's father, Ethbaal, was first priest of Baal-Melkarth at Tyre and 
afterwards the prince or king of Tyre. The temple of this god at Tyre 
was so splendid and so rich in offerings and magnificent in ceremoniak, 
vestments, and pageants, as to astonish the much traveled Herodotus. 

Tyrians were devotees of Astarte (the C^reek Aphrodite), goddess of 
love, who demanded at her annual festivals the gift of virgins in the sacred 
groves. They also worshiped great Moloch, to whom, at times, awful 
human sacrifices were made. 

Jezebel became the wife of Ahab, king of Israel, and made her husband 
more renowned for wickedness " than all the kings of Israel that were be- 
fore him." Ahai> sank himself and the people in the grossest forms of 
the idolatrv of liis wife's native country, though in all probability he did 
not intend to abolish the worship of Jehovah. 

She ruled Ahab with an iron will ; and did not hesitate at cold blooded 
murder to accomplish her ends, notably in securing Naboth's vineyard by 
causing the owner to be slain. At her table were supported no less than 
four hundred and tifly priests of Haal and four hundred of Astarte. 

It was from her wrath that the prophet Elijah fled after the slaughter of 
her priests at Carmel. Years afterwards, when Jehu entered Jerusalem, 
Jezebel was trampled under his horses' feet and her remains cast upon the 
city refuse heap. Later, relenting, Jehu ordered that she be buried, saying, 
"(io and take this cursed woman and bury her. For be she what she 
may, she was at least a king's daughter." 


About B. C. 869? 



ER husband, Acerbas (who was also her uncle), was priest of Baal- 

Melchar (the Greek Hercules) at Tyre, and was murdered by 

Dido's brother, the king Pygmalion of Tyre, for a cause. Dido 

iWreupon gathered a company of disaflfected nobles of Tyre, and sailed first 

10 the Islands of Cyprus, and later to North Africa opposite Sicily, where 

they bought of the natives as much land as a bull's hide would cover, and 

tricked the natives by cutting the hide into strips, so inclosing enough 

land on which to build Carthage. 

They were wonderfully enterprising and the city became the greatest 
commercial emporium of its time, outrivaling the other great ancient cities 
o( the Semite peoples, Sidon, Tyre, and Thebes. 

The prophet Ezekiel's description of the wealth and greatness of the 
nioiher city, Tyre, but faintly portrays that of Carthage, whose ships were 
^^ lar^'est of the world, trading with all parts of the known earth, and 
<^xploring and colonizing distant, hitherto unknown lands. 

It was governed by nobles called " suffetes," corresponding to the 
judgt-s" of the Israelites, the form of government being very similar to 
^"<^ Spartan, save that the rich only had voice in it. 

h> army was composed, not of citizens, to whom such ser\ice was 
^*l>Tading < they Ixjing merchants and rulers only ), but of mercenary troops 
otticere<l by Carthaginians. Several of these generals were ainc)iig the very 
^rcate^t the world has ever known. 

Because <»f this military defect, Carthage was at last overcome i)y its 
K^tat rival, Rome, towards the end of those three hundred years of com- 
f^trdal and military struggle for the world's supremacy, it being captured 
*ith awful carnage and burned by the Romans at the end of the third Punic 
*^. B. C. 146. The Romans unfortunately destroyed all its historic 

Their religion and customs were sensual, revolting, and fearfully cruel ; 
^d often involved the offering of human sacrifices. 



B. C. 609? 


/ I \HE little state of Palestine was the only available highway between 
JL those two great ancient empires, Egypt and Assyria, and was a con- 
stant prey to the cupidity or revenge of both. 

In the early ages the Hittite peoples of Syria served as a buffer between 
them, but after their rule was destroyed it was inevitable that Palestine 
should suffer from the armies of those great, ambitious, warring nations who 
now swept its treasure and people into their countries to build and adorn 
their great cities. 

Sennacherib, it is recorded, employed 360,000 captives in enlarging and 
beautifying wonderful Nineveh, which, within two years, he boasted he had 
made ** as splendid as the sun." 

An enormous booty and 200,000 captives were taken from Hezekiah 
(king of Judah), and forty-six of his cities in one campaign ; and seventy- 
nine cities, eight hundred towns, over 200,000 captives, and immense wealth 
from the Babylonian states in another. 

With the fall of Nineveh the great, B.C. 625, under the joint forces of 
the Medes, and that traitorous viceroy of Babylon, Nabopolassar, the latter 
became king of Babylon, his son Nebuchadnezzar (afterwards the great 
builder of Babylon) being for years at the head of his armies. During this 
reign of Nabopolassar it is supposed the event of Judith occurred. 

The mighty king, after conquering the Persians, resolved to punish the 
people of Palestine, Syria, and Phoenicia for refusing to aid him in the war 
against Persia, and to this end sent an army into Palestine under command 
of Holof ernes, who laid siege to Bethulia in Samaria. In order to rescue 
the famished inhabitants, a rich widow named Judith entered the Assyrian 
camp under pretext of being a deserter, and willing to betray Bethulia to 
them. Judith was taken into the tent of Holofcrnes, who was enraptured 
by her great beauty, intellectual gifts, and piety. At a banquet in his tent, 
given to Judith, he became drunken, when she beheaded him, thus causing 
the defeat of his army. 



B. C. 600. 


yj HIS famous poetess, estimated by many as the greatest poetess the 

\Jj ^ world has ever seen, was a native of the Island of Lesbos, and 

T probably was born and lived at Mytilene. At Lesbos she was 

the center of a brilliant society and head of a great poetic school, for 

poetry in that age and place was cultivated as assiduously and* apparently 

as successfully by women as by men. The names of two of her rivals are 

prtser\ed — Andromeda and Gorgo. 

In antiquity the fame of Sappho rivaled that of Homer. She was 
called "the poetess," as he was called '* the poet." Different writers 
style her *'the tenth muse," "the flower of the Graces," "a miracle," 
"the beautiful," the last epithet referring to her writings, not her person, 
which is said to have been small and dark. She is said to have sung her 
poems to the Mixo-Lydian mode, which she herself invented. 

The few remains which have come down to us amply testify to the 
>tice of the praises lavished upon Sappho by the ancients. The perfec- 
tK'n and finish of every line, the correspondence of sense and sound, the 
<^>mmand over all the most delicate resources of verse, and the requisite 
symmetry of the complete odes, raise her into the very first rank of tech- 
nical |>oetry at oner, while her direct and fervent painting of passion has 
ne\erlK*en surpassed. Her fragments also bear witness to a profound {{^e\- 
^i^U*r the beauty of nature ; we know from other sources that she had a 
[•et-uliar delight in flowers, and especially in the rose. 

The ancients also attributed to her a considerable powtr in satire, but 
4.r excelled in the [)6etry of passion. 

The(ireek comic poets were fond of introducing her into their dramas 

^'^ a courtesan : but later writers now maintain that she was a pure woman. 

.According to Suidas, she was married t(^ Ctrcolas of .Andros and had a 

'^ughler Cleis. Because of the Draconian times she fled to Sicily, but 

aiten*ards returned to Lesbos, where she died. 



B. C. 468? 


ESTHER, a beautiful Jewish maiden, the heroine of the Biblical book 
that bears her name, was the daughter of Abihail, a Benjamite, and 
uncle of Mordecai. Her proper Hebrew name was Hadassah, but 
on her introduction into the royal harem she received the Persian name of 

Her parents being dead, Esther was brought up as a daughter by her 
cousin Mordecai, who had an office in the court or household of the Persian 
monarch, "at Shushan, in the palace." 

The reigning king of Persia, Ahasuerus, having divorced his queen, 
Vashti, because she properly refused to comply with his drunken com- 
mands, search was made throughout the empire for the most beautiful 
maiden to be her successor. Those whom the officers of the harem deemed 
the most beautiful were removed thither, the eventual choice among them 
remaining with the king himself. The choice fell on Esther, who found 
favor in his eyes, and was advanced to a station enviable only by com- 
parison with that of the less favored inmates of the royal harem. 

The king, however, was not aware of her race and parentage ; and so 
with the careless profusion of a sensual despot, upon representations made 
to him that the Jews were a pernicious race,, he gave his prime minister, 
Haman, full power and authority to kill them all, young and old, women 
and children, and take possession of all their property. 

The circumstance that Esther herself, though queen, seemed to be 
included in the doom of extirpation, enabled her to turn the royal indigna- 
tion upon Haman, whose resentment against Mordecai had led him to 
obtain from the king this monstrous edict. The laws of the empire would 
not allow the king to recall a decree once uttered ; but the Jews were 
authorized to stand on their defense ; and this, with the known change in 
the intentions of the court, averted the worst consequences of the decree. 

The Jews established a yearly feast, the Purim, in memory of this deliv- 
erance, which is observed to this day. 




RepraducBd from the painting by C Falma, 
an artist of the "yenetian schonl, distinguish ed for 
the freshness of his coloring. Falma devoted 
man/ years to the study of the works of Titian, 
Michael Angelo, and Raphael, and ■was much 
influBiiced by those great masters, "The Last 
Judgment," "Perseus and Anrircrnsda," and the 
" Marriage of St, Catherine" are amung his best 
known works. 




K. r. ftio. 

f$) UCRETI A is celebrated as much for her virtue as for her beaut\'. 

^^ The stor>- ;is told by Roman historians recites, in brief, that Lucius 

Tarquinius usurped the kingdom of Rome by bloody deeds, ruling 

like the Greek tyrants. His nephew, L. Tarquinius Collatimus, prince of 

CoUatia, had married the daughter of S. Lucretius Triciptimus, a lady of 

^reat beauty, chastity, and domestic virtues. 

During the siege of Ardea at which were her husband, father, and the 
two sons of Tarquin, one of the sons, Sextus, and a kinsman of her hus- 
band, abused the hospit.ility of her home by entering at night her bed- 
chamber with a drawn sword, and by threatening ncjt only to kill her, but 
10 further scandalize her by cutting the throat of one of her slaves so as to 
incriminate both in the eyes of her husband, he compelled her to yield. 

On the morrow, sending hastily for father and husband and telling 
them of the facts* and making them swear to banish the hated tyrants, she 
plunged a d^;ger into her heart and died. The body was carrit'd to the 
market place, where Junius Hrutus pulled the* da^^cr from htr lnvasl and 
recounted the outrage to the multitude, and demanded the expulsion of the 
Tarquins. On the news reaching the army, the tyrant and his sons were 
left to their fate, and shortly afterward the Roman re|)ul)lie was organized. 

B«tii«r eontinaed. 

The character of Esther, as she appears in the Bi!)le, is that of a woman 

• if deep piety, faith, courage, patriotism, and caution, (N)mhini(l with reso- 
lution : a dutiful daughter to her adoptivi- father, dociU'. and (»lK(iient to 
his counsels, and anxious to share the kinj^'s favor with him fnr the i^ood 

• •I the Je\^i^h people. That she was a \irtuons woman, an<l. as far .is lur 
situation made it possible, a good wif<' to the king, her e()ntiniie<l intluenee 
over him f<ir so long a time warrants us t^ infer. 

The \asi foundations of Xerxes' j)ala('e aX Shu-^han. "The Lily." yet 
Terrain, u !)»re tii«; humble Jewish maiden rose to be cjueen over a mighty 



B. C. 470?— 410? 


PSPASIA, daughter of Axiochus, was born at Miletus in Asia Minor 
and removed to Athens when young, becoming, it is said, the leader 
of the courtesan class. 

Among the Greeks, girls were carefully secluded, save at the public 
festivals and dances, and no woman appeared on the streets except the 
sellers of bread and flowers, and the puNic women. 

The laws of marriage in (j recce were very severe with women, but ver\' 
lax with men, so that at times marriage was at a great discount because of 
male dissoluteness, and the class of courtesans was large. 

In Athens marriage with foreign women was illegal, and the children of 
such were illegitimate. 

No people on earth were so enamored of mere physical beauty as the 
Greeks, and none were so gifted with it. At all festivals and public pro- 
cessions the most beautihil women were foremost. Public prizes were 
given to the handsomest women and men. At Segasta, a temple was built 
and sacrifices were otTered t<> her who took the prize for beauty. 

lulucation was cultivated by this class of public women, and Aspasia 
was greatly celebrated for her beauty, talent, elocpience, and knowledge of 
the politics of the times. Her hou^e became the resort of many of the 
noted men of the age, who were attracted by her many charms of person 
and mind. 

The innnortal Socrates was a fretjuent caller, and that great ruler of 
Athens. Pericles, was so captixated that he divorced his wife, by whom he 
had two sons, in order to live with Aspasia. A son, l*ericlc*s, was born to 
them, who was legitimatized by })opular decrie and became a noted 

Aspasia was accused of inducing free women to become courtesans, but 
after a tearful defense by PtTicles, was accpiitted. She is said to have com- 
posed much of the great oration of Poricles over the Athenians who fell iu 
battle, B. C. 430. 



B. C. 480? 


fl i\OR twenty-seven years the Greeks, whom Xerxes' army of millions 
J- could not conquer, had been zealously at work as was their wont, in 
ferociously killing each other in those civil conflicts known as the Pelopon- 
nesian wars ; and at last Athens (founded B. C. 1556) was conquered and 
its walls demolished, and the liberties of Greece went out in darkness under 
the reign of the Thirty and the Ten Tyrants. It was at this period that 
Socrates, greatest spirit of all the pagan world, fell a victim to the super- 
stition of his time, accused of neglecting worship of the gods, introducing 
new deities, and corrupting the youth of Athens ; and B. C. 399, this loftiest 
genius of the ancients, who had brought more wisdom into the storehouse of 
ages than has any other philosopher, came to his death at the hands of Envy. 
His wife has j)assed into history as the typical scold. Yet it must be 
confessed that few women could have endured with patience the life of 
abject poverty he chose to live,* and the trials to which he subjected her. 
Fur. as an opponent truthfully said to him, ** A slave whose master made 
him live as you do would run away." 

Wfunen among the Greeks, while perhaps better treated than elsewhere, 
wtTC yet slaves. Being asked by Alcibiades how he could live with such a 
'A'»nKin, Socrates is said to have rei)lied, " She exercises my patience, and 
t-nal)k> me to bear with all the injustice I experience from others." It is 
ITMUihic, however, that Xantippe's faults have been much exaggerated. 
'"^"^ rates e\ idently entertained a sincere regard for her, and gave her credit 
•"rnianv domestic virtues. 

^'*P««itA continued. 

After the death of Pericles, Aspasia lived with and greatly advanced the 
'^Ttiines of Lysicles, a noted cattle dealer. Hy her instructions she raised 
^'ini to a prominent [)lace in the state. This episode is somewhat obscure, 
^pnrially as Lysicles seems to have fallen in battle in 428. 

Much of the glory of the administration of Pericles has been ascribed to 
her el(»quent instruction and political sagacity. 





eARIA was a small mountainous Greek kingdom on the Mediter- 
ranean coast of what is now Turkey in Asia, having the kingdom 
of Phrygia on the east, and Lydia on the north. The chief towns 
were Miletus, Halicarnassus, and Cnidus ; principal river the Meander. 

The Greeks were the most individualized people in the world, incon- 
stant, fickle, delighting in suits at law, arguments, and disputes, and seldom 
able to agree. Their chief cities, at this time ruled by tyrants, were almost 
perpetually at strife with each other, and often in bloody wars. 

Artemisia was the sister and, after the ancient customs, became the wife 
of Mausolus, king of Caria, who died B. C. 352, the widow surviving him 
two years. 

She is chiefly known to history for the conquest of the Island of 
Rhodes, afterwards the greatest seat of learning in the world, and then 
celebrated and wealthy. She built a monument to commemorate the event, 
which the Rhodians, wIumi they gained their liberty again, rebuilt so as to 
make it inaccessible. Her excessive grief over her brother-husband* s death 
is also noteworthy. She is said to have mingled his funeral ashes with her 
wine ; and built for him, at Halicarnassus, a tomb (she dying before it was 
finished; so costly and grand as t(^ be considered one of the seven wonders 
of the ancient world, and from which our modern word Mausoleum comes. 
Ruins of the tomb yet remain. She employed the most celebrated Greek 
orators to pronounce orations to his honor, giving prizes to the most suc- 
cessful, and is said to have died of grief for him. 

Alexander the Great, wlien Darius was assassinated, B. C. 330, estab- 
lished the Grecian ICmpIre on the ruins of the overthrown empire of Persia, 
that had continued two hundred and six years. Seven years later Alex- 
ander died at Babylon and his vast empire was divided. But during all 
the Greek predominance, the common woman's condition was but little im- 
proved. She was secluded, not taught housekeeping until marriage, and 
was afterwards a tlrudge. (^f rights she had none. 


B.C. 108? 


/ I ^HIS famous Roman lady lived in the days of the Roman Republic — 
-L a hollow mockery for a state — that existed for five hundred years, 
and was in reality a government by an aristocracy, at first one of birth ; 
later, of wealth, selfishness, and lust. Slavery was the foundation and 
oligarchy the structure, and within it was full of unspeakable cruelties and 

By birth Cornelia was of the very highest patrician class, her father 
being the P. Scipio Africanus who had destroyed Carthage, and her 
mother, Amelia, the daughter of the L. ^milius Paulus, who perished at 
the battle of Cannae. 

She was married to T. Sempronius Gracchus, of a plebeian family of 
wealth, renowned for their acts and sympathies with the great multitudes of 
the city*s suffering poor. Twelve children were born to her, three only 
reaching adult age. 

She was highly educated in the Latin and Greek literature, was pre- 
tmintnl for virtue and gravity of character, and a central figure in Roman 
^KkXy during her husband's lifetime and after. Her house was the resort 
ot ihe high minded, noble, and learned of Rome. 

Her daughter Sempronia married the younger Africanus, her two sons 
^)tin^ those famous Gracchi, Tiberius and Cains, i)()th eminent soldiers and 
tribunes. The former sought when tribune to aid the poor by amendment 
"^land laws and urged that the immense wealth Attilus, king of Perganios, 
^3(1 left to Rome be distributed among them. At election for tribune, 
*iberius and hundreds of his followers were killed in riots instigated by 
^^ patricians. Ten years later, Caius, for seeking to reform the govern- 
^«it in the interests of the poor, employing them in building roads and 
^ther public works, was set upon in a similar riot and perished at the hand 
^^ his slave. The Romans afterward repenting, put upon the motlu-r's 
toml). ''Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi." 



B. C. 70?-ll. 


X^ ER father was the Roman Praetor, Caius Octavius, and the family one 
MLf of great patrician distinction. One of her brothers became the 

^ Emperor Augustus after the rotten Republic had slid again into 

In the days of Julius Caesar she was married to his bitter enemy, 
C. Marcellus, and Caesar later greatly desired her to divorce her husband 
and marry Pompey, but she refused. Her husband died three years after 
Caesar's assassination, and then, to prevent if possible the civil war that was 
brewing between her brother Octavius and Antony, she was induced to 
marry Antony immediately after the death of Marcellus. 

The historians report her to have been a woman of very high character 
and many accomplishments, and for a time she kept the dissolute Antony 
with her, inasmuch as she was a far more beautiful woman in person than 
the courtesan Cleopatra. But his affection for his wife was not strong 
enough to counterbalance the feelings that weighed against it. 

After Antony's unsuccessful Parthian campaign slie went with troops 
and money to meet him at Athens. But he, now that Cleopatra was with 
him, refused to see her, and bade her return to Rome. Sending the troops 
and money to him she returned to his house at Rome overwhelmed with 
grief at his infatuation for the Egyptian queen, and thereafter devoted 
herself to the education of her children, she having had three by her first 
husband, Marcellus, and two daughters by Antony. From these daughters 
descended, it is said, the emperors Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. 

Even after Antony had so cruelly and unjustly divorced her, she con- 
tinued to educate his son by Fulvia, along with her own children ; and after 
his and Cleopatra's shameful death she took Antony's children by Cleo- 
patra, protecting and educating them as if they had been her own. 

She is known as the " Patient Grizel of the ancient world," and died, it 
has been supposed, of grief at her misfortunes, when in her fifty-fourth 
year. She was buried with the highest honors in Rome. 



B. C. 37 ? 


MARIAMNE was of the Jewish Asmonean line, and was accounted the 
most beautiful princess of her time. She was betrothed to Herod 
the Great, and married to him at Samaria, B.C. 41, Herod leaving 
his siege of Jerusalem for that purpose. 

She was of proud spirit, boastful of her Maccabean ancestry, and of 
strong temper, and the king's harem was, according to Josephus, anything 
W a pleasant place, owing to the ill-will existing between Mariamne and 
htr mother, Alexandrine, and Herod's mother, Cypros, and his sister, 
Salome, the latter women being taunted by her at times with their less 
nol)le birth. She persuaded Herod to depose Ananel from the high priest- 
h«KKl, and appoint her young brother, Aristobulus, which brother was 
purposely drowned by his order at a swimming bout, the following year. 

Antony having oversight of Rome's eastern dominions, and Mariamne 
reporting this to Cleopatra, Herod was summoned to Laodicea to explain, 
ancl!)<»ueht the good will of Antony. 

H(T«»d, who loved Marianme with a wild, insane passion, gave orders to 
^ve her killed in case Antony ordered his death so as to i)revent her from 
tallin'^r inir, Antony's power, and was upbraided by her on the return. 

Herod's mother and sister now accused her of adultery with Josephus, 
sn'l the hirious FleTod killed Josephus, and imprisoned Marianme' s mother. 

After Antony's overthrow at Actium, Herod went to Rhodes to inter- 
cede with Octavius for having been Antony's partisan. Before j4c>ing he 
^^ilied Marianme' s grandfather, and shut her up in |)rison with her mother, 
'ta\ing orders with the officers, Soemus and Josephus, to kill them if he did 
r*'t return. This also became known to them. 

A year latrr .Salome falsely accused her of attempting to poison Herod, 
^y torturing her chamberlain, Herod discovered the story's falsity, but 
learned that the officers had told of his last purpose, and put them to death. 
Mariamne, em his sister's now further falsehood of her adultery, and through 
*H<- constant urging: of Salome and his mother, was also put to death. 



B.C.69?— B.C.30. 


/ I \HIS last queen of ancient Egypt was the third and eldest surviv 
JL daughter of Ptolemy Antites, of Egj'pt's Greek line of kings, i 
was horn B.C. 69, at Alexandria, Egypt, and died there Aug 
30, B.C. 30. 

When she was seventeen, her father died, and by the terms of his 1 
she was to be joint ruler of the Eg>'ptian dominions, with her yount 
brother Ptolemy, who was to be her husband. 

Cleopatra was brilliant, beautiful, self-willed, and educated in Greek i 
six other lanjjuages, and the nobles, finding they could not use her to th 
enrichment, and led by Ptolemy's guardian, Pothinus, and Achilles, cc 
mander oi the anny, expelled her from the cit\'. Collecting an army fr 
the dependencies t)f Arabia and Palestine, she advanced to battle for 
rights, when Julius Cies;ir, who had just overthrown Pompey at Pharsa 
and was pursuing the fleeing Pompey to Eg\-pt, appeared on the see 
and, finding Pompey had l>een assassinated at Pelusium, came to Alex 
dria as arbitrator. 

I'nable to gain Caesar's notice, she had herself smuggled into his pi 
ence in a roll of car^>et carrieil by her slaves, which, being unrolled, 
great C:es;ir was captivateil by her charms, and espoused her cat 
Ptolemy was killed in a battle i>n the Nile near Memphis, and Cleopatra y 
given her Vinrngtst brother, then eleven years old, as a husband by Cae 

Within a few weeks after C;es;ir left to suppress a revolt in Armei 
Clei>patra hor^- him a son, Ciesarion. The next year, B.C. 46, with 1 
son .\m\ her brother-husbiind, she went with Ca*s;u' to Rome, and lived i 
palace luar the Tiber as his wife, to the great disgust t>f aristocratic Ron 
not that Rinnans were purer than Cleopatra, but she was a foreigner, wl: 
was v^all arul \\i»nn\\i.H>d to the blue-bUKxl profligates oi Rome. 

Here Cvis^ir put her statue in a temple built to \'enus. But his as: 
sinativMi in B. C. 44 com pelleil her to return to Egypt. Two years h 
the battle of Phars^ilia put the Triumvirate in pK>wer and Marc Antony ' 


— ©♦© — 

ReprDducBd frnni the painting by Eustav 
WerthBimBr, an Austrian artist, and a specialist 
in history and ganra painting. " The Waves' 
Kiss," " Shipwreck af Agrippina," "Fisherman's 
Dream," and the "King's Breakfast" are other 
examples of his work. 



allotted the government of the East, and established a brilhant court at 
Tarsus. Ck»opatra not appearing among the great throng of f>otentates 
that flocked to do him honor, he sent an ambassador and then letters, beg- 
Knnji her to visit him. When the brother-husband came of age he was 
conveniently put out of the way by poison. 

Gcopatra was now twenty-eight, in the fullness of her Greek beauty, 
and when she sailed up the Cydnus in that gorgeous Oriental manner so 
strikinjjly depicted by Shakespeare, Antony became at once her enamored 
islaveand followed her to Alexandria, where the winter of B. C. 40-41 was 
s^fK-nt in wild revelry of every kind, the couple claiming to be the gods 
Osiris and Isis. 

Antony's wife, Fulvia, now sought to compel his return by inciting a 
*ar in Italy. Her forces were defeated and she fled to Athens, where 
Antony met her. I'pon his return from Rome, however, he left Fulvia at 
Siac^n. where she died of rage and grief at his neglect. 

A reconciliation was now obtained by friends of the two Triumvirs, 
Antony and ^)ctavius, by which the latter' s recendy widowed sister, 
< ^ctavLi, iKi-ame Antony's wife and for two winters he lived with her at 
Athens. CleojKitn* meanwhile was furious with rage and jealousy. 

Aninnv then went to Syria, warring against the Parthians, and sent for 
n»i,jvitra. who met him at Laodicea and went with him to the Kuphrates, 
^'\i*i\ thf return he went with her to Egypt. 

Th». nt\t year he con'jiKred Armenia and returning to Alexandria pro- 
' iiinetl a " triumph *' for Cleopatra as the ''(jueen of kings," making her 
^■•- ^'V Ca-rvir hgitimati-, and his offspring by Cleopatra possessors of rich 
•^' ■■ pn.\inct.-s. 

Alter divorcing Dctavia, he spent the year B. C. 33 in revelries with 
'-'"t'^ra .it Kphesus, .Samos, and Athens. 

R"m<- nt»w (Itclared war against Cleopatra and the armies met at 
•^■^uim. \vli«Te .^he j)ersuaded Antony to tight with the naval forces instead 
''*h-land tpM.p-^ and in the mid^t of the battle turned the scale against 
■-' f'V tl.f ing with sixty ships. Antony learned during the battle that she 
''•i^ifiMJ. and flung away half the world to follow her, leaving his forces t(» 
*'^T:<n(ier to Octavius. 



The winter was spent with her at Alexandria in wildest excesses, 
the spring Octavius appeared at Alexandria, and Antony was defeat 
Cleopatra seeking to buy her safety by offering to betray Antony. 

She now fled to the immense mausoleum she had constructed. Anto 
hearing that she was dead, mortally wounded himself, then, learning 
was alive, had himself carried to the tomb, where Cleopatra and her i 
slaves, with much labor, raised him to their upper chamber, and he die( 
her arms. 

Octavius by artifice captured her in her tomb and she .was brought 
fore him. Failing to entice him and seeing that she was destined fo 
Roman "triumph," she caused her woman slaves, Iris and Charmain 
array her in her royal robes and crown, and then placed an asp in 
bosom that a countryman had smuggled to her in a basket of figs, ; 
died, in her twenty-ninth year ; her women followed her example i 
guards of Octavius found them all dead. 

And so old Egypt's long line of kings and queens forever passed aw 
With her ended the dynasty of the Ptolemies and Egypt became a Ron^ 

The portrait of Cleopatra on her coins is that of a woman of intelk 
rather than of beauty. A broad head, with wavy hair, an aquiline no 
large deep-set eyes, and a full eloquent mouth, is supported by a long sl< 
der throat. To these personal qualities she added a mind singularly cu 
vated and resourceful. 

She had three children by Antony. 





^n7HE Bible is the very oldest and the only consecutive history of early 
®|fe mankind that is known. The oldest of the exhumed historic an- 
nals of Chaldea or of Egypt, of India or of China, are but the 
debris of history — the mere dust of long vanished records, with no present 
coherence and with little reliability. Gods and demi-gods are the burden 
of their themes. For well-nigh three thousand years of 

Bitoic human history, the Bible bears its own unattested and yet 
uncontradicted story of the origin of mankind and of the 
doings of a few men. Is its story reliable? If not, man has no certain 
records of his beginning and his early years. It does not enter into the 
purpose of this present work to discuss that question. We proceed upon 
the assumption that the Biblical story is historic and reliable. A witness 
whose testimony has been invariably corroborated by those to whom any 
knowledge of like character is possible, may safely be believed when he 
tfsiihes concerning things of which he alone has knowledge. Such a wit- 
ness is the Bible. 

The Bible is the only ancient historic book that teaches the creation of 
the world. In the fragments of other ancient annals that are known to 
^itn, there arc to be found accounts of the beginnings of earthly things, 
^^ut always from previously existent matter ; and those who suppose the 
'biblical narrative to have been derived from Chaldean or any other creation 
9'<^s would do well to study and compare them. Such study can only 
f^ult in the conviction that the Genesis account stands unique, alone, and 
und(Ti\ed from any yet known human source, or sources. 

The present writer also holds that the first woman was not one of the 
^^hfcanthropoids — ape-like women — of Professor Haeckel's twenty-first 
-^geoi evolution, but was a direct creation of Deity as stated in the Genesis 
''^ord, and we therefore seek by it to know what was the condition of 
*oman in those far-of! ages. 



There was much of human history in those old-world times, for there 
were great events. But of them, the barest hints only remain to us. For 
instance, seventy verses (Genesis iv to vi: 12), more than half of which con- 
sists of names and ages of the chieftains of the antediluvian peoples, tell all 
that historians know of man during a period probably as great, if not hun- 
dreds of years greater, than has elapsed from the birth of Christ until now. 
Yet how much of human history has been crowded into our nineteen cen- 
turies of the Christian Era ! How many volumes it takes to even faintly 
tell it ! But those seventy verses are absolutely the only records left us of 
twenty centuries of human life. And then, too, for nearly a thousand 
years. longer, men must continue to go to this ancient book — the Bible — 
for any certain records that are left them of theh* kind. 

Certain incidental statements appear in those old brief Bible chronicles, 
that shed more or less light upon the condition of woman. For example, 
we are told that the first son of the first woman the world 
^w^oman ^^'^^ knew, " builded a city and called the name of the city 
after the name of his son Enoch," and that he was also a far- 
mer or " tiller of the ground." Hence we infer that his mother, the first 
woman, could not have been that gentle savage of our modern wise men, 
who, they tell us, was wont, stone hammer in hand, to go bone hunting for 
marrow. Nor did this first woman live in tents. Not until hundreds of 
years later, in the seventh generation from Eve, do we meet with one Jabal, 
who is said to have been the father, /. c. , founder, of that style of life, he 
being a herder or cattle raiser. 

These records also inform us that during the lifetime of the first wo- 
man, Eve, musical notes and harmony were known, the herder's brother, 
Jubal, being ''the father of all such as handle the harp and 

primeirai ^,.or^,^ " Mining and forging were also known in those 
civilization ^ .s .^ f> 

days, Tubal-Cain l^eing " the forger of every cutting instru- 
ment of brass and iron." Even the fine arts, as poetry, were in use, 
Lamech's speech to his wives being the oldest fragment of poetr>' known. 
And in this poetic chieftain, Lamech, of the- fifth generation from 
Adam, we meet with the first polygamist of the world ; a departure from 
the previous condition of woman so radical, that the names of his wives 



an* reconk-d : they, tojjelhcr with Kve and one other (Tubal-Cain's sister), 
beinjj the only names of women preserved in the Bible for the first twenty 
centuries. This frantic jKx.^tic appeal of Lamech to his wives for just ifica- 
ti«»n se«-ms to contain a romance, as well as to recite a tragedy. Did 
Lamech ro\) that ** younj^ man " of a sweetheart or a wife? 

It further appears from this ancient chronicle, that the husband of the 
first woman possessed much knowledge of animal life and gave names 
descriptiv*' of their naturcfs to the whole animal world, and doubtless im- 
parted this knowledge to others also, for Noah, of the tenth generation 
from Adam, was thoroughly posted as to what were "clean" and ** un- 
clean " animals and birds. 

Adam and the antediluvian peoples were able to distinguish " seed -bear- 
ing herl>s " and also every "tree in which is a seed-bearing fruit," and 
'• fvery gn-en herb" of non-poisonous kinds; a necessity for them to 
know, as mankind were then vegetarians. 

It would also seem that they were accjuainted with minerals, for **gold" 
and "precious stones" were then known. It is therefore safe to assimie 
that woman in those ancient ages had both the comforts of life and some of 
its luxuries. 

It cannot now Ix* known hr)w much (»f the earth was then occupied by 

man. Tht- pri-sent Malay people within K^s than five hundred years have 

xiie ^*J>read along two hundred degrers of latitude, from Kaster 

Ancient Island to Madagascar, and, within a less j)erio(l than that em- 

^^^'' braced in the antediluvian tinu*s, half the contint-nt of Africa 

hiiN In-tn jKoplfd by a race whose various tribes ditTer in sjnech no more 
than d«» High and Low derman : while the .American Indians have shifted 
thtir homt-s tw(» thous;uid miU»s away from wlurr Columbus found them in 
A.I>. 1492. The Norsemen sailed to Iceland, (ireinland, and New Eng- 
l.ind. in litth- l>oats not so seaworthy as ihosr of the native Polynesians. 
L«»ng iM-fon- R«»me was f<»imded. ihr C'hincsr knrw the magnet and the 
m.irinir's comp.'iss. made junks, and went to sea in them, touching our 
Pacific' co.i>t.s generations before the NorMincn reached New Kngland. 
Why then shouUl it be thought improbable that the antedihn ians navigated 
the M.MS and |K-ople<l the earth, during those two th(»usimd years before the 



Flood? Boats were not unknown to them, as appears from Noah's ready 
and skillful construction of the Ark, and mankind were all of one speech ; 
a great aid to travel. 

In this primeval age here being considered, the race was probably as 
prolific as now. The first woman. Eve, it is recorded, had **sons and daugh- 
ters** born to her other than those whose names appear in the Genesis ; 
while tradition assigns to that first polygamist, Lamech, no less than sev- 
enty-seven children. In those ancient ages men lived eight and nine hun- 
dred years, a condition that admitted of a numerous progeny and a vast 
experience of life. 

This great longevity seems to have been a natural consequence of the 
physical condition of the earth at that time, and it is described in the 
Bible. It will be recalled that not until after the Flood does the rainbow 
appear, and then it is put in the cloud as a token of the new covenant with 
Noah and his posterity, a seeming absurdity if the sun had ever been 
observed shining on falling drops of water prior to the Flood, for the rain- 
bow would then have often appeared. 

Again, it is stated that, at the creation, God made ** a firmament in the 
midst of the waters ' ' thereby ' ' dividing the waters which were under the 
firmament from the waters which were above the firmament," this firma- 
ment being what we now call the air, which is as truly a fluid as water. 

Further, at the end of fitting up the world for man, just prior to the 

creation of Adam, we are told that " the Lord God had not caused it to 

rain upon the earth " — but " there went up a mist from the 

queou ^^j^ii and watered the whole face of the ijround." The writer 
therefore concludes the meaning to be, that the world during 
antediluvian times was surrounded by an aqueous cloud belt, resembling in 
appearance those belts now to be seen around the planet Jupiter, or Venus, 
or Saturn, as they are viewed through telescopes from our earth. This 
belt shut off the chemical, atomic, or ener\ating rays of the sun, thus keep- 
ing the climatic conditions throughout all the world wondrously conduciv^e 
to a great length of life. Such conditions would allow no ice caps at the 
poles, as we now have them ; and accounts for those buried forests of 
palms, magnolias, cypresses, and other tropical trees, now to be found as 



far north as Upemavik, Greenland, and in other of the Arctic regions. 
Finally the belt was broken up and fell on the earth in the days of Noah, 
being those * ' windows of heaven ' ' that were * * opened, ' ' and constitutes a 
reasonable explanation for many otherwise inexplicable mysteries. 

It is staled that there grew up amid this great length of human life in 
ihe antediluvian world, and possibly then because of it, very grave evils 
that particularly affected woman. That period was, according to the testi- 
mony of Jesus Christ and the Apostles Jude and Peter, particularly charac- 
terized by extreme license in the gratification of the bodily appetites, 
through gluttony or high living and gross licentiousness. 

The prophet Enoch, we are told, in the seventh generation, mightily 
exhorted against it, and warned the people of a coming judgment because 
of it. Some four hundred years later that evil rose to enormous propor- 
tions, and the governors or rulers of the people were unable to suppress it. 

Soon a new form of the evil arose, so fierce and terrible that the memory 

of it survived for ages after the Flood. This culminated in such deeds of 

violence upon women, and such a corruption of the race of 

_^ men, that in the reign of the governor and prophet Noah the 

human race was destroyed by a deluge of waters, Noah only 

and his family being saved in the Ark that he had built under divine direc- 

^i'^>n, and Ix^cause of a warning that had been given him of this coming 

^^^nt. This warning, our Lord and his apostles say, was given by him to 

^h*^ world, but all in vain. The Hood came and swept twenty centuries of 

humanity from the earth. 

Authorities are not agreed as to either the date when the Deluge 
^^'urrwl, or as to the time from it to the call of Abraham. The Scptuagint 
^reek ) version of the Old Testament assigns 2262 years from the creation 
^'' Adam lo the Flood of Noah. The Masoretic Hebrew, 1656 years, and 
^^^' Samaritan Pentateuch, 1307 years ; while Josephiis gives 2256 years as 
^^t number. 

It is recorded that Noah lived three hundred and fifty years after the 
Flood. But, according to the Biblical records, the old time 

obvious, however, is tl 


longevity henceforth rapidly shortened. The one fact that is 
obvious, however, is that the plains of Shinar, in the Euphrates 


valley, became the first habitation of postdiluvian man. Here their first 
cities were builded. Here they began building that vast historic Tower of 
Babel. Here occurred the " Confusion of Tongues," and thence men were 
scattered abroad upon the face of the earth. Kurds and Turkomans now 
dwell in mijerable, dirty villages, in this waste and desolate land, which 
once was the richest part of the earth, and the only land where wheat grew 
wild ; where crops yielded two hundred and often three hundred fold, and 
two and three harvests a year were gathered ; where pastures were so rich, 
even in historic times, that cattle had often to be driven from them lest 
they become too fat for use. 

In this region Herodotus traveled and expressed his astonishment at the 
hundred or more great cities he saw, while Babylon, once the "glory of 

story ^^^ kingdoms," presided over them all. All is now ruins. 

of ttie Of the hundred or more visible mounds covering the sites of 

* * * once mighty cities and temples, scarce a half dozen have yet 
been exhumed. But from these have been taken thousands of burnt clay 
tablets, cylinders, images, and fragments, telhng of a once great civilization 
that flourished here for three thousand years. Those people made arches, 
tunnels, aqueducts, canals, drains ; used the mechanical lever and roller ; 
manufactured glass and made lenses of it ; engraved gems ; practiced inlay- 
ing, overlaying, and enameling of metals ; made jars, dishes, vases, ivory 
and bronze ornaments ; were weavers, manufacturers of all sorts ; architects 
and builders ; had earrings, bells, and jewels of elegant forms ; wrote poems, 
annals, hymns, and magic incantations, at a time that history knows not. 

What was woman's condition then ? The ancient tablets show us some- 
what of it, but the later empire more. 

The early cities were of winding, narrow, muddy streets, littered with 
kitchen refuse and offal of beasts and men, where packs of dogs and ravens 

cities ^vere the scavengers. There were crowded, noisy bazaars, 

and each trade in its own lane or blind alley. The houses of the 

Housen pii(^i(il^. an(^i lower classes were huts of reeds and puddled clay, 

or else were low, crude brick structures, with a conical dome on top. 

There were gloomy brick walls inclosing silent, almost desolate spaces, 

where the rich dwelt in palaces and gardens carefully screened frorti the gaze 



<»i the vulgar herd; while towering over all was the temple — palace of 

thtgod, with its ziggurat and painted or gilt sanctuary. The palaces of the 

rich were lighted by small holes in the upper part of the walls ; rooms were 

small, oblong affairs, a few only used for living purposes, the others being 

J^torc chambers for household treasures and provisions ; the furniture of 

living rooms, mainly chairs and stools like those pictured on Egyptian 

monuments : bedrooms contained chests, for linen and coverings, the beds, 

mainly mats on the floor with a wooden head rest, almost the picture of 

th()>e now used by the Galla people in Africa (whom some suj)pose to be 

ihtir descendants), those ancient women putting their hair up like the 

Gallas in huge erections that require such head rests ; in the corner of the 

courtyard an oven, and near it the millstones for grinding the grain, ashes 

aglow on thi! hearth always, or near at hand the fire-stick, pots of earthen- 

uare, watt-r and wine jars, heavy plates, knives, scrapers, and mall heads of 

Hint, bronze axes and hammers, and wicker baskets, great and small. In 

later Empire times the houses had flat roofs such as may now l)e seen in 

Bagdad, and other Euphrates towns, where the women spent most of their 

time, morning and evening, gossiping or story-telling or perchance in small 

houbeuork, till driven below by the heat of the day. 

Till* well-to-do had several wive^s, who dwelt in a harem, which, if the 

tablets do not belie, was the place of endless cjuarrels and intrigues. 

PoAiti These, while supplied with the luxuries of the time in food 

ortiie and dress, were j)racticallv slaxes, ^oing out only to visit a 

* female friend, or relative, or to the frecjuent festivals at the 

^•niple. when they were attended by a crowd of slaxes, eunuchs, and 

l^'t-^. who carefully shut out the world to them. 

Women (»f the middle and lower classes spent their lives in endless toil 
''•r husband and children. Night and morning they ( arried water from 
^^•'- i>ublie well, or river : they ground the corn, made bread, spun, wove, 
niadc garments for the household, went bareheaded and barrfoot to market, 
'^faring the loin cloth only, or else a long draped garment of wool of 
^ir>- texture. 

Maternity was the begiiming and the sole vm\ of woman's existence, 
^d she might be repudiated by a word from her lordly husl)and. If she 



was sterile, she was often divorced for it, unless the marriage contract had 
specified she should not be. (Under the later new Chaldean Empire, the 
divorced wife might demand the amount of the dowry the bride had always 
to bring to her husband. And if she owned property in her own right be- 
fore marriage, it remained hers independently of her husband, to be used 
as she pleased. ) 

If the wife was a scold or disobedient, the husband might sell her as a 
slave. If she miscarried or was permanently barren, she was believed to 
be possessed by an evil spirit and was a dangerous person, and accursed, 
and so was often banished from the family. 

So hard was the lot of woman in those old days, that girl babies were 
often thrown into the river or left at cross roads, if possible to excite the 
pity of passers-by, or to be devoured by vultures. 

Childless couples, to avoid the stigma of childlessness, were wont to 

adopt these foundlings, or others, in order to have children to supf)ort 

them or inherit their property. Newly born infants were 

ctilidren shown to reliable witnc*sses, then marked on the soles of their 

feet to insure identity to the parents. It was a misdemeanor 

in parents to disown a child, unless for cause, and they were shut up in 

their house so long as they persisted in it. 

If a son said to his father, "Thou art not my father," the father 
marked him by a conspicuous sign and sold him as a slave in the public 
market. If he .said thus to his mother, he was similarly branded and led 
through the street, or along the road, with hooting and clamor and driven 
out of the city or province. 

The rich owned many slaves of both sexes, while the middle classes 

owned but two or three at a time. These were captives taken in war, as 

was Lot, or in the almost constant raids made on peaceful 

suiires settlements by petty chieftains, to replenish their treasury'. 
Slaves were counted by the law as cattle only, and the 
owner's will was as absolute over them as over his flocks or trees. He 
could shackle them, whip them mercilessly, or take their lives. Male 
slaves sold for from ten shekels of silver by weight, to a third of a mina ; 
females for four and a half shekels. Female slaves counted it as great 



honor to be taken as wife by the master, who could treat them as he would. 
Slaves married among themselves and their offspring went to the master. 
Occasionally a slave was allowed by the master to purchase his freedom, 
rarely was it ever given him. At times, if apt at trade, the master set him 
up in business, allowing him some of the profits. If a slave became free he 
could marr\' sometimes in the middle class. Workmen taught their own 
trades to their children. 

Originally the middle and lower classes seemed to have owned their 
own homes, but often they fell into the hands of the usurers, who were wont 
10 ask twenty and twenty-five per cent, interest on loans, and when they 
had to rent the houses, the rates were very high. 

Gold, silver, and copper were in use as money, but it was not coined, 
or e\en cut in rings or twisted in wire, as in Egypt, at this early date of 
which we now speak, but was exchanged by weight, silver being very gen- 
erally the preferable money. 

The commerce of the cities was almost wholly carried on at, and in, the 
temples. As in Egypt, so in Chaldea, the priest stood next to the king. 
The king was par excellence the head of the priesthood — 
ti«oo«i ^^^ representative of the Planetary god among men. But 
he had under him a body of priests, some of whose offices 
«crc here<litar\-. and some he selected to perforin for him the multitudinous 
'iaily siicerdotal functions. At the head of these was the high, priest or 
i>hshaku, whose chief duty was to pour out the libations to the gods, and 
t<»j)rt*>ide over various orders of under priests and priestesses, such as the 
"Muj^utu" class, who had charge of the harem of the god ; the " kipu " 
•^n<i "shatammu," who managed the finances of the temple (then as 
•il ways afterward a most important class), while the *' pashoshus" anointed 
^»ith holy. p<^-rfumed oil, the god's statues of stone, or metal, or wood, 
that were always clothed with vestments and adorned with jewels ; they 
^l'^) anointed the holy vessels, basins, i)owls, etc., used in the ritual ablu- 
t><'ns, and also the victims to be sacrificed, both of beasts and, on great 
occasions, the human sacrifices. 

There were also connected with the temj)le service, the official butchers, 
augers, soothsayers, prophets, record keepers, and, not least, several 



classes of holy courtesans who honored the god by offering themselves sex- 
ually to whoever would put in their hand the usual piece of money. . 

Almost every hour there was a fresh sacrifice or ceremony of some sort, 

additional to the regular morning and evening sacrifice's. These priests 

also manufactured the money of the land in their temples, 

claiming the gold and silver as "sacred" and the gift of the 
Xcmplc . . . 

gods to their great priest, the king. They likewise con- 
ducted commercial transactions at the temples and took charge of estates 
or moneys ; were intermediaries between borrowers and lenders for a good 
commission, the interest rate being from twenty to twenty- five per cent, 
per annum in old Chaldea. 

They had gifts of fields, flocks, and slaves come to them by will when 
the worshipers died (or, mayhap, while they yet lived), in order to appease 
the god or to gain his favor. 

To maintain these vast establishments for this Planetary worship, there 
was, further, an annual sulwidy granted to the temples from the state treas- 
ury, such as gifts of beasts, l)irds, fish, liquors, bread, incense, gold, silver, 
copper (moneys always by weight), gems, precious woods, and, after a suc- 
cessful raid or war, always their tithes (legally a tenth, under later Empire 
times the bulk) of spoils were taken, especially slaves and herds. 

V^ast areas of cultivated lands were given to the temples, of which the 
priests cultivated a part, the rest were rented or else farmed by their hosts 
of slaves, which included gardeners and laborers of all sorts. 

Very many, too, of the articles in daily use by the people, as well as the 
luxuries of life, were produced in factories owned by the temples and under 
the direction of these holy (?) men of the gods ; who likewise added to 
their revenues by maintaining, in connection with the worship of the gods, 
troops of women singers, and the wailers for the dead, and the sacred 

So debasing was this worship of the planets upon the w^omen of this 

first settlement and kingdom of men after the Flood, as it is now revealed 

to us by their literature, that the public prostitution of every 

Planetary ^vq,^,^^ \^y j^ j^ast one act, became obligatory by law, a 
worship . 1 

thing that continued for centuries thereafter, as is witnessed 



by the ttrstimony of Herodotus as late as B. C. 500, who was a personal 
oilier ver of the things he then speaks of as existinjj in the pahiiiest days of 

This same low estate of woman was found in Palestine in this period 
and even a lower depth. All through the Old Testament times is seen this 
s.ime great debasement of women. The "groves" and "high places" 
against which the later prophets of Jehovah thundered their anathemas, 
were hut the resorts of abandoned women whose sins constituted the wor- 
ship, and long after the last prophet (Maiachi) had denounced this yet 
existint^ degradation of woman, the Apochryphal Book of Baruch speaks of 
this siime old Chaldean custom as then prevailing. 

There are those who complain of the severity of Moses and carp at his 
statutes, but they were the only media that preserved the chastity of 
«oman and made it possible for the Christ to be born of mankind. 

It is imjK)ssible to comprehend or even faintly know the condition of 
»oman in those early ages, apart from this religion that then was the all to 

In Egypt, that other early settled part of the earth, this same form of 

idolatr)- of the solar system originally prevailed, but with some important 

modifications. There also, as in old Chaldea, the king was 

Etjrpt the chief pontitT, and in addition to the several classes of 

priests, the Hood Papyrus takes up half of the second |)age 

^ith the titles of temple S(;r\'ants and artisans, men and women, such as 

■ •ut. her>. cooks, pastry cooks, confectioners, cellarers, water carriers, milk 

am«T>. florists, weavers, shoemakers, etc.. all waxing fat on the supersti- 

lj'>n..f the times. 

In Kj^ypt, also, the priests solicited and had (according to the monu- 
ments dn(\ inscriptions) vast gifts of houses, fields, \ ineyards, orchards, 
tbh jH»nd>. slaves, silver, gold, copper, etc., large legacies being left to 
thtm l.y the worshipers to institute prayers and sacrifices in behalf of the 

While not so keen tradesmen as their Chaldean brethren, like them the 
^-Kyptian priesthood through their chief, the king, claimed the "sacred 
^t'tals " and made it in their temj)les, fixing the ratios as pleased them, and 



these also became rich and powerful and able at times to dictate terms even 
to the king on his. throne ; many even becoming king. 

Here also, even down to the time of the Caesars, were to be found those 
Pallacides, of whose remarkable tombs Strabo and Diodorus speak. These 
were the sacred harlots, being girls belonging to the families of nobles at 
Thebes who were consecrated to a life of immorality in the service of the 
god Ammon. 

And as the gods, among whom was the much worshiped and praised 
Osiris, had married their sisters, so it was the constant custom in Egypt, 
through all its history, for brothers to marry sisters (in Egyptian love songs 
the words brother and sister mean only our modern lover and mistress). 
Indeed, some of their kings, as Psammetichus I, and Rameses II. (the 
Pharaoh of the Israelite oppression), following the example of their illus- 
trious gods, married their own daughters. The Achaemidian kings did the 
same and Artaxerxes, king of Persia, also married two of his own daughters. 

Later discoveries have shown that Diodorus was mistaken in thinking 
that women were supreme in Egypt, the custom that he refers to of the 
husband visiting at the separate homes of his polygamous wives and being, 
while there, treated as a guest, having given him that idea. It is now 
known that the position of woman in ancient Egypt was almost identical 
with that prevailing in Ciialdea. If the wife was by birth the sister of her 
husband, or was of the same rank or caste, she had more of independence 
granted her. 

But the will of the husband was supreme. The rich and the nobles had 

several wives, who dwelt apart, each in her own house, where the wife 

Husband received the visits of her lord, and ground the corn, 

and cooked, wove, and made clothing and perfumes, kept the 

'^^^^ fire alive, and nursed and taught her children, just as her 
sisters did in the Euphrates valley. 

The chief or noble had also, besides wives, concubines, who were either 
slaves born in his households, bought with money of the poorer classes, 
or captives of war. These were his chattels, and at his disposal, being often 
sold, even though they had borne him children. 

All his children were legitimate in the law of Egypt, but not all of the 



same rank : those of the sister or wife of his own rank having preference 
over those of the concubine, unless the latter had brought him a firstborn 

The homes of the common people were identical with those of the fellah 
of to-day, viz. , low huts of wattle, daubed with puddled clay, or else of sun- 
dried brick, of one room, a door being the only opening. 

Those of the middle class were large enough at times to even require 
a roof supported by trunks or limbs of a tree for columns. 

The furniture was of the same type as that noted in Chaldea, a few 
pieces of earthenware, stools, and chairs. 

In the Middle and Later Empire times the palaces of the barons and 
kings rivaled in luxury those of Babylon. 

The dress of women was then the loin-cloth and mantle, the poorer 
going barefoot, others wearing coarse leather or plaited straw or split reed, 
or wooden sandals, and having their necks, breasts, arms, wrists, and ankles 
covered with rows of necklaces and bracelets, and their hair towering aloft 
and requiring the head rest at night for its support. Later they adorned 
themselves with all those trappings enumerated by the prophet Isaiah in his 
third chapter, as characteristic of the women of Jerusalem in his day. 

The artisan class formed guilds, the son pursuing the occupation of the 
lather from generation to generation. 

Of public schools there were none. Education was of the priest, save 
35 the parents might teach what they knew. Reading, writing, and ele- 
mentary arithmetic were common to a large class or classes known as 
>crilK'S. The above amount of education, though imj^crfect, l)cing the door 
t«» jjovernment employment, was generally sought for, and some of the 
>cribfs. though of slave parentage, are recorded as having risen Joseph-like, 
loljt vice-regent over half of Egypt ; the country being divided into many 
petty districts, each with its hosts of tax-gatherers and small oflficials, gave 
''J['[»rtunity for the ambitious. 

In those early times, Palestine was occupied in its northern section and 

beyond, by a people, now known from the monuments as 

'miMrttott the Hittite, and in its southern section by the Canaanite. 

These people, like the Chaldeans and Egyptians, also wor- 



shiped the planets. Their chief god was Baal, he being the El of Chaldea, 
and the Zeus of Syria and Greece. - This was the pknet Saturn. Baal had 
his female companion, Baaltis, who was the Balit of Babylon and the Ashera 
of the Hebrews. Baal became later, in the popular language, the sun, and 
was worshiped on the tops of hills and the " high places." His compan- 
ion goddess had her altars both there and in groves, in forests, under cer- 
tain noted trees, as the terebinth, pomegranate, and cypress, or along the 
highways, where, as religious acts, women offered themselves to passers-by, 
the money received going into the treasury of the god. 

At the chief sanctuiaries and temples, one of which, that of Tyre, was so 
rich and grand as to astonish the much traveled Herodotus, were kept the 
same great class of women, married and unmarried, as were found in 
Chaldea and Egypt, and for the same purpose. This class at the sugges- 
tion of Balaam, their priest, led the Israelites into sin on that notable occa- 
sion mentioned in the Bible. 

Mars, the Chaldean god of war and death, was worshiped in Canaan 

under the name of Moloch, and its tires were kept perpetually burning to 

consume its offerings. And it is recorded that at times as 

Bioiocii many as a thousand human beings, captives of war, were 
offered at his altars in gratitude for a victory. He was 
further propitiated with human victims if, in war, a disaster came, or when 
a famine or a pestilence appeared. Then, children, young girls, the most 
beautiful, the purest and best of their families, the firstborn of sons, from 
the kings to those of the humblest peasant, were thrown alive into the 
sacrificial fires. 

Carthage, Rome's great rival, founded by Dido, princess of Tyre, B. C. 
869, had her Kronos or Moloch altar, as described by the historians, a 
huge, half-human, half-monster shaj)ed hollow iron caldron, with out- 
stretched arms, and interior ca\'ity flaming with fire, into whose arms hun- 
dreds of victims were cast. Hanno's son, Hamilcar, there offered himself 
as a burnt offering in the year 480 B. C. When Agathocles of Syracuse 
besieged Carthage, himdreds of noble boys were thrown in and consumed, 
while their pannts, nuite and tearless, stood by and witnessed their burning 
(for a tear or a groan would have rendered the offering vain), the shrieks 



and cries of the victims being drowned by the drums, flutes, double pipes, 
and clanging cymbals of the priests. 

The Hittite moon-goddess, the Astarte of the Greeks, also demanded 
human sacrifices. Like Moloch, her fires were perpetual, albeit, as she 
\^as a gixldess of purity and her priests pledged to purity and celibacy, 
no married woman might approach her altars save as a sacrifice ; her offer- 
ings consisting of married women and maidens. All her priests and serv- 
ants were eunuchs. 

Maidens coming to her must remain maidens forever, and her devotees 
chanvje<l apparel, men donning that of the women, and they, the garments 
oi the men. 

Her eunuch priests numbered thousands and at her altars the worshipers 
gathcreil by the ten thousands, to the beating of drums, blowing of pipes. 
Priests *^*^^ clashing cymbals of the priesthood. Then the dev- 
of otees contorted their bodies, bending backward and forward, 

** till their hair was matted with mire, then swinging aloft their 

•irms and swaying their bodies, they moved around and around until, 
o>\trf<i with dirt and sweat, they began to beat themselves with knotted 
^hip>. to bite their arms, and cut themselves with knives and swords, be- 
\\.ii!inv: thtir sins with moan and shriek and anon prophesying, the dancing 
''.♦r i^ruuing more fierce and wild, the scourgings more bloody and dread- 
• i'. until, resembling beasts at a slaughtering, and exhausted, or uncon- 
><i"u>, the worshipers fell to the earth, whereupon the eunuch priests 
i'«i>H(l among th** crowd soliciting alms and gifts for the goddess and her 
trt.iMiry. upon which, when the ceremonies had ended, they lived and 
••'■H<il. Such were Jezebel's priests which the proplul r>lijah slew at 
^l'»'ini Carmel. Such were the inhabitants of Palestine whom Moses and 
,V^hiM were connnanded to destroy. ^'et there are sentimental souls w ho 
th;nk that >U( h commands wt*re cruel. The cruelty lay in sutfering them 
^•"urx- tilt* earth witli their dreadful crimes against nature and (lod. 

Thr student of history, making his weary way through the fc-arful 
>i"uvrh of human degradation, is com|)elled to admit. whate\<r his j)redilec- 
fJ^'fH. that Paul's terrific indictment of the heathen world is far from being 
o^ffdrawn. The knowledge of nature that should ha\e emiobled man, 



became, through the worship of nature, the great instrument of licentious- 
ness and of robbery and oppression and fearful debasement of all mankind. 

For four thousand years, the life and thought of men and women of 
this earth was as unlike our modern ways as if they had been inhabitants 
of another world. 

Outside the temples there was no social life for women. If her husband 
or father was rich, she was shut up in the harem. If of the middle or 
lower class, her life was but little elevated above that of the slaves her hus- 
band owned and with no greater privileges than they. 

Yet these people were not ignorant and mere savages. Many of the 
arts and some of the sciences were known to them and in daily use in the 
earliest times after the Flood. But the intellect and the whole nature was 
overpoweringly, superstitiously, religious ; and it was- gross, debasing, sen- 
sual, and cruel, because their conception of the gods was such. It was 
then, for thousands of years, as in India in more recent times, a case of 
religiosity gone to seed and withering on its stalk. 

With the expansion of the race westward to Europe in the later centu- 
ries, some improvement in the condition of woman appears, particularly in 
Greece and at Rome, where Plutarch says that for five hun- 

Hnrope dred years after Rome was founded it was not scandalized by 
a singlp divorce ; an Edenic condition of married life that 
seems to have been followed by its opposite when wives were divorced for 
every whim, and could also divorce themselves when they pleased. For 
the historians tell of one woman who had taken to herself eight different 
legal husbands within a period of five years, and of another matron who con- 
tinued her marital experiences through a list of twenty-three divorced hus- 
bands, her last partner of marifal joys having himself had twenty-one legal 
wives, from whom he had been divorced. The Christian Father Tertullian, 
so late as A. D. 200, said of the Roman women, that " they married to be 
divorced, and were divorced in order to marry again." Ovid, two hun- 
dred and twenty-five years earlier, had said of them, that every w'oman had 
her price. Nevertheless, in the foulest days of Rome there were some vir- 
tuous women, though it must be confessed that worship of the unclean gods 
had sunk both women and men very low indeed. Husbands, under Roman 



law, as under ancient Chaldea. had absolute ownership of the wife, even to 
taking life. 

But outside of Judea, and, possibly, the earlier Persian Empire times, 
whatever of advance in the education of woman, religiously or otherwise, is 
seen, was confined to the quickening of the intellect of a few women only, 
and, it must be confessed, not to the moral or social elevation of the sex. 
Indeed, what hope was there for woman, when even that kingliest Man-soul 
of all the heathen world, great Socrates, so far forgot what was due to him- 
self, and to the immeasurable dignity of womanhood, as to invite that 
splendid courtesan, Aspasia, to consult with him as to the best method of 
making her traffic more remunerative ? 

Turning eastward to India and China, the next great homes of civiliza- 
tion, we find that India, a country as large as Europe, and with nearly as 
India many people, was originally settled by the tribes of Japheth, 
aiMl the third son of Noah, the country possessing many cities 

and petty kings and great riches, at the time of Alexander 
the Great's invasion. 

According to Sanskrit scholars, the rites and ceremonials of this people, 
that are contained in what is known as the Brahmanas, go back to B.C. 700, 
or alx>ut fourteen hundred years after the time of Abraham ; while the 
Co<Ie of Manu, that established castes in India, goes to about B.C. 500. 

Here in India, as in the earliest years of Chaldea and of E^ypt, we meet 
with the remarkable fact that their early beliefs seem to have been in the 
txi^tence of one Supreme Being only, and that then their lives were cor- 
respondingly pure. But the priests early took advantage of the religious 
instincts in man to advance their own ends, thus securing j^osition, influ- 
<-ncc. and money. A degrading form of worship of the solar system 
ap|x*ared. and soon its rites, ceremonies, oblations, and penances made the 
u h*"*!*- life of the people one of religion only. 

While the oldcn>t \'eda teaches a Supreme (iod, later it alludes to thirty- 
three gods, whose numbers were ere long ra|)idly multiplied, until the 
Hindu Pantheon is now said to contain no less than 33,ooo,(Xx^ gods. 

About B. C. 600 we meet with that awful thing that so rent the hearts 
r»f mothers, the first record of human sacrifices to the gods in India. 



In a land where polygamy prevailed and where the same debasement 
of woman to the sacred harlotry that is noted in Chaldea and elsewhere in 
connection with the temple services has prevailed for thousands of years, 
and yet continues in spite of modern missionary effort, the condition of 
these hundreds of millions of women, mothers and daughters of India, 
cannot be understood in its horrors, without reference to that other strange 
teaching of those Hindu Scriptures that was peculiar to themselves, namely, 
the suttee or burning alive of widows on the funeral pyre of their dead hus- 
bands. This practice was known to history over two thousand years 

ago, and Raja Radhakant Deb, of Calcutta, a native Hindu, 
Suttee ^"^^ ^"^ ^^ ^^ foremost of living Sanskrit scholars of the 

world, says it was practiced by their early kings and sages 
centuries previously, and that it is taught in their sacred books, of which he 
gives several citations. In case the widow refused the suttee she was con- 
sidered to have dishonored, her relatives, whereupon the disgraced family 
made her life so full of torture and shame that she fled to the fire in prefer- 
ence. If during the burning she sought to escape from the flames, her 
relatives considerately thrust her back to be consumed. This hideous cus- 
tom prevailed in India for two thousand five hundred years, and it is said 
that -even now, nothing but the strong hand of the English government 
prevents the revival of the practice. 

The Code of Manu divides the populace into, first, the Brahmans, who, 
having originally proceeded from the mouth of the god, are the most holy 

Caste ^^ "^^'^ ^"^ must not be taxed by the king or enraged, else 

In their curse would destroy his armies and retinue ; secondly, 

India ^^ Kshatriya or military and kingly caste, who issued from 

the god's arms ; third, the Vaisya or agricultural caste, coming from his 

thighs ; and the servile Sudra caste, proceeding from the feet of the god. 

The first three are '* twice born." The Brahman child receives the 
investiture of the sacred thread in his eighth year, the Kshatriya in his 
eleventh, the Vaisya in his twelfth, with great ceremonies, this constituting 
the second or spiritual birth, while the Sudra child does not get it at all, 
the last being born but once. But this last is as proud of his caste and as 
particular as any of the higher orders and will not intermarry with them. 



for in such case their children would not be even Sudras, and so, even to 
this day, the person who dresses your hair in India will not brush your 
clothes, nor the table waiter deign to carry your umbrella, for the caste is 
as sacred to them as religion, and is religion. 

While in the early times women seem to have had a certain degree of 
freedom and social equality, yet for thousands of years the condition of 
woman in India has been one of abject submission to her lordly husband or 
lather. The Sacred Books say, " Day and night must women be made to 
feel their dependence on their husbands " ; * ' Let not a husband eat with 
his w ife, nor look at her eating " ; " Women have no business to repeat 
texts of the Veda, thus is the law established" ; '* As far as a wife obeys 
her husband, so far is she exalted in heaven " ; '* A husband must be con- 
tinually revered as a god by a virtuous wife." 

And yet in the Mahabharata of these Hindu Scriptures occurs these 
truthful, noble words, concerning woman :. — 

**A wife is half the man, his truest friend, 
A loving wife is a perpetual spring 
Of virtue, pleasure, wealth. A faithful wife 
Is the best aid in seeking heavenly bliss. 
A sweetly speaking wife is a companion 
In solitude; a father in advice; 
A mother in all seasons of distress; 
A rest in passing through life's wilderness." 

Throughout all agc^ and everywhere, religion is seen to be as j^ersistent 
«ij.ia in the history of mankind as marriage is, and has had as much or 
"^♦'rc influence on woman's condition. And in seeking to account for the 
^ideand long continued dominance of such horrid faiths as ha\e been here 
^'Oliced, faiths that made woman but a chattel, and unsiK'akably tortured 
ami (jfjrraded her for thousands of years tln-oughout all the ancient world, 
'^inusi he confessed that their great secret lay in that awful future of which 
^^' claimed to have the e.\clusi\ e knowledge. 

With the later Hindus, who were transmigrationists, all who die go to 

the moon, which to them was the gate to the heavenly world. 
migration There a threefold alternative was offered the soul. If good- 
ness had characterized its earth life, it would pass in its 


transmigrations through the deities. If it had been ruled by passion, it 
must then pass through men. If a life of sin had distinguished its earthly 
career (and transgressions of or neglect of religious ceremonies and offenses 
against the priests were far worse sins than any violations of the moral 
law), it must pass through beasts and plants; each of these degrees having 
also three sub-degrees, with 8,400,000 births, and continuing through 
twenty-one, or, as some of the sacred books say, twenty-eight, hells or pur- 
gatories, each more furious and awful than a Dante could ever dream, and 
requiring a " kalpa " or two billion one hundred and sixty millions of 
years to pass through them all. 

With such fearful destiny before them, how was it possible for mortals 
not to make the worship of the gods of destiny the one great concern of 
their life, as they have been doing for thousands of years in that ancient 
land of India? 

And as these, their gods, were licentious, intriguing, and warring with 
each other in the heavens, what wonder that the worshiper on earth fol- 
lowed their example? 

In the Hindu poem, the Mahabharata, " The Great War of Bharata,*' 
is to be found the highest Hindu conception of woman's truth and purity 
and loving devotion to her husband, equal to anything to be found in any 

But at that early time we find the marriage custom or system of poly- 
andry prevailing even in their court circles, while gross licentiousness, 
gambling, and drunkenness characterized the wealthy classes everywhere. 

Throughout the whole history of that great country the condition of 
woman has been, to our modern thought, most degrading and sorrowful 
and bitter in the extreme. 

One half of the people now on earth are Mongolians. Their tribes 

have covered or influenced more than half the land surface of the globe, 

east, west, north, and south. Their original home is now 

within the Russian Empire and covers an area as large as the 

United States exclusive of Alaska. Their most important modern country 

is China, that present great home of more than a third of the human race. 

The Chinese are the only stereotyped nation on the globe. While, for 



instance, their present vessels and tonnage exceed in number that of all the 
other nations of the world, yet they use the same junks and tackle now as 
their people did before the birth of Christ, and money is weighed in scales 
as in Abraham's day. The manners and customs of their forefathers four 
thousand years ago are their present customs and manners. 

They claim their written language was given by the philosopher Fou- 
hee (supposed by some to be Noah), B. C. 3200, or, according to others, 
B. C. 2800, who, they say, taught them agriculture and how to make cloth- 
ing, furniture, and other arts of life, and gave the marriage laws to his 

Another tradition names the philosopher Tsang-ki, B. C. 2800 or B. C. 
2500, as the author of writing in Clfina, of which there are thirty different 

There are fragments of Chinese literature (calendars or local events 
only) as ancient, it is supposed, as B. C. 2000, but very little authentic his- 
tory before the fifth century before Christ, the days of the reformer and 
moralist Confucius (B. C. 551-479), who sought to revive the ancient 
usages and morals. He left a compilation, the Shu- King, or Book of 
Annals, covering the ancient times to B. C. 560, and more than any other 
has made China what it has been for ages past. Those Annals, however, 
are a mere jumble of ancient names, legends, ceremonies, and sayings, and 
accf»rding to no interpretation history in our modern sense. 

His code of rites, the Li-ki, a compilation of ancient usages, still' regu- 
lates the Chint^se manners. These ceremonial usages, estimated at three 
thousand, are interpreted by one of the bureaus at Pekin, the Board of 

The primitive Chinc*se religion was very simple, the worship of a 

Supreme Being. Later, they worshiped, as now, the wise men of olden 

'TeAclBlnKM ^""^*^ *^"^ the souls of their ancestors. Rut Confucius taught 

of that from this Original Being came Vang, the Perfect, includ- 

coMToelas j^^^ ** heaven, sun, day, heat, manhood," and Yen, the 

Imperfect, comprising "moon, earth, night, cold, womanhood," which 

crude philosophy has been the principle of government and of religion for 

ihe past two thousand three hundred years in China, and sheds much light 



upon the sad condition of women in that vast empire. For thousands of 
years she has been, like her sex in other ancient lands, little, if any, better 
off than the most abject of slaves, this perfect creature, man, in China, 
literally owning the imperfect being, woman, and selling her or beating 
her as he wished. 

Polygamy was anciently and is yet openly tolerated, secondary wives 
being common, especially if the first is childless. 

While those ancient morals compiled by Confucius were excellent, they 
have not made China moral. The obedience to and reverence for parents, 
superiors, and rulers, that he declared the sages of old had taught men, 
soon degenerated into a despotic form of government, and into a supersti- 
tious reverence for parents. Their religion, their morals, their wisdom, 
begin in words and end in words. 

China, in short, is the gray ages of the times of Abraham projected into 
our modern days ; the stagnant sea of humanity yet unvivified by the 
heralds of the twentieth century civilization. 

The historian Lecky has somewhere said that Christianity introduced 

two new ideas into the world — the brotherhood of man and the sacred- 

ness of human life. It did far more, it created a new wo- 

Rcaren- ^an wherever it regenerated a man. At its coming, three 
quarters of the immense population of Rome, the then great 
capital of the world, were paupers, and much more than that proportion 
were dissolute in morals and life, while it was far worse outside of Rome. 
But thereafter, wherever the Christian faitii was accepted and lived, whether 
by individuals or conununities, it became synonymous with purity, its first 
cardinal virtue. If purity had hitherto been found among men and w^omen, 
and, thank God, it had, it existed, not because of their religions, but in 
spite of them. Thereafter, religion was to mean purity, and the elevation 
and ennobling of woman, wherever its influence was rightly understood 
and it was permitted, in freedom, to exercise its beneficence. 









is ' 


RfpriKliuril tri'in the jjaintinK «)f I'ranz von DefrcKjjer; 
cxhibittd al \hr HvrUn (tnlenary Exhibition. 



" * 

rrlO this woman was given the honor of being the mother of the one 
-L concerning whom Christ sjiicl : ' ' Among them that are born of 
w-imen there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist." 

Her husband was Zacharias, a priest. The j^riests were divided into 
twenty-four courses and served in turn at the temple. The hill country 
near Hebron was probably the home of Elizabeth and her husband. They 
were both well advanced in years, and childless. This was counted one of 
the greatest of calamities by the Jews. 

While Zacharias was in the temple offering incense and praying, an 
angel appeared to him and promised that a son should be born to them, 
notwithstanding their old age. The special characteristics of this son were 
to be greatness in the sight of the Lord ; abstinence from wine and strong 
drink ; and fullness of the Holy Spirit. In his work he would turn back to 
the Lord many of the sons of Israel and make ready the people for the 
Lord's coming. 

There is a charm about the couple set forth in a single vi rse : " And 
ihey were both righteous before (iod. walking in all the commandments 
.ind ordinances of the Lord, blameless." 

We have but one glimj)se of John's childhood and young manhood. 
"The child grew and waxed strong in s|)irit and was in the dtsirts till tin- 
fiay of his showing unto Israel. " He was gathering |)ow('r lo be in faith 
and fearlessness the Lord's forerumier and make ready His ways. Blood 
will tell and so will training. John had his mother and the mountains and 
'lo^J. His father was alsf> his teacher in the inter\als of his absiiiei.' from 
V nice at the temple. 

Theirs wa^ probably an isolated home and John was .icen>tome(l to soli- 
v.nie. but here was formed that rugged character \\lii<h inabled him, like 
F.!:\'ih cif old, to denounce people an<l princes for their sins and call them 
■'■» k to (iod. 




WHKN the Son of God came to earth, he came not as an angel, but 
was born into our humanity. To be the true mediator between 
God and man he must be both human and divine. The human 
heart feels the need of this, to have one, who, from experience, knows our 
needs and nature, and at the same time has absolute and unlimited access 
to God. One born in the order of nature would not be to us the divine- 
human Saviour. This is, in part, the reason which lies back of the super- 
natural conception of Jesus Christ. 

But we do not claim his Divine Sonship on the basis of the account of 
his birth, merely. His life and teachings and the kingdom he founded, are 
the proofs which attest his supernatural and divine conception. 

Mary of Nazareth was the one honored of God to be the mother of the 
world's Saviour. 

Before the birth of Christ, but after the divine announcement had been 
made, Mary journeyed to the hill country to visit her kinswoman, Elisa- 
beth, who was to become the mother of John the Baptist. In Luke i : 
46-55, we have the song of Mary which begins : — 

** My soul doth magnify the lx)rd, 
And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. 
For he hath looked upon the low estate of his handmaiden : 
For behold from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed.** 

This is known in literature as the Magnificat. It shows a mind thor- 
oughly imbued with the spirit and substance of Hebrew poetry, and at once 
marks Mary as a woman of superior intellect and deep piety. 

The birth of Jesus in the Bethlehem stable *' because there was no room 
for them in tlie inn," touches the deepest emotion of every mother's 
heart. The flight into Kgypt because of the murderous decree of the in- 
sanely jealous Herod touches the hearts of all fathers and mothers, the 
natural guardians of babes. 



At twelve years of age Jesus visits Jerusalem with Joseph and Mary and 
a great company of their kinsfolk and acquaintances. Upon their return 
he is missing, and, after long search, is found in the temple in the midst of 
the doctors of the law. To Mary's words, ** Thy father and I have sought 
thee sorrowing,'* he replies: "Wist ye not that I must be about my 
Father 5 business? '* We cannot say whether Mary had yet told him of his 
divine parentage, but he evidently knows it now and recognizes that his life 
»ork is to do his Father's will. 

F"or eighteen years there is silence. We are told that " the child grew, 
and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom." We learn from later 
re\elation that he worked at the trade of a carpenter in Nazareth. But he 
was at the same time training for the memorable three years of ministry — 
the central years of the world's history. 

His public ministry did not begin with a sudden impulse, but was pre- 
pared for by his whole life. The consciousness of his di\ ine nature and 
|K)wer grew and ripened and strengthened until the time of his showing 
unto Israel. 

When that ministry began and during much of its continuance, Mary 
*as with her son and his disciples, and, with other motherly women, min- 
i>tere<l to this band of young men. 

Then- was the year of obscurity, — the year of j)ul)lic fa\or, — and the 
vt-ar of opposition. And that mother in hoi)e, or joy, or anguisli, kept 
"•arhim. I'pon one or two occasions he was obliged to i^^^eiUlv put aside 
•Vr loving and o\eran\ious interference, for he must l)e directed from 
'^'''•vt. never from about him. 

When there came that dark and awful tragedy of Cahary, Mary was at 
the cross. It was there that Jesus provided for his mother while he was 
'^yinjr. Looking upon her and his belo\ ed (li>eii)lc, John, he uttered two 
><-nl»'nces : '* Behold thy son," " Behold thy niotlur." l)y this, de^ii^nating 
John a> the one who should lovinj^ly care for his mother. 

.Mar\' is again mentioned in Aets 1:14, where we ha\e the picture (»f 
]'->us' followers, after his resurrection and as(cnsioii. leathered in an ui)i)er 
r-K^m in Jeru>iilem engaged in prayer, and waiting for the Pentecostal out- 



A. D. 32. 


XT is Strange how the painter's brush can lie and be guilty of a vile 
¥ slander. Again, the vitality and self-propagating power of a lie is 
T marvelous. 

The name of Magdalene is chiefly associated in the popular mind with 
the picture of a voluptuous though sad woman, and with places of refuge 
for fallen women. 

There is not the slightest evidence in the gospel narratives or in the 
writings of the early church fathers, that Mary Magdalene had ever been a 
woman of ill repute. She had been possessed of seven demons*, and Jesus 
cast them out, freeing her from the awful malady. It would be unspeak- 
ably cruel in these days to assume that every insane woman was an 
abandoned character. Insanity does often come as a result of sin, but in- 
sanity is not proof of sin. 

Demoniacal possession in the days of Christ was more than insanity. 
The powers of darkness seem to have been let loose when the Son of God 
came to earth. The special manifestation of God's benevolence was met by 
the special manifestation of demoniacal malignity. 

Mary had probably been a poor, wild, raving creature like the Gadarene 
demoniac, and the terrible affliction resulted in an emaciated form and a 
face with scars and deep lines. When she was cured, every drop of blood 
in her veins went out in gratitude to her Deliverer and she followed him, 
with Mary, his own mother, and ministered to him of her property. She 
was, no doubt, a woman of mature years, like the mother of Jesus, and next 
to her is the most prominent female character in the New Testament. She 
was last at the cross, last to leave the tomb, first to visit it on the resur- 
rection morning, and first to carry the news that Christ had risen. 

Christ's work for Mary Magdalene and her loving ministration to him 
constitute the type of the elevation of woman to the rank of friendship 
with man. She is no longer his slave, but his co-worker and equal, capa 
ble of accepting ecjual responsibilities and sharing equally in the results. 



A. D. 31. 



r^ERODIAS is the Jezebel of the New Testament. First she married 
P/ her uncle, Herod Philip. Antipas, half-brother of Philip, came to 
Rome to receive his investiture as a Tetrarch and was entertained 
by Philip. The hospitality was basely rewarded by the intrigues of Hero- 
dias and Antipas. Ambitious and shameless she agreed to come to him 
upon his return and after he had divorced his wife. This was accom- 

John the Baptist fearlessly told Herod that it was not lawful for him to 
have his brother's wife. Herodias was furious and swore vengeance upon 
]ohn. Antipas, though a tyrant, feared John and for a time stood between 
the prophet and the woman who thirsted for his blood. Nothing but the 
death of the Baptist would satisfy the resentment of Herodias. Though 
ioiled once she continued to watch her opportunity. 

There was a great banquet at Machaereus in honor of Herod's birth- 
day. While the drunken revelry was at its height, Herodias sent in her 
dauirhter Salome as a ballet dancer for the revelers. They were charmed, 
ind Herod in his drunken delight promised to give anything she asked, 
even to the half of his kingdom (though he could not give away the 
smallest village without permission from Rome). Tlie royal dancer retired, 
insulted with her mother and returned, demanding the head of John on 
one of the great platters of the banquet table. 

Herod was shocked into soberness and sought to extricate himself and 
5ave John, but he could neither face the laugh of his guests nor the wrath 
of Herodias, and the ghastly gift was brotight. 

Herod's fortunes soon declined. Urged on by Herodias, he sought the 
title of king, from Oesar. The jealousy of Agrippa was aroused ; charges 
mere brought against him, he was stripped of his power and banished. His 
tfuilty companion followed him and they both died in exile. The only re- 
deeming feature in this woman's character is that she evidently loved 
Antipas and voluntarily chose exile with him. 



A. I>. 10-51). 


"^^ERO was a monster of iniquity. His reign was a carnival of crime. 
r^/ Who and what was the mother of this man? She was born in a 

te Roman camp on the shores of the Rhine. Germanicus was her 
father, and Agrippina the Mrst, her mother. Her fiery and ambitious 
spirit was probably stimuhited by her father's conquests. After the death 
of her father she was driven into exile by her brother, Caligula, who accused 
her of conspiracy. 

After some years, Agrippina married, for her second husband, her uncle 
Claudius, who Iku! become emperor. She ruled him absolutely, and when 
she thoui^ht he had lived lonj^ enough caused him to be poisoned in order 
that she might (jbtain the throne for her s<^n Xcro. Claudius had a son, 
Hritannicus, by his first wife, Nk'ssalina, who was therefore the rightful heir 
of the throne. He was put out of the way as his father had been, by 
whose hand we cannot say. 

Agrippina was inc^rdinately ambitious for her son Nero. She was in 
many resj)ects a woman of ability in aflfairs of state. Her ambition was at 
at last gratified in seeing her son j)roclaimed emperor. But she could not 
readily reliiupiish her power, and so there arose jealousy l>etween mother 
and son. She was warned of danger, but exclaimed, " Let me perish, but 
let Nero reign ! " 

The son who had rctaclied the throne by his mother's crimes, turned 
against Iier and j)lolte(l lier deatli. He caused a boat to be so constructed 
that it would easily fall to ])ieces in a slight storm. This occurred as 
.Agrijjpina was crossing the (lulf of Haiie. Instead of drowning she swam 
ashore, and later was brutally murdered. Her unscrupulous ambition for 
her son had its grim recompense. 

P\>r ten years she was the virtual ruler, that is, for the last five years c 
Claudius' life and the first five years of Nero's occupation of the thron' 
and her reign, though marked by domestic crimes, was a prosperous O' 
for the state. 






RBprDLlucBri frnin the CBlahratBd painting by 
Gustav IVerthBlrnBr. (Sbb " i^ntany and CIbd- 
patra." ) 





IC^OT Martha versus Mary, but Martha and Mary. They were very 
I / unlike, but each was the complement of the other and both were 
the friends of Jesus and helped to make the home in Bethany a 
restful place to which he could come from the murderous plottings of the 
priests and Pharisees. 

Martha was probably the elder of the two, a vigorous, matronly, bus- 
tlinj^ housewife, over-careful about a multitude of unimportant details of the 
household. She was no doubt proud of her perfectly ordered home, but 
she had by degrees become tjie slave of her ambition to have the best kept 
house in Bethany. 

Mar)', on the other hand, was of a contemplative mind and had more of 
ahunijering for spiritual things. When Christ came to their home she 
t'H-k the opportunity, not to entertain him, but to learn of him. " For the 
^nof Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister," and he was 
h'M pka^ed when people received from him. He commended Mary and 
t"M Martha that she was unnecessarily burdening herself with ()\ er-careful- 
nt-'S and much serving. Her zeal was honored in its turn, liowever, and 
>ht shared e(|iially in the Lord's affection. 

WV a^L^ain see the sisters when bereavement has come. Their brother 
La^arus. the loved friend of Jesus, is dead. They send word to Jesus. He 
C"nK*s lo Bethany. Martha is first to meet him and hear the wonderful 
»or<lr,f rr^mfort, ** I am the Resurrection and the Life." Their brother is 
r^ti.rcd to them, the broken circle is made wliole. 

Shortly before the death of Christ we see him again in Bethany in the 
house <.f Simon the leper, where a banquet is gi\en in his honor. Martha 
^^^'> at the table, lovingly ministering to tlie j)hysica] comfort of the 
K^^ls. NLiry brings an alabaster box of ointment and anoints the head 
Md feet of Je*sus in a manner fit for royalty. Thus the two sisters, each in 
btrown way, show their devotion to Christ. 



A. I>. 87. 


/1\ HE Scripture notice of this woman is confined to a few verses in the 
JL ninth chapter of Acts, hut her name to this day stands for the 
benevolent use of the needle. Her example has been an inspira- 
tion to women in all these years of church history. 

Her home was at Joppa. She was associated with a little band of 
Christians, most of whom, like herself, were poor. The words of Jesus had 
no doubt been the movinjiif power in her soul. ' ' For I was an hungred 
and ye gave me meat,; I was thirsty and ye gave me drink ; I was a 
stranger and ye took me in ; naked and ye clothed me ; I was sick and ye 
visited me ; I was in prison and ye came unto me." And " Inasmuch as 
ye have done it unto one of the least of these, my brethren, ye have done 
it unto me." 

She "was full of good works and almsdeeds which she did.'* Her 
piety was eminently practical. It was a sad blow to the little band when 
Dorcas died. They at once sent for Peter, who was in the neighboring city 
of Lydda. 

When he came he found the people grief-stricken. The widows pre- 
sented an eloquent eulogy on the life and character of Dorcas by showing 
some of the many coals and garments which she had made. Here were 
aged widows whose hands were too feeble to hold the needle and too poor 
to pay others for the work. They showed the warm garments Dorcas had 
made to protect them from the cold winds which often swept in from the 
Mediterranean. And here were younger widows with little children who 
had been clothed by Dorcas. How could they ever find another such 
friend ? 

But Dorcas was given buck to them. Life was restored by a great 
miracle. Peter knelt down and prayed. Then turning to the body, he 
said, **Tabitha, arisel" "And slie opened her eyes; and when she saw 
Peter she sat up. " The mourners' tears were wiped away and the work 
of the Lord grew mightily. 



A. D. 50. 


Inj/ HEY were Jewesses, living among a people who worshiped the gods 

® I fe of Greece. Eunice had married a Greek, and to them was born a 

son whom they named Timothy. 

Coming to Lystra on his second missionary tour, Paul found the young 

man highly spoken of by the little group of Christians. He was of such 

e\ident ability and promise that Paul made him his missionary helper. 

Where he was converted we cannot say, but we conclude that Paul's first 

visit to Lystra had much to do with it. At that time Paul and Silas healed 

a lame man, and the heathen population became so enthusiastic that they 

called them Jupiter and Mercury, and the priest of Jupiter was about to offer 

sacrifice unto them as gods. But soon after, the Jews stirred up the people 

and Paul was stoned, dragged out of the city, and left by the wayside for 

dtad. But he recovered and bravely comforted the few who had become 


Timothy must have known about iill this, possibly he saw botli the 
attempteil worship and the stoning. Then, or later, he became a follower 
of the Saviour whom Paul preached, and was ready to be a pupil and 
hdptrr of Paul when he returned. 

When, yt^ars later, Paul lay in the prison at Rome awaitini^ trial and 
execution, he writes his second letter to his beloved helper, calling to 
rcmtmbrance the faith Timothy had shown, and reininclint^ him that this 
^mQ faith was first in his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice. 
•Vain, he says to Timothy, " From a child thou hast known the holy 

Grandmother and mother had no doubt Ixen his teachers. His fit- 
nttss i(\ be the companion and co-worker of Paul fnuls its exi)lanation 
lar)^ely in the home training and pious example i^iven him by these two 
noHe women. It was from them also that the youth derived his first im- 
pressions of Christian truth ; for Paul calls to rememi)rance the unfeigned 
iaith which first dwelt in them. 



A. D. 58. 


§ER native place was Thyatira on the borders of Lydia in Asia Minor. 
Her city was celebrated in ancient times for its purple dyes and 
fabrics. Among the ruins of the city has been found in recent years 
an inscription relating to the *' Guild of Dyers,*' showing the accuracy in 
unimportant details of this scripture narrative. 

She may have borne a different name at home, but among strangers she 
was known as Lydia or the Lydian. She was a business woman, dealing 
in coloring matter, or more likely goods already dyed. The color purple 
was highly prized among the ancients. 

Lydia had settled in the city of Philippi, which was a miniature Rome. 
Here she carried on her business, surrounded by her household, which 
seems to have included many servants. 

She was not a Jewess by birth, but had come to a knowledge of the true 
God, and was a proselyte and a devout worshiper. 

Philippi was the scene of the first labors of Paul in Europe. One Sab- 
bath day he found a company of Jews worshiping outside the city, near a 
river. He preached to them, and Lydia' s heart was opened to receive the 
truth. She at once urged the missionaries to make her house their home. 
Paul hesitated to do this, as he made it a rule not to be dependent on any- 
one, but he finally accepted her hospitality. 

For having cured a poor, half-crazed slave girl, who brought her mas- 
ters much gain by fortune telling, Paul and Silas were cruelly beaten and 
cast into jail. 

By means of a mighty earthquake, the prisoners were released from 
their bonds, and the jailer was converted. On the following day the mag- 
istrate dismiss(fd Paul and Silas. A farewell meeting was held at the home 
of Lydia, and we may suppose that the converted jailer was one of the 
company. Paul then departed to carry the gospel to other cities of 
Europe. His most loving epistle was written from the prison in Rome to 
the church at Philippi. 



A. D. 40-78. 


4— jOf — h 

¥^^ER husband was Julius Sabinus. He pretended to be a descendant 
£ # of Julius Caesar and laid claim to the throne when several others 
^ were seeking the same prize. He was defeated and a large reward 
was offered for his capture. He declared his intention of committing 
suicide by burning his own house and perishing in the flames. The house 
UHs burned and his friends and enemies supposed him dead. 

Under his house there was a ca\'ern to which he betook himself instead 
0! dying, and the secret was communicated to but one friend, Martial. 

Eponina, who was absent at the time, heard of his death and was so 
overcome with grief that for many days she would eat nothing, and was in 
danger of sacrificing her own life. Martial at last communicated to her the 
iact that Sabinus was not dead, but hidden in the cave under the ruins of 
their villa. 

She was conducted to his hiding place by night, but returned before 
morning. She was advised by Martial to keep up the appearance of grief 
i'^rsome months, which she did. 

For nine years the husband lived in this cave, visited as often as possible 
by h\> devoted wife. 

Sii>picions were at last aroused and Sabinus was discovered and l)rought 
More the emperor. The death sentence was passed ui)()n him. Kponina 
prtKirait-*! herself before the emperor and im|)lore(l him to s|)are her hus- 
Wl after hi> nine years of imprisonment, but he was ine\oral)le. She 
chf»M- to shan- the fate of her husband. 

When thev were led to execution, I\poniiia turned indignantly to the 
^•mjK'ror and said : ** Learn, X'espasian. that 1 ha\ e cnjoyi-d more haj)- 
\>\m^^ in the performance of my duties and in j)rol()ngin^ thr life of your 
'•K^tim. though but in the rude n-cessc-s of an oi)scurc ( a\< rn, than you will 
hf-no-forth e\er enjoy amidst the splendors th it surround y(»ur throne." 

The sympathies of the Roman j)eo|)le were with llponina, and her heroic 
Melity was a theme upon which they dwelt with |)ride. 



A. D. 54. 


) QUI LA and Priscilla, a noble Christian couple, had been driven 
from Rome by the decree of Claudius Caesar. A large Jewish col- 
ony dwelt at Rome in a crowded quarter on the banks of the Tiber. 
Suetonius, a Roman historian, has a statement which exactly fits the words 
of Acts XVIII : 2. He says, " Claudius banished the Jews from Rome, who 
were constantly making disturbances, at the instigation of one Chrestus.** 
Christianity had no doubt been introduced into Rome by some of the Jews 
who were converted at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost. These Chris- 
tians were no doubt persecuted at Rome, as elsewhere by the Jews, and, 
for the disturbances, the whole Jewish colony was banished. 

During the early decades of Christianity the Romans did not distinguish 
between Jews and Christians. Suetonius' statement about '^Chrestus" 
shows an ignorance that is amusing. He evidently had heard the name of 
Christ connected with the disturbances. 

Aquila and Priscilla were already Christians, but suffered banishment 
with the others. They were tcntmakers by trade and finally settled in 
Corinth, which was a great center of commerce, culture, and especially of 
iniquity, for here was a temple to Venus with a thousand abandoned 
women as attendants. 

Paul on his second missionary tour came to Corinth and, finding Aquila 
and Priscilla, made his home with them. They were attached by a three- 
fold tie : they were Jews by birth, Christians by profession, and tentmakers 
by trade, and Paul, while he worked as a missionary, worked with his 
friends at their trade. 

He was so successful in his missionary work, that at the end of a year 
and a half the Jews raised such a persecution that the three tentmakers 
were driven from the city, to Ephesus, where Paul left his friends and 
sailed to Syria, visiting Jerusalem and Antioch. 

Some time after Paul's departure, there came to Ephesus a learned and 
eloquent man of Alexandria, Apollos by name, who had heard and accepted 



A. D. 60. 


|^>^EXCHREA was the seaport of Corinth. A Christian church had 
^Jj^ been established here by Paul. While working in Corinth he wrote 
his famous letter to the Romans and sent it by the hand of Phoebe. 
In the 1 6th chapter her name stands at the head of a long list of noble 

Phtebe is called a " servant *' of the church, but the word in the origi- 
nal is "diakonos," from which we derive our word deacon. So, while she 
is called '* servant" of the church, the term evidently refers to an official 

She seems to have been a business woman and to have had some affairs 
oi her own to attend to in Rome, for Paul urges the Christians at Rome to 
be of any possible assistance to her. A high tribute is paid to her as " a 
succorer of many and of myself also." By her means and in person she 
had ministered to the sick and distressed. 

PrtHclUa continued, 

S"me things of the Christian religion and was working enthusiastically 
among his own people, the Jews. 

Thf tentmakers heard him and, while rejoicing at his ability and zeal, 
thry >aw that he had but part of the truth. He was invited to their abode 
^'i learned of them more fully the truth of Christianity. The tentniakei-s 
Had become teachers, and the name of the wife is placed first. 

A ft-w years later they evidently returned to Rome, for l^uil in his letter 
!'■ the Ronians sends them greeting (Rom. xvi : 4 ). In this single 
• ersewe learn that he remembered them as his "helpers" in the gospel 
^'»rk. hf was no doubt thinking of the days in Corinth. .Aj^ain, he says 
J-^.it {or his life thev laid down their own necks. SoinelK)w, th(*\' had sax'ed 
"^ lift- at the risk of their own. And, l.istly, he spiaks of " the church 
^h;<-h is in their house." Their home had become tin- meeting place of 
the Christians in Rome at a time when it was neither jK)ssible nor safe f(<r 
th*-ni to have a special house of worshijx 



Died A. D. 6S. 


J^OADICEA was wife of Prasutaj^as, king of the Iceni, a tribe of east- 
l2r cm Hritain. 

It is the old story, evt?r repeated, of imperial rapacity and 
cruelty. The Romans had invatled Britain on the pretext that they helped 
the Gauls. Kiuir IVasuta^as, in order to appease the emperor and 
protect his family, Kft half of his threat fortune to Nero and the remainder 
to his wife and daughters. The Roman officers, on the pretext that Boadi- 
cea had conce.iled a ])art of the property, seized the whole. The queen 
protested against such high handed proceedings. The officers in revenge 
caused her to be stripped and scourged and her daughters were given to 
the soldiers. This treatment, worst* than death, roused the queen and peo- 
ple to desperation. She assembled the Britons and with spear in hand and 
the passionate and i)athetic elocpience of wronged womanhood, recounted 
their sufferings at the hands of the Romans and called upon them to repel 
the invaders. Boaditea led the attack in person and the Romans, seventy 
thousand in number, were slaughtered. Tlu: noble queen and her 
daughters had been avenged. 

The Roman general, who had been absent from the first batde, returned 
with ten thousand soldiers and for a time shut himself up in London in 
doubt whether to give battle to the vast host who followed the queen. At 
length he came forth. Boadicea in her chariot, accompanied by her 
daughter, urged the Britons to con([uer or die. " Is it not much l>etter to 
fall honorably in defense of liberty, than be again exposed to the outrages 
of the Romans? Such at least is my resolution ; as for you men, you may, 
if you i)lease, live and be slaves ! " 

The result was a total defeat and dreadful slaughter of the brave 
Britons. Kighty thousand were left dead on the field. The queen died, 
either of des])air or poison, in 62, looking for the prophecy of the Druid 
priest to be fulfilled, '* Rome shall perish — write that word in the blood that 
she has spilt ; — perish, hopeless and abhorred, deep in ruin as in guilt.'* 





REprDciucBd from en Etching of the statue ai 
Bnadicea by J, Thnmas, a Welsh sculptor and 
painter. Thcmas was a pupil of Chantrey, and an 
Exhibitor at the .Royal Academy, London, for 
many years. Anion.q his portrait statues and 
busts, " Music," " P.acket Flayer," " Statue of the 
Marquis of 3ute," and " Statue of "^Bllinc;ton," 
sra the most promiuBnt, 


A. D. 65. 


^ HE study of the career of this woman brings us into acquaintance 
\[j ^ with a number of important historic characters. 

T Bernice was the daughter of Herod Agrippa I. and the sister of 

Agrippa H., before whom Paul preached (Acts xxv-: 13,23 and xxvi :3o). 

She first marrieii her uncle, Herod, King of Chalcis, and by him had two 

sons. After his death she went to live with her brother Agrippa, and was 

under suspicion of sustaining immoral relations to him. To hush up this 

sandal she proposed marriage to Polemon, king of Cilicia, on condition 

that he adopt the Jewish faith. This he did. But after a few years she 

wearied of him and went back to her brother, aiul Polemon renounced 

Judaism, his adopted faith. 

Abf)ut 65 A. I)., she went to Jerusalem and interceded with the Roman 
K^vemor for the Jews, at the risk of her own life, for he was at this time 
earning on a cruel persecution of the Jews. She, with her brother, sought 
to dissuade the Jews from rebellion. This lulpetl to secure tlieir own 
^Akiy and the favor of the Romans. 

.\fter the destruction of Jerusalem, Bernice and Agripjxi made a journey 
tf' Rome, where she further gained the good will of the emperor W-spasian 
by her gifts and won his son Titus by her i)eauty. Titus was about to 
•Tiarry her, but the protest of the Romans pre\ ented him. She was ac- 
C'-niinj^ly sent away with the promise that he would call her back when the 
tumuh had ceased. 

Bernice was very scrupulous about religious observances, but to matters 
^•* morality she ga\e little heed. 

At the time of Paul's noted speech before Agrippa, which is ^Wm in 
At"t> \x\ I. Brrnice was present. .She and Agri])pa had cnmv with great 
F»^'nip to pay a visit to Festus. the goxcrnor at Ca'san-a. It was Aj^rippa 
•Ahosaid. sarcastically or otherwise, ** Almost thou prrsuadest nw to be a 
^"hnstian. ' ' 



A. I>. 177. 


^(HE was one of the forty-eight martyrs of Lyons who perished durin 
}<^ the terrible religious persecution under the emperor Marcus Aurc 

In the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius (260-339) i^ given a lei 
ter which records the sufferings of the Christians at Lyons. First, the 
were excluded from houses, baths, and market places, so that nothin 
belonging to them could appear in public. They bore all patiently, '*Es 
teeming what was deemed great but little, they hastened to Christ, showin 
in reality that the sufferings of this time are not worthy to be compared wit 
the glory that shall be revealed in us. And first they nobly sustained a 
the evils that were heaped upon them by the populace ; clamors and blows 
plundering and robberies, stonings and imprisonments, and whatsoever 
savage people delight to inflict u])on enemies." 

Pagan slaves, fearing lest they should be included in the persecutions 
sought to protect themselves by charging their Christian masters with gros 
crimes. The pagan populace and magistrates fell upon the Christians an» 
dragged them to death. Among them was Blandina, herself a poor slav 
girl, but a Christian who honored her sex and her religion by her constanc 
and courage. 

The ancient letter from the Church in Lyons has this to say : '* Whil 
we were all trembling, and her earthly mistress, who was herself one of th 
contending martyrs, was apprehensive, lest, through the weakness of th 
flesh, she should not be able to make a bold confession, Blandina was fiUe 
with such ])ower, that her ingenious tormentors, who relieved and succeede 
each other from morning till night, confessed that they were overcome an 
had nothing more that they could inflict u])on her. They were amaze 
that she continued to breathe after her whole body was pierced and tor 
asunder. In the midst of her sufferings, as she for a moment revived, sh 
repeatedly exclaimed, ' I am a Christian ; no wickedness is carried o 
by us!"' 



Martyred A. D. 202. 



^HHE fifth general persecution of the Christians was raised by Septimius 
^Ife Severus in 202. Among the Christians seized at Carthage were 
the two above named. Their martyrdom is among the most touch- 
ing events of church history. 

Perpetua was a lady of rank. Her father was a pagan, but had a deep 
affection for his daughter, though she had become a Christian. He visited 
her in prison and pleaded with her to renounce her faith. He knelt weep- 
ing at her feet and besought her to have pity on his gray hairs and her 
own babe which she held to her breast. Though deeply moved, she would 
not turn from Christ. When she was brought before the judge he en- 
treated her to ** sacrifice for the posterity of the emperors." " I will not," 
she answered. ''Are you then a Christian?" "I am," was the firm 

Sentence was passed upon her and Felicitas. They were to be exposed 
to the wild beasts. On the way b^k to prison, Perpetua asked for her 
•^behut the father refused her. 

The festival of (ieta was approaching, at which time shows were given 
^or the amusement of the soldiers. The condemned Christians were kept 
^'•r that (lay. At the time appointed, Perpetua and Felicitas left the 
pn.son for the amphitheater. Perpetua sang as one who has concjuered. 
1 hey were stripi)ed, put into nets, and exposed to a wild cow. But even 
thebruUil audience counted this indecent. The executioner witluirew them 
^"ni the arena, gave them loose garments and led them hack again. After 
^hey had been tossed and torn by the wild creatures they were dragged to 
^"^gate to be dispatched. The bloodthirsty crowd called for them to hi- 
Nain in the sight of all. They were again led to the arena. Lady and 
^*^\Q jr^\^ each other the kiss of peaci'. They were sisters because 
Christians. The executioner's sword ended their earthly existence, but 
n^t their influence. In after time a yearly festi\al was held in their honor 
^t Canhage. 



A. D. 295. 


Julia MAMM^A, afterwards famous as Julia Domna, became the 
I wife of Lucius Scptimius Severus between 185 and 190 A. D. She 
^^ had two sons, Alexander (known as Caracalla) and Geta. The for- 
mer succeeded to the throne after the murder of Elagabalus. 

Julia trained her son for the throne and did it well, for he proved to be 
a ruler of noble character and administrative ability. His reign of thirteen 
years was a calm in the storm, an oasis in the' desert, a pure breeze in a 
fetid atmosphere, a pause in the downward rush of Roman degeneracy, and 
for most of this the world is indebted to his mother, Julia. Hers was the 
power behind the throne. 

Under the counsel of his mother, Alexander encouraged a general reform 
in all departments of his government. To the shame of Rome be it related 
that one of the causes leading to his death was the enmity aroused by his 
attempt to eliminate corruption from civil and military circles. He con- 
ciliated the professors of Christianity by adopting the golden rule and hav- 
ing it inscribed in letters of gold in many parts of his palace. 

In his private cliapel he had statues of the virtuous and great of all times 
and countries, to which he offered divine honors ; Abraham and Jesus were 
among these. 

He was, of course, not a Christian, for he openly professed the religion 
of the state, which was pagan. It is uncertain whether Julia was a Chris- 
tian, though she was much interested in the person and work of Origen, the 
famous Christian scholar. 

Alexander and his mother were assassinated while on a campaign in 
(icnnany to drive back the invaders. The mother tried to save her son as 
the assassins entered the tent to slay him. She received the death blow, 
but it did not save him. As \\q have intimated, they were the martyrs of 
the reforms they instituted. The corrupt soldiery was unaccustomed to the 
leadership of a pure and wise sovereign. 



A. B. SA0^S7. 


—- »— *-- €^- 

^^HE varied and romantic career of this woman has in it the materials 
®l fe for a most interesting historical novel. She was the daughter of an 
obscure innkeeper; but of her nationality nothing certain is known. 
Constantius Chlorus met her, loved her, and married her. Constantine 
was born to them about 272, probably in Britain. 

Constantius became co-emperor by appointment of Diocletian, and by 
him was comf>elled, for political reasons, to divorce Helena and marry the 
daughter of Maximilian. By this cruel act Helena was repudiated and sent 
back from the court splendors to an obscure and lonely life. 

In time, the co-emperors died, and her son Constantine won his way to 
the throne, and dispensed with any imperial colleagues. He sought out 
his mother, restored to her the imperial dignity, gave her the title oi 
Augusta, and caused her to be received at court with all the honor due the 
rooiher of an emperor. 

The conversion of Constantine marks an epoch in the world's history. 
He adopted Christianity as the religion of state, a mar\ clous contrast to 
^he attempt of his predecessor, Diocletian, to utterly extc-rniinate it. Pef- 
'H.'cutions were now at an end. Constantine, by circular letter, urged his 
^ub]t*cts to follow the example of their sovereign, and become Christians. 
He did not forbid paganism, but he sought by ridicule and neglect to cause 
j^^ dedine. 

HLs mf)ther, Helena, became a Christian, and was e\erywhere loved for 
"^rlilKTality. During a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, she claimed to have dis- 
<^overtd the holy sef)ulchre and the true cross. She relit ved the poor, the 
*:dfms, and the orphans, built churches, and showed herself the worthy 
niother of a great son. 

At her death he paid her the highest honors. Her hodx- was siiU to 
R^^me and placed in the tomb of the emperors. He made her native vil- 
^^J^e a monument to her memory by raising it to the rank of a city, and 
^ve it the name Helenopolis. 



A. D. «73. 


PALMYRA, the ''City of Palms," was situated in an oasis of the 
Arabian Desert at the junction of two caravan routes and was a 
community of merchant princes. The wealth of the city was ac- 
cordingly great, and its architecture of unusual splendor. 

Odenatus, the husband of Zenobia, had taken up arms for the Roman 
government and had defended the frontier against the aggressions of the 
Persian monarch. For this he was recognized as a colleague of the Roman 
emperor and was given the title of Augustus. 

Odenatus was afterwards slain and Zenobia assumed the reins of gov- 
ernment. She is described as "of great beauty, unblemished virtue, lofty 
ambition, and having the power of ruling her subjects with combined mild- 
ness and justice." She was herself a worshiper of one God, but all forms 
of religion were tolerated by her; Christian, Jew, Pagan, and Mazdean lived 
together in peace. 

For her prime minister she chose Longinus the Greek philosopher, 
who was the leading literary man of the Greeks in this century. 

Zenobia aspired to be a ruler independent of the Roman emperor. She 
already ruled Egypt and half of Asia Minor, but she was willing to be 
subordinate to no one. She and her subjects revolted. Aurelian marched 
against Palmyra. The forces of Zenobia were defeated in two battles and 
then the city was besieged and taken. The people were shown no mercy, 
but fell as the victims of their queen's ambition. 

Zenobia was taken to Rome as a captive. She was obliged to walk 
in the triumphal procession, her beautiful figure fettered by ponderous 
manacles of gold. She was held by chains of gold so heavy that it was 
necessary for a slave to walk by her side and support them. Her con- 
queror rode behind her in a triumphal car drawn by four elephants. 

Later, by a most unusual leniency, she was allowed to have a splendid 
dwelling of her own, where she reared her children and sought to imitate 
the virtues of Cornelia, the Roman matron. 



Martyred A. D. 303. 


YTTHIJE Diocletian was noted as an organizer and ruler, he became 
\j^ notorious as the instigator of the "tenth persecution." By his 
order, in 303, churches were torn down, sacred writings were 
ordered to be given up and destroyed, all assemblies of Christians were 
prohibited, Christians in public office were remox ed from their positions, 
•indall were subject to torture. The emperor's purpose was to exterminate 
the Christian religion. 

Ajjnes and Anastasia were two of the many who suffered death as a 
n->uli of the bloody edict. Agnes was a young maiden of wealth and 
^^<iuty. and many of the young noblemen sought her in marriage, but she 
rehbed them all on the ground that she had devoted her life to the service 
^»i Christ. Her suitors accused her to the governor, expecting that threats 
and torture would cause her to give up her religion. She was entreated 
and threatened by the judge, and the instruments of torture were shown 
"fr. She was then commanded to sacrifice to the idols, i)ut she steadfastly 
rf!!iNe<I. yiie enraged judge then ordered her to hv beheaded. 

Apastasia's father was a pagan, but her mt)ther was a Christian. The 
Strath of her mother was a sad blow. Her father compelled her to marry a 
K'an. Her husband, finding that she was a Christian, treated her cruelly 
•ind squandered her property. In a few years he (Ii(xl, and .\nastasia de- 
^'>t(tj htTMtlf to works of charity, using what remained of her fortune in 
rdicvinir the poor Christians, many of whom were in prison. Her works 
'•^citeil suspicion. .She and three female ser\ ants were arrested, and rom- 
"^ar.ded to s;icritice to idols. This they refused to do. The servants were 
'^ecuted at once. Anastasia was banished for a time, init subsequently 
'*a5hrought back to Rome and burned alive. 

Christians died, but Christianity li\ed r)n and j^rew under persecution. 
I^odetian abdicated in 305. In 311 was issued the edict ol universal 



A. D. 330. 


^^ REGORY was a great theologian, a poet of much ability, and the 
1®^ greatest orator the Eastern Church produced. He was a champion 
of the orthodox faith, and was made Bishop of Constantinople in 
the reign of Theodosius the Great. 

In his earlier years his friends sought to prevail upon him to settle at 
Athens as a teacher of eloquence, but he gave all his powers to the service 
of Christ, renounced the usual enjoyments of life, lived on the plainest fare, 
filled the day with labor, and the night with praying, singing, and holy 

To the mother, Nona, is due much of the credit of the great and noble 
life of Gregory. By her prayers and holy life she brought about the conver- 
sion of her husband, who, without faith, simply worshiped a supreme being. 
Like Hannah of old she consecrated her son to the service of God before 
his birth. **She solved the difficult problem of uniting a higher culture 
and strict exercise of devotion with the practical care of her household." 

She had unbounded confidence in the power of believing prayer, and 
she exercised the power most diligently. Gregory says of his mother, 
that '* by prayer she attained such control over her spirit, that in every 
sorrow she (Micountered she never uttered a plaintive tone before she had 
thanked God." The loving son also celebrates her extraordinary liberality 
and self-denying love for the poor and sick. 

At a great age, in the church which her husband had built almost 
entirely with his own means, she died holding fast to the altar with one 
hand, while with the other raised to heaven she exclaimed, " Be gracious to 
me, O Christ my King ! " Great was the sorrow, especially among those 
whom she had l>efriended. 

Gregory, in one of his poems, praising her life of piety and victorious 
death, writes : — 

*' Bewail, O mortals, the mortal race; ^ 

But when one dies, like Nona, prayiuj^^ then weep I not." 





ReprDducBd frnrn the painting of Ary Schef- 
Ibt, the eminent historical and portrait painter, 
This picture was executed during Scheffer's 
prime, and has received very wide cammenda- 
tinn nn account of Its religious significance, ThE 
original is in the Lauvra, Paris. 




A. I>. 382-387. 


fTX HIS remarkable woman is numbered amon^ the mothers of great 

-1- men. Her son, St. Augustine, became the fr»remost of the Latin 

Fathers. The church and the world owe to Monica a great debt, for 

Hfiviiig to them her brilliant, holy, and mighty son. There were long years 

of agonizing heartaches and ceaseless prayer, but the victory came at last. 

Monica vras of Christian parents whose home was at Tagasta in north 

Africa. She was married to Patricus, an idohiter, who pro\'ed to be of 

violent temper and licentious habits. But he never heard an impatient or 

reproachful word in his home. 

Sometime before his death, Patricus forsook his evil ways and became 
a »ncere Christian. Thus wen- the j)rayers and ])atience of Monica re- 

But there was another burden on her heart. Her son Augustine, whose 
Ktnius had kindled the fond hr>pes of father and mother, was sent t<^ 
Carthage for further study. His mother brgged him to lead a jnuc life in 
the midst of the dangers and dissipations of a vire.ii city. In his writings, 
Augustine confesses that h<* listened impatiently and counted it mere wo- 
nun talk which he would hr ashamed to heed. Monica mourned o\er him 
'*ilh yearning grief. 

L'pon his return his blasj)hemies so shocked her that sh<r could no 
^'ngcr allow him under her roof. But she prayed without ceasini^. A cer- 
tain bishop was urged by her to come and argue with Ikt son. He de- 
dined. She entreated him with tears. He replied. " C'ontinur as you 
^vc begun ; surely the son of so many tear-^ canii(»t j»erish. " 

Augastine at thirty had exhausted the dissipations «)f Africa and went 
i'' Rome to find new forms of sin. Monica l«»lloW((l him and aft<r a time 
■'und him a changed man. The struggle had bet n loniL^ ;nid bitter. 

Monica's closing years were filled with joy at seeing the great powers of 
H*T son wholly given to the ser\ ice of God. His writings bear constant 
'estimony to her character. 



A. D. 347-404. 



/T\HIS illustrious saint was of noble Roman birth, being descended from 
JL the Scipios and the Gracchi. She was born in luxury and Hved in 
great magnificence, being considered one of the richest women of 
antiquity. She moved in the very highest circles of society in an aristo- 
cratic age. She is said to have owned a whole city in Italy. 

Her natural gifts and education were in keeping with her fortune and 
social position. 

Christianity had become the religion of state, having been made such 
by Constantine, who died ten years before Paula w^as born. With her, the 
religion of Jesus was not alone of the state, but of the heart. With her, it 
was not merely a form, but a life, an enthusiastic and passionate life. The 
scholars of the Church made her palace their home. She became the 
patroness of educational and philanthropic work. 

Paula is known to the world as the disciple and friend of the noted 
scholar Jerome, whose monumental work was the translation of the entire 
Bible into the Latin tongue. This version is known as the Vulgate. From 
it the modern Catholic Bible, the Douay version, is translated. 

Upon the death of her husband, Toxotius, Paula put aside her luxurious 
living and devoted herself rigidly to study, prayer, and works of charity. 
She lived as the poorest slave, but gave as a princess. Her desire was to 
die in beggary and be buried in a shroud which did not belong to her. 

With other kindred spirits she journeyed to Antioch, Jerusalem, and 
Egypt, and finally settled at Bethlehem, where she built a monastery, hos- 
pital, and three nunneries. Jerome presided over the monastery and carried 
on his literary work. 

In Paula we have a noble example of the Christian friendship of woman 
for man. Jerome and Paula renounced and despised the pleasures and even 
the comforts of the world. Teacher and pupil, they were co-workers in 
promoting monastic life, which at first was a protest against the indulgence 
and corruption of the age. 



A. D. 391. 


OLYMPIAS was the daughter of a wealthy lord belonging to the court 
of Theodosius the Great, and was married to the emperor's treas- 
urer. She was early left a widow, and, owing to her wealth and 
beauty, was sought in marriage by many of the noblemen. She refused 
them all, among them a relative of the emperor. This so displeased him, 
that her property was taken from her and placed in the hands of a city offi- 
cial of Constantinople, with orders that he act as her guardian. 

Her calm response reveals her character. ' ' Your goodness toward me 

has been that of an emperor and a bishop, in thus relieving me from the 

heavy burden of my property. Add to that goodness by dividing my 

wealth between the poor and the Church. I have long been seeking a fit 

opportunity to avoid the vanity of making the distribution myself, as well 

as of attaching my heart to perishable goods instead of keeping it fixed on 

tbi? true riches." The emperor, somewhat ashamed of himself, and in 

admiration for the noble minded woman, caused her property to be given 


She was a princess in liberality. The sick, the prisoners, beggars, and 
wile> were as her children. She purchased hundreds of slaves, and set 
them free. She gave not only her means but herself to the work of relief. 
She was a devoted friend of John Chrysostoni, the greatest commentator 
♦inil preacher of the Greek Church. Chrysostom was i)anis]ie(l for having 
roused the anger of the empress Rudoxia by his unsparing sermons. She 
'•^as young and l)eautiful, despised her husband, and inckilged her passions. 
^hr\sostom denounced her as a new Herodias thirsting for the blood of 

Many of Chrysostom' s followers also suffered, among them Olympias. 
^w lost all her pro[>erty, was grossly insulted by the soldiers, dragged 
Wore the courts, and died in sadness and j)o\ crty. 

Chrysostom addressed to her many letters. One of these contains an 
<'Xtended account of his sufferings and faith. 



Martyred A. D. 416. 


rtjTYPATIA stands as one of the most remarkable women of antiquity, 
1 1 and she was famous in an unusual line, that of philosophy. Her 
father, Theon, was at the head of the Platonic school at Alexandria 
and was noted for his philosophic attainments, but his fame and name are 
preserved to us more on his daughter's account than on his own. She was 
his devoted pupil and his very life passed over into hers. She made as- 
tonishing progress in all branches of learning and soon surpassed her father 
and all other philosophers in their special pursuits. 

She succeeded her father as head of the Alexandrine school. Pupils 
came from all parts of the Roman empire and eagerly listened to the beauti- 
ful and learned woman. 

She was considered an oracle of wisdom, and magistrates consulted her 
on many important cases. Men gathered about her in great numbers. 
Probably no woman was ever more praised and petted than she. In the 
midst of it all she maintained a modest reserve. Her mind was too 
thoroughly trained to lose its perfect poise through vanity. 

Orestes was governor of Alexandria and Cyril was bishop. Orestes 
frequently consulted Hypatia as did other leading men and naturally 
admired her. The bishop disliked Orestes and was bitterly intolerant of 
Hypatia' s philosophy. He is credited with having incited the mob to an 
attack on the governor. Feeling became so intense on the part of the 
bishop's followers when it was rumored that Hypatia had prevented a rec- 
onciliation between the two men, that some conspirators, headed by one 
Peter, waylaid the noble woman, dragged Ikt from her carriage into a 
church, stripped her naked, killed her with broken tiles, tore her body in 
pieces and then burned the remains to ashes. Thus was Hypatia a martyr 
to philosophy, suffering at the hands of a mob. Cyril was the intolerant 
and bigoted instigator. When he became bishop, one of his first acts 
was to lead a mob and drive out the Jews from Alexandria, though for 
centuries they had enjoyed many privileges. 



A. D. 400-403. 


0F Pulcheria, Gibbon, the historian, says : * * She alone, among all the 
descendants of the great Theodosius, appears to have inherited any 
share of his manly spirit and abilities." Her father, Arcadius, died 
when she was but nine years of age. Theodosius II. was about one year 
younger. A child in years, she soon showed herself to be a woman in 
wisdom. She became learned beyond the women of her time, could use 
the Latin and Greek tongues with elegance and effectiveness. She dressed 
simply, lived frugally, and, withal, was a devout Christian. 

She and her brother Theodosius were joint rulers, but, owing to her 

superior abilitic*s, she governed both the state and him. She sought to 

give him the best possible instruction, but she could not give him taste or 

capacity. He could hunt, paint, carve, and transcribe manuscripts, but for 

the science of government he cared little. 

She sought a wife for her brother and found one in the person of 
Athenais, daughter of^a heathen sophist of Athens. He had left his for- 
tune to his sons, declaring of his daughter, that " her learning and beauty 
*trtin themselves a sufficient fortune." 

Driven out by her brothers, she came to Constantinople and appealed 
to the empress. Pulcheria was so impressed with her accom|)lishments, 
tliat she decided upon her for a sister-in-law. The beauty of Athenais 
^^'iptivated Theodosius, as her ambition had Pulcheria. She became a 
^^.ristian under Pulcheria's instruction, was married to Tlieodosius in 421, 
^n^i was raised to the rank of Augusta. She was gi\en the new name of 

Her brothers she not only forgave, but raised to the dignity of consuls 
and prefects. 

She paraphrased in verse the first eight books of the Old Testament, 
*^ the prophecies of Daniel and Zechariah. In 428 she made a pilgrim- 
^^ to Jerusalem marked by showy magnificence. In Jerusalem she 
^*came infected with the Eutychian heresy, and through her influence it 



made considerable progress in Syria, but the misfortunes of her daughter 
Licinia led her to obtain a reconciliation with the Church. At Antioch 
she delivered an oration seated on a golden throne. Her return to Con- 
stantinople was a triumph. 

Her influence superseded that of Pulcheria over Theodosius. He paid 
no heed to affairs of state. He did not even read the state documents 
which he signed. His sister, to rouse him from indolence, prepared a 
document, which he signed without reading, in w^hich he sold to her his 
wife. The emperor soon afterward sent for his wife, who was in his sister* s 
apartment. Pulcheria refused to allow her to come, and showed him the 
paper in which he had sold to her his wife, to be a slave. The lesson did 
not please the emperor, and greatly offended his wife. 

Pulcheria was at length banished, and Eudocia sought to rule the 
empire, but disorder followed. Theodosius became jealous of his wife, and 
publicly separated from her. The cause of his jealousy, it is said, was on 
account of his observing a beautiful apple which he had presented to her 
in the hands of Paulinus, his master of the offices. The execution of Pau- 
linus did not appease the anger of the emperor, but Eudocia was stripped 
of her royal honors, and degraded in the eyes of the nation. 

She made a second pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where she died. With 
latest breath she protested that she had never transgressed the bounds of 
innocence and friendship with her supposed favorites. 

Pulcheria was restored to her old place and power. Theodosius died in 
450, and his sister was unanimously proclaimed Empress of the East. 

After the death of her brother, she married Marcianus, not from choice, 
but for the good of the empire, and raised him to the rank of Augustus. 
Pulcheria still held the reins of government, although Marcianus was the 
nominal emperor. 

She is said to have been ' ' the first woman to whose publicly recognized 
sway the Romans submitted." Gibbon, the historian, says of her : *' The 
piety of a Christian virgin was adorned by the zeal and liberality of an 
empress." With all the cares of the empire, she was a mother to the poor 
and suffering, and at her death she left her possessions to be used for them. 



A. D. 423-fiOl. 

■■iitt <» &$< 

1^ ENEVlfeVE has the honorable distinction of having saved the city of 
^--A Paris. She was born at Nanterre, near Paris, or, according to 
another tradition, at Montriere. 

The Huns were one of the strange and savage hordes which came 
from central Asia, unforeseen and unaccountable as a flight of locusts. 
Terror was before them, and devastation behind them. They were of the 
Tartar race, small, dark-hued, and hideous. They rode small, nimble 
horses — in fact, they seemed to live on horseback. 

At the time of Genevieve, Attila was their leader. For some years they 
had been kept beyond the Danube, but at length they came down upon the 
Western world like a deluge of death. Attila was the most ferocious of 
slayers and plunderers. His track was marked everywhere by fire and 
UockI. He made no pretension to building anything. He had no desire 
10 set up a government of his owi^. He announced himself as the * ' Exter- 
minator of Nations. ' ' He fought for the mere lust of plunder. 

When it was known that Attila and his murderous horde were approach- 
ing Paris, the people were panic-stricken, and as by a common impulse were 
<ib«jut to tlee from the city. But there was one, and that one a woman, who 
Had no fear. She plead with the people as well as witli God. Her faith 
^'<1 courage calmed them. They stood by their city, and it was saved. 

Her reputation for sanctity was so great, that people of other lands 
■n<|uir('d concerning her of every one who came from Gaul. 

Her death occurred in 501, or according to another account in 512. 
^<>vb. 465-511, erected the church of St. Genevieve in her memory. 
T^e famous Pantheon of Paris now contains her tomb. 

It Ls related of her, that when, in her earlier years, Childeric, King of the 
Franks, lx*sieged Paris, she went boldly out at the head of a brave little 
^(i. to procure provisions, and brought back boats laden with corn for 
thestar\ing citizens. Childeric, though a foe and a heathen, respected the 
\Mfus and patriotic maiden. 



d. A. D. 400. 


^ HIS woman was not noted for her wealth or learning, but she was 
\j^ wondrously rich in good deeds. She lived in a city of Iuxur>' and 
T magnificence, which had also the terrible contrasts of want and 
squalor. The rich who had money to spend for the people provided licen- 
tious amusements, with occasional ostentatious distributions of grain. 

Fabiola gave herself untiringly to ministration among the suffering 
She dressed wounds and sores which others would not or could not touch. 
No ser\ ice was too lowly. She had caught the spirit and walked in the 
steps of her Lord. 

It should be related also of her that her first husband was a heathen, 
and a licentious man. From him she was divorced and married another. 
After the death of her second husband, she was told that her second mar- 
riage, though legal, was contrary to the teachings of Christ. For this, she 
showed the deepest penitence, and it may have been this in part which led 
her to forsake the world and devote her remaining years to works of charity 
and philanthropy. 

Toward the close of her life she gathered together what little remained 
of her property, and, uniting it with that of the son-in-law of her friend 
Paula, they erected a hos[)ital. In this she died in the year 400. 

Jerome, in celebrating her virtues, declared that ** she was the praise of 
the Christians, the wonder of the Gentiles, the mourning of the poor, and 
the consolation of the monks." 

As soon as the early Christians were free to practice their religion 
openly, they began to build charitable institutions, asylums for infants and 
for orphans, hospitals for the sick, and retreats for strangers, especially 

The hosj)itals of the early Church were divided according to sex. The 
male portion was placed under the charge of a deacon, and the women 
under the charge of deaconesses. Deacon and deaconesses went out and 
§ought for the sick of all classes, and brought them to the hospitals. 





ReproducBd from the painting of the Russiac 
artiet, Hendrik Siamiradzki, "whnsB " Nbtd's 
Torches," " Nubian FnrtunB TellBr/' and" Sward 
DancB" mads him famnus. SiBmiradzki was a 
pupil nf thB St. PstBrsburg AcadBm/ and also of 
Piloty in Munich. Kr has raceivBd medals 
from thB ViBnna, HBrliUi and Pans Salans. 







T the beginnin)^ of what we call the Christian era, the Roman empire 

was the world, and Auj^ustus Ciesar was the political master of that 

world. He was not anxious to make a display of monarchical 

power, but kept up the forms of the old republican govern- 

ment. There was the senate, but it simply voted as Auj^us- 

tus wished, and magistrates were appointed as he directed. 

He had the substance, if not the show, of supreme power. 

This world of Augustus's was bounded on the north by the British Chan- 
nel, the North Sea, the Rhine, the Danube, and the Black .Sea : on the 
east by the Euphrates and the Desert of .Syria; on the south by the Desert 
of Sahara, and on the west by the .Atlantic Ocean. The empire was nearly 
three thousand niik*s in extent from east to west, and one thousand miles 
from north to south. 

The divisions c»f the empire were Italy, and tweiity-se\en pro\ inces, 
Riled by the appointees of the emperor or the senate. 

Two languages prevailed. Local dialects remained, but theCireek lan- 
guage was the language of conmierce and of |)olite intercourse in all j)laces. 
The Greek language and (ireek culture were the pr«»|)ert\ of all. West of 
the Adriatic the Latin was more generally spoken than the (ireek. It was 
the language of the courts and the cam|)s. for the laws were in Latin, and 
military' officers were quite generall\ fn»m It.iiy. 

There was a standing army of ^^40. (hm). which .\ugustus conmianded 
absolutely. Decisions of peace and war nsted uitii tin t niperor, or im- 
jxrrator, as he was called. 

'* r)f people there were probably ai>out kh ..«m k .,«)<h> in tin \ast empire 
ruled by Augustus, and not less than 50.(xx\«hw3 of these were in a condi- 
tion of slavery. Of the (»ther half, but a small j>orti(»n enjoytii tiie rights 
of ' citizens.' " 



Rome was the capital of this empire, a city of 2,500,000 population, 
inclosed by twenty miles of massive walls. Augustus boasted that he found 
the city brick and left it marble. 

He and his successors erected theaters, public baths, and provided costly 
amusements, and caused the people to forget that they had lost their polit- 
ical liberty. 

But the Augustan period was the golden age of Roman literature. Lit- 
erary men were patronized by the rich, who collected large libraries, and 
literary works were the topic of conversation in society. Philosophers, 
poets, historians, and law writers found ready sale for their works. Scribes 
who multiplied copies of the works were found in great numbers. Travel 
from part to part of the empire was facilitated by the splendid Roman 
roads, many of which endure to the present time. The age of Augustus 
was a time of peace, though of course an " armed peace.** 

From the time of Augustus, the history of Rome is not that of the peo- 
ple, but of the emperors. Of the sixty-two from Caesar to Constantine, 
forty-two were murdered, three committed suicide, two abdicated or were 
forced to abdicate, one was killed in rebellion, one was drowned, one died 
in war, one died, it is not known how, and not more than eleven died a 
natural death. 

It will be of interest to sketch briefly a few of the men succeeding Au- 
gustus. None of the early emperors was followed by his own son, but, ac- 
cording to the Roman law of adoption, they all counted as 
Hmperors Caesars. Nero was the last one to be connected with Augus- 
tus, even by adoption, though the emperors continued to call 
themselves Ccesar and Augustus, throughout the existence of the empire. 

Augustus was succeeded by his adopted step-son Tiberius, who for a 
time ruled with comparative mildness. But he was naturally jealous and 
cruel and these traits soon broke out into action. He had a bodyguard of 
10,000 men which he could use in any way he chose. He usurped the 
right to put to death without trial. Kvery attempt against him was made 
high treason. A word could be construed to mean hostility, and was pun- 
ished by the confiscation of property and death. 

Tiberius became one of the most gloomy and vicious tyrants. He at 



length placed the government in the hands of Sejanus, commander of his 
bodyguard, and retired to Capreae, where he gave himself up to the most 
cruel and disgusting debaucheries. 

Sejanus killed several members of the royal household at Rome and was 
found to be plotting for the throne. Tiberius was more than ever filled 
with terror and suspicion. A massacre followed in which hundreds of men, 
women, and children perished. But the world at last breathed freer when 
the profligate monster was slain by a member of his own household. 

Caligula followed. Mild and generous at first, he soon became a verita- 
We demon of cruelty and vice. He was especially fond of witnessing the 
tortures of human beings. He was wildly extravagant and quickly drained 
the public treasury. His conduct even exasperated his soldiers and after 
reigning but four years he was killed by two of his own bodyguard. 

Qaudius, the next emperor, was uncle to Caligula. He was of a retir- 
ing and studious disposition, but was most unfortunate in his marriage 
relations. Other emperors had robbed noblemen of their 
ciAstftvs wives, but Claudius's wife Messalina added a new feature to 
the sins of her time. She caused Caius Silius to repudiate 
hb own beautiful and virtuous wife and compelled the emperor to sign a 
Cfjntract sanctioning her own union with the "divorced" man. She pro- 
ceixled to a beautiful villa with her guilty lover, where, with a courtly train 
of youths and maidens, was enacted the mythological drama of the union 
of Bacchus and Ariadne, with all its licentiousness. This was too much for 
e\en the degenerate morals of Rome and both Silius and Messalina were 
>lain by the soldiers. The death of Messalina was announced to the 
emperor while at dinner, but he did not allow it to interrupt his gluttonous 
and drunken repast. 

The next matrimonial venture of Claudius was the union with his niece 
Ajjrippina. She too was unfaithful to him and laid plans to secure the 
throne for Nero, her son by a former marriage. (Her character and career 
^^^ sketched elsewhere in this book. ) She took care to secure for herself 
tHt: support of the army by courting po|)ularity with the soldiers. In mili- 
ary spectack»s she took a conspicuous part seated by the emperor's side 
^d she caused her face to be associated with his on the coinage. When 



Agrippina thought he had lived long enough she caused him to be poi- 
soned with mushrooms, a favorite delicacy of his table. It may have been 
an overdose. He vomited and the drug failed to do its work. Agrippina 
hastily secured the services of a physician who thrust a poisoned feather 
down his throat under pretense of assisting him. So died Claudius. 

In Latin literature there is a burlesque on Claudius by Seneca, which is 
counted the wittiest production of ancient times. It opens with the sup- 
posed arrival of Claudius in the other world to claim the family honors of 
being enrolled * * in the quiet order of the gods. * ' He is ushered into the 
presence of the assembled deities, and announced to Jupiter as a quidam^ a 
creature of extraordinary and bloated size, with white hair and shaking 
head, dragging his right foot after him, and muttering only confused and 
incolierent sounds. When asked whence he came he answers he does not 
know, in sounds so inarticulate as not to be recognized as Latin, Greek, or 
any other known tongue. Jupiter, completely puzzled, calls Hercules, who 
is a great traveler and is supposed to know the dialects of all nations. But 
he, looking upon the creature, declares it a monster, a product of the sea. 
The disgusting ghost is at length recognized as the emperor Claudius. 

Jupiter addresses the "Conscript Father of Olympus" on the advis- 
ability of admitting this new arrival to divine honors. He jestingly de- 
clares him as worthy of the honor as many of his predecessors, and he is, 
at least, of the blood of Augustus. This brings Augustus to his feet, who 
delivers a protest, which is at the same time a character sketch of Claudius. 
"Conscript Father," he exclaimed, "was it for this that I put an end to 
civil bloodshed, and gave peace to the world ? Was it for this that I recon- 
stituted Rome by my laws and ornamented it with my works ? I want 
words to express my indignation. Here is a wretch without the courage to 
drive away a fly, who has yet dared to slay men as lightly as he would fling 
the dice. This creature, who so long has thriven beneath the luster of my 
name, how has he shown his gratitude ? By murdering the two Julias, my 
nieces, one by the sword, the other by starvation, and by killing my grand- 
son, Silanus. Oh, Jupiter, take good care, lest by making this wretch a 
god, you adopt his crimes as your own. Look at him, a wretched creature 
made in spite ! If he can speak only three plain words consecutively, Fm 



content to be his slave, and yet he forsooth must be a god. Who do you 
think will worship him ? Who will believe him ? Or who do you suppose 
will hereafter acknowledge your own divinities, if such are to be the 
specimens of your manufacture?'* 

After Claudius came the rule of Nero, whose very name causes us to 
shudder. But, strange as it may seem, the first five years of his reign were 
characterized by mild and humane deportment. When the 
warrant for the execution of a criminal was brought him to 
sign, he expressed regret that he had ever learned to write. This tender- 
heartedness did not long continue. First, he poisoned Britannicus, son of 
Claudius, and therefore his step-brother. Next he became enamored of 
Poppaea, a woman of fierce ambition and as devoid of moral character as his 
own mother. He repudiated his wife Octavia in order to secure Poppaea. 
He «ras further obliged to send her husband Otho to preside over a distant 
province to get him out of the way. 

Octavia was put to death on false charges. Poppaea did not continue 
to hold the affection of Nero, though she sought to preserve her beauty 
b\ a daily bath in asses' milk. After a time he treated her brutally and she 
tlied from the effects of a kick received from him. 

He put to death the two men to whom he was most indebted for his 
power, Seneca and Burrus. 

.\lonj; with his monstrous cruelty he was a man of contemptible vanity. 
He put himself forward as a musician and nothing so much pleased him as 
thi* applause of the people. He wrote poems and recited them, and was 
bt^ide himself with rage when he found himself surpassed by others. He 
delighted to Ik? known as a charioteer and constructed a circus on his 
^Tf.unds where he could show to the assembled people his skill as a driver. 
Hf at length l)ecame so insanely greedy f(^r public applause, that he ap- 
pwe<i r»n the stage. 

His infamous distinction is that of a persecutor oi the Christians. A 
JjTeat fire which consumed a large part of Rome was said to have been 
*ft by the emperor's own hand out of mere wantonness. While the city 
»a> burning, he s;it calmly enjoying the spectacle, while he sang verses to 
the music of his lyre. 



The suspicion that he was the incendiary became so uncomfortable that, 
to divert the public mind, he charged the crime upon the Christians and 
caused great numbers to be put to death. In the words of Tacitus, the 
Latin historian, "Some were nailed to crosses, others were sewed up in 
the skins of wild beasts and exposed to the fury of dogs ; others, again, 
smeared over with combustible materials, were used as torches to illuminate 
the darkness of the night. The gardens of Nero were destined for the 
melancholy spectacle, which was accompanied with a horse race and 
honored with the presence of the emperor, who mingled with the populace 
in the dress and attitude of a charioteer. ' ' 

Christian women were mixed up with these horrible sports and name- 
less indignities were inflicted on them as a part of the festivities. The 
heart sickens and the brain reels at the thought of these inhuman atrocities. 

Nero rebuilt the city, laying out broad streets and erecting handsome 
buildings of stone in place of wooden or brick structures, but the magnifi- 
cence of the city could not atone for the emperor's atrocities. 

We have then glanced at the Roman world as it was politically, at the 
beginning of the period with which this book is occupied. 

Not all the emperors were bad and bloodthirsty. Some were notably 
good and their reigns were peaceful and prosperous. 

We now enumerate a few of the important changes in the empire and 
point out some of the causes which led to its ruin. 

We have seen that in the days of Augustus, few, outside Italy, pos- 
sessed citizenship. But a nation of Romans was gradually formed in the 
provinces by introducing colonies and by the expedient of 
Causes of ^(^i,yji^^ing the most deserving of the provincials to the rights 
of Roman citizenship. 

In the reign of Caracalla, 21 1-2 17, the old distinction between Romans 
and provincials was abolished and citizenship was given to all free men of 
the empire. The city of Rome gradually lost a measure of its prestige 
when it ceased to have a monopoly of citizenship. 

Another cause which led to the loss of her proud position, was the fact 
that in later times many of the emperors found it better to live near the 
frontier, where they could keep watch of outside foes. 



In the reigii of Diocletian (283-305), another important step was taken. 
He found the empire too j^reat for one man to gc)vern successfully, and so 
elevated one of his ji^enerals, Maxim ian, to equal rank with himself and 
^ave to him the dominion over the western part of the empire, while he 
retained the eastern portion. In addition t<» this, each look a sub- ruler, 
who was de>iji^ned as his successor. Constantine was one of these sub- 
rulers and he f)roved stronj^ enou^^^h to q^overn th<- whole empire. He was 
not only sole ruler, but he made an important ( hanj^e. entirely abandoning 
Rome as a caf)ital and establishinj^ the seat of j^jovernment at the old (ireek 
city of Byzantium on the Hosphorus. He called the city New Rome, but 
the name Constantinople (the city of Constantine) soon attached to it and 
continues to this day. 

Theodosius ( 392-395 » was the last emperor to hold toj^ether the old 
Roman dominion. At his death the empire was divided between his sons. 
F-'rom this time the F^ist is entirely lost to Rome, there are two distinct 
empires instead of one. 

The Western empire continued to exist for about eij^hty years. It is 
the last act of a j^reat <lrama — we may say, trajL^edy. 

The West was already in a state of decay, and fell a prey to the new and 

vijiorous Teutonic or (ierman trilns which livt-d in the forests of the north. 

Some twenty years before the division of the empire, the 
-^_..,^^. (foths, who lived across the I>anul)<\ found themsehes hard 

pressed ^y the fierce Hun>. who had swarmed in from Asia, 

and they asked permi.ssion to cross the ri\er and sittle on Roman territorv. 

They were told that this would br v^ranted on conilition that they jL^axe up 

their arms and their children. .So ^reat was ihtir tear of tlu- in\aders that 

they readily consented to the conditit»ns, and <'n>s>fd the river in boats pro- 

\i<Ie<l by the Romans. There were >aid to ha\<- been a million of them. 

They iifjreetl to j^uard the frontier for Rome and to this nui they must 

have wea|K)ns. These were j^jiven them, but wen* ^onn used .iv^ainsl the 

Romans. They receiveil a check under Theodosius theCireat. and many 

of them entere<i the Roman army. But this .1 downwanl stip. as the 

ve^ult proved. 

When Theodosius died, and the empire was divided between his two 



sons, the Western Goths or Visigoths revolted, elected their chief as king, 
and swept down upon Italy. They captured and sacked Rome in 410. 
This, however, is not counted the fall of Rome. Pieces of the empire began 
to break off. Britain was lost to them. Roman troops were withdrawn, 
and Germanic tribes (Angles and Saxons) came in. These tribes pushed 
down into Gaul and Spain, and even across into the Roman possessions in 
Africa. One of these tribes was the Vandals, whose deeds of destruction 
have given to the world the word vandalism. 

These Vandals crossed over from Africa, captured Rome, and for many 
days plundered and wrecked the stately buildings and art treasures of the 
once imperial city (455). The poor fragment of the empire continued 
under feeble rulers for another score of years, when the city was again cap- 
tured, and Odoacer, a chief of the German^, became ruler. Then, ** when 
Odoacer was proclaimed King of Italy, the phantom assembly that still 
called itself the Roman Senate sent back to Constantinople the tiara and 
purple robe, in sign that the Western Empire had passed away." 

During all the time when the Roman Empire was declining from a terri- 
tory one thousand miles by three thousand miles, to the little province of 
Italy ; and from the glory of the golden age of Augustus to the barbaric 
brass of Teutonic rule, there was another power steadily rising, which was 
designed by its Founder to be world wide in its sweep, yet not of this world. 
And that Founder, and that empire, emancipated woman. We refer to 
Jesus Christ and His religion. 

Having sketched the political history of the Roman Empire as the neces- 
sary background and foundation, we proceed to consider the moral, social, 
and religious conditions of the empire and their relations to woman. 

During the days of the empire, marriage came to be looked upon as a 

mere civil contract, entered into for the happiness of the contracting parties. 

Either party might dissolve it at will, and the dissolution gave 
Conditions ^^^^ parties a right to remarry. This system treated the 

obligations of marriage with levity, and almost contempt. 
Cicero repudiated his wife Terentia, because he wanted a new dowry. 
Terentia had brought him a considerable fortune, but this having been ex- 
pended, the easiest way to get more seemed to be to marry a new wife. 



Maecenas, the great statesman and patron of literature, was continually 
changing his wives. 

Sempronius Sophus repudiated his wife because she had once been to 
the public games without his knowledge. 

Paulus Emilius put away his wife without giving any reason, simply 
saying, * * My shoes are new and well made, but no one knows where they 
pinch me.'' 

Roman women were as much lost to shame as the men. Seneca the 
philosopher said there were women who reckoned their years by their hus- 
bands and not by the consuls. Martial speaks of a woman who had come 
to her tenth husband. Juvenal tells of a woman who had eight husbands 
in five years. St. Jerome declared that there was a woman in Rome who 
was married to her twenty-third husband, she herself being his twenty-first 
wife. Augustus compelled the husband of Livia to repudiate her, that he 
might marr>' her himself. Cato gave his wife, with the consent of her 
father, to his friend Hortensius, and remarried her after his death. 

There were faithful wives and lifelong marriages . and pure love and 
happy households, but these examples show the base depths to which public 
opinion and moral conditions had fallen. 

As a somewhat natural result of loose and frequent marriages, or no 

marriages at all, infanticide was fearfully prevalent. There are illustrations 

in Latin literature of the prevalence of killing or exposing: 
laOuitlcltfe * SIS 

newborn babes. In one of Terence's plays he represents a 

tather, upon going away, charging the mother to destroy the babe if it 
prove to be a girl. The mother in the pity of her heart gives it to an old 
*'oman to be exposed, in the hope that some one might take it. Upon the 
iaiher's return he upbraids the wife for being not only disobedient, but un- 
rosonahle, for she has consigned her dauj^hter to a life of shame. 

The fact is, many of the exposed children died, but at length they be- 
c^nie so numerous that they were systematically gathered up and sold by 
'speculators to be educated as slaves or prostitutes. Some were maimed 
^nd trained as professional beggars whose gains went to the purses of their 
>'ile owners. 

We shrink from looking deeper into the awhil pit of Roman iniquity. 



We cannot wonder that Rome fell. The marvel is that the rotten structure 
stood so long. 

Strange as it may seem, the morals of the barbarians who conquered 
Rome were vastly superior to those of the Romans. The Teutonic senti- 
ment in woman's favor is seen in very stern legislation against attempts on 
her chastity. 

A law of the Spanish Visigoths prohibited a surgeon from bleeding any 
free woman except in the presence of her husband or some near relative or 
other properly appointed person. 

A Salic law imposed a fine of fifteen pieces of gold upon anyone who 
improperly pressed a woman's hand. 

Slavery was a prolific source of Rome's degradation. As we have seen 
elsewhere, about fifty million of Rome's population were in bondage. 
Wealthy men counted their slaves by hundreds or even thousands. Many 
of these were Greeks and highly educated, though they brought Greek 
vices with them. There were slaves for every department of work in the 
houses of wealthy Romans. Each was a specialist, whether cook, waiter, 
or scribe. Horace, the Roman poet, boasts of the simplicity of his bachelor 
life, that he was waited on at table by only three slaves. 

The theatrical performances with which the Romans amused themselves 
were degrading beyond description. Scenes were introduced from the 
licentious stories of Greek mythology. The pantomime finally came to be 
the favorite and almost exclusive stage amusement. It was gross and often 

In addition to the corruption of the people of leisure, all were brutalized 

by the gladiatorial games Augustus instituted, games in which ten thousand 

joined in deadly conflict. He also gave an exhibition on a 

Games ^*^^^ "^ ^^^^ gardens of a sea-fight in which 3,000 soldiers were 
engaged. These scenes of blood and cruelty could but have 
the effect of hardening the hearts of all and causing them to think lightly of 
taking human life. 

With stately palaces and works of art, splendid bridges and aqueducts, 
and highways and vast wealth — with all her splendor of civilization, Rome 
was unspeakably corrupt and growing rapidly worse. In such an atmos- 



pKere, womanhood and virtue were lighdy esteemed and even held in 

Christianity was, in fact, greatly helped by the barbarians in elevating 
t\\e morals of the empire. It should be stated, however, that multitudes of 
ihem had become Christians, through the missionary work of the early 
church, before they crossed the borders and invaded the empire. 

In order to witness the effects of Christianity in the elevation of woman, 
we turn to the time of Constantine and his successors. For more than 
three centuries, Christianity had been at work, though under ridicule, 
opposition, and persecution. At least ten great persecutioifc are enumer- 
ated by historians ; and women were among the bravest of the martyrs. 

The changes wrought in the reign of Constantine, especially in legisla- 
tion, seem sudden, but they were simply the fruit which had been ripening 

since the days of Christ and the apostles. 
ijtg%^gm»!^wk ^" ^^^ women were granted the same rights as men, to 

the control of their property, except in regard to the sale of 
Unded estates. 

Out of regard for their modesty they were exempt from summons to 
appear before a public tribunal. 

In 390 Theodosius I. allowed mothers for the first time a certain right 
'•i j^iardianship over their children. In 439 Theodosius II. sought to 
>tamp out the vile trade of Lcnones^ who lived by prostituting women. 
Criminal assault of a woman was made punishable by death. .Says Gibbon, 
"The dignity of marriage was restored by the Christians." There had been 
^"oundless liberty of divorce since the time of Augustus, and this, as we 
have seen, vastly hastened the decay of public morals. The Christians and 
the church had recognized and followed the teaching of Christ, that there 
could be divorce on one ground only, namely, adultery. 

The Christian emperors sought to legislate for the restriction of divorce 
•*nd the protection of the dignity and sanctity of marriage. The pagan 
P"pulation protested with utmost vigor against the Christian standards and 
the legislation was but partially successful. From the time of Constantine, 
^ncubinage was prohibited and adultery was punished as one of the gross- 
^t crimes. 



Under the old Roman law, fathers held the power of life and death over 
their children. They could be sold as slaves or killed by him, and in this, 
of course, the mother had no voice. The wife in a general way occupied 
the rank of sister to her own children and was thus absolutely subject to 
her husband. 

Under Alexander Severus, restriction had been placed upon the power 
of fathers over their children, and Constantine carried the work still farther. 
At last the Romans were educated or legislated up to recognize that the 
killing of a child, even though but an infant, was murder. 

Christianity taught that all Christians were brothers and sisters. This 

had its effect upon the vast institution of slavery. Slaves were accounted 

as having a spiritual equality with their masters, and were 

Kqaaiity treated as capable of the same virtues, blessings, and rewards. 
So, while there was no social revolution, in this line, the 
attitude of the Christians put human bondage in the way of being greatly 
ameliorated, and steps were taken towards its final extinction. 

Women learned that they were human beings and not mere creatures ; 
that they had souls capable of eternal happiness ; that they were entitled to 
be associated with man in the service of God and humanity, and that, more- 
over, they had a right to expect that the other sex would protect and assist 
them, rather than betray and debase them to the level of the brute creation. 

Women became the most devoted workers in charitable and philan- 
thropic lines, and, when persecutions raged, went to the stake or the arena 
as victors, absolutely refusing to deny Christ. They recognized (if some do 
not now) that Christ had taken woman by the hand and raised her up to 
be the friend and fellow-worker of man. Women were among his follow- 
ers ; he was their Champion, and became their Saviour. 

The early Christian Church held steadfastly to the standard Christ had 
given in relation to woman. Rome had trampled womanly virtue under 
foot, and Rome perished. Christianity honored woman. Godly wives and 
mothers influenced husbands and sons, and lived for the good of the race 
and the glory of Him who had emancipated them, and thus Christianity 
rose upon the ruins of Rome. 







500 TO 1100 A. D. 






Reproduced from an etching after the original paintinir.. 


A. I>. 534-613. 


BRUNEHAUT, or Bninehild, was the daughter of AthanagiIHe, king 
of the Visigoths of Spain, and married, in A. 1). 565, Sigebert, 
king of the Franks of Aiistrasia. Although contrary to the cus- 
tom, Sigebert had resolved to have but one wife, and to choose her from a 
royal family ; his choice fell on Brunehaut, who fully justified his prefer- 
ence. She was beautiful, of regal bearing, modest and dignified in her 
conduct, and conversed not only agreeably, but with a great deal of wis- 
dom* Her husband soon became very much attached to her. 

Chilperic, king of Neustria, brother of Sigebert, ha\ ing married Gal- 
suinda, daughter of Athanagilde, abandoned and murdered her at the 
instigation of his mistress, Fredegonda, whom he had made queen. 
Brunehaut, to avenge her sister's death, persuaded Sigebert to make war 
upon hb brother. The invasion was successful, but, while besieging Tour- 
^y^ Sigebert was assassinated in 575 by emissaries of Fredegonda. 

As soon as Brunehaut heard of this tragedy, she hastened to save her 
little son Childebert« heir to the kingdom of Aiistrasia. She hid him in a 
\)asket, which was let down from a window of the ])ala(H- she orcujiied in 
Piiris« and confided him to a servant of the .\ustrasian duke (londebald, 
*lu) carried him on horseback to Metz, where he was ])roelaime(l king on 
Christmas day, 575. When Chilperic and I'redegonda arrived at Paris, 
the)- found only Brunehaut, with her two <laught< is and the royal treasure. 
Her property was Uiken from her. her danghtei^ were exiled to Meaux. 
^d she was sent to Rouen. 

During the few days that Brunehaut had reinainetl in Paris, >he had in- 
spired Meroveus, Chilperic's second son, with a \inK'nt j)<ui, so thai 
^^T^ after she reached Rouen, he aban<lonrd tin- tmojjs his fatlur had 
placed under his charge, and hastenetl l«> i«»in her Tlie) wrre married by 
'he Bishop of Rouen, although it was (ontrary to the eaimn^ r.f the church 
•"unite a nephew and aunt. Chilperic. t^lri^»n•^ at thi^ ^u\k came with 
CTcat haste to separate them ; but they l^nk refuse in a little church, ami 



the king, not daring to violate this asylum, was at last obliged to promise 
with an oath, that he would leave them together. 

Reassured by this solemn promise, Meroveus and Brunehaut left their 
asylum and gave themselves up to .Chilperic. At first he treated them 
kindly, but in a few days returned to Soissons, taking his son with him as a 
prisoner, and leaving Brunehaut under a strong guard at Rouen. Mero- 
veus, after having dragged out a miserable existence as a prisoner for thir- 
teen months and having in vain attempted to escape to join Brunehaut, was 
killed by one of his servants ; some say by his own request and others by 
order of Fredegonda. 

Meanwhile, Childebert had demanded and obtained from the king of 
Normandy his mother's release, and Brunehaut had returned to her son's 
court, where she commenced that struggle, which afterward proved fatal to 
her, against the nobles of Austrasia. At one time, her own party and that 
of the nobles were drawn up in battle array against each other, when she, 
seeing that the combat would be a bloody one, and that her own side was 
the weaker, boldly rushed between them and demanded that they desist. 
*' Woman, retire," exclaimed one of the dukes ; *'you have reigned long 
enough under the name of your husband ; let that suffice you. Your son 
is now our king ; Austrasia is under our guardianship, not yours. Retire, 
directly, or our horses' feet shall trample you to the earth." 

But the intrepid Brunehaut, unmoved by this savage address, persisted, 
and at last succeeded in preventing the combat. Although obliged to yield 
to her turbulent subjects for a short time, Brunehaut soon regained her 
authority, which she used with great cruelty. In her anger she spared no 
one, but put to death or exiled all persons of rank who fell in her power. 

She also raised an army which she sent against Clotaire, the young 
son of Fredegonda ; but she was defeated, and Fredegonda took advantage 
of the intestine commotion in Austrasia to regain all that her husband had 

After the death of Childebert in 596, the nobles prevented her from rul- 
ing in the name of her grandson, Theodebert II. ; but another of her grand- 
sons, Thierry II. of Burgundy, made her mistress of his affairs. She 
quickly kindled a war between the two brothers. Theodebert was van- 



A. D. 408-53A. 

^ ♦ » 4- 

/|f MALASONTHA, daughter of Theoderic the Great, king of the 
^1 Ostrogoths, was born in 498, and died in 535. She was the 
mother of Athalaric by Eutharic. She inherited her father's pos- 
sessions, as guardian of her son ; but by endeavoring to educate him in the 
manners and learning of the more polished Romans, she offended her 
nobles, who conspired against her, and obtained the government of the 
young prince. Athalaric was inured by them to debauchery, and he sunk 
under his excesses at the early age of seventeen, in the year 534. The 
afflicted mother knew not how to support herself against her rebellious sub- 
jects but by taking as her husband and partner on the throne her cousin 
Theodatus, who, to his everlasting infamy, caused her to be strangled in a 

»»A. 535. 

For learning or humanity, she had few equals in her time. She received 
and conversed with ambassadors from various nations without the aid of an 

The emperor of Constantinople sent an army against her murderer, 
under the celebrated general Belisarius, who defeated and dethroned him. 

Brunelittut continued, 

quished at Toul and at Tolbiac, and slain with his family in 612. Thierry 
suddenly died soon after, and Brunehaut seemed about to ascend the throne 
•^Rain, when she was opposed by Clotairc II., son of PVedcgonda, at the 
^€ad of an army of Burgundians and Aiistrasians. She encountered the 
^nemy on the banks of the Aisne, but her troops refused to tij^lit, and 
^ninehaut fell into the hands of the son of Kredegonda, who reproached 
"^rwith having caused the death of ten kings or sons of kint^s, exposed her 
''>r three days to torture and to the insults of tlie soldiers, and then hound 
^er by a foot and an arm to the tail of a wild horse. Her remains were 
thtn burned, and the ashes scattered to the winds. 

Brunehaut has been diversely judged by historians, being by some 
accused of monstrous crimes, and extravagantly praised by others. 



A. D. Sixth Century. 



RADEGONDE, or Radegunda, daughter of Berthar, a prince of Thu- 
ringia, flourished in the early part of the sixth century. Having 
been carried as a prisoner to France in the twelfth year of her age 
by Clotaire V. , at that time king of the district whose capital is now called 
Soissons, she was educated in the Christian religion, and when she reached 
a maturer age was induced, very reluctantly, to become his wife. Her own 
wish having been to become a nun, her married life was in great measure 
given up to works of charity and religion, and Clotaire complained that 
he " had married a nun rather than a queen." 

Radegonde spent six years in this way, during all which time Clotaire 
obstinately refused to let her go into a convent. A brother of the young 
queen had been taken prisoner at the same time and as he grew up he 
showed so much of the pride and temper of his race that Clotaire had 
him put to death. This was too much for Radegonde to endure, and 
Clotaire, not wishing to be annoyed by her grief, allowed her to go to 
Medard, bishop of Noyon, whose reputation for sanctity had extended 
throughout all France, for consolation. When she arrived at Noyon she 
found Medard in his cathedral, and immediately exclaimed : " Priest of 
God ! I wish to leave the world, and consecrate myself to the Lord." At 
these words the guard who accompanied her crowded around her, and 
protested against such an act. While Medard hesitated as to what course 
he should take, Radegonde fled to the sacristy, threw the dress of a nun 
over her royal apparel, and returning said to Medard, ** If you refuse to 
receive me, if you fear man more than God, you will have to answer for it 
before the Shepherd of the flock." 

These words put an end to the uncertainty of the bishop. He annulled, 
on his own authority, the forced marriage of the queen, consecrated her to 
God, and sent away the soldiers, who could offer no further opposition. 

Radegonde went to Tours for greater safety, and when Clotaire, still 
ardently attached to her, sent to reclaim her, she fled to Poitiers. Here 



A. 1>. Sixth Century. 


yj HIS noted woman was the daughter of Cherebert, king of Paris. She 
V ^ married Ethelbert, king of Kent, who succeeded to the throne 
*^ about the year 560. Ethelbert was a pagan in religion, but Bertha 
was a Christian, and in the marriage treaty she stipulated for the free exer- 
cise of her religion, and took with her a French bishop. By her influence 
Giristianity was introduced into England ; for so exemplary were her life 
and conduct that she inspired the king and his court with a high respect for 
her personally and likewise for the religion by which she was influenced. 
The pope, taking advantage of this, sent forty monks, among whom was St. 
Aug;ustine, to preach the gospel and further the work of Christianization. 
Under the protection of the queen they soon found means of communication 
«^ith the king, who finally submitted to public baptism. 

Christianity proved the means of promoting knowledge and civilization 
w England, and this convert king enacted a body of laws which was the 
fot written code promulgated by the northern conquerors. Thus largely 
to the influence of the pious queen Bertha was due the impulse of redeem- 
»ng England from paganism ; and moreover to her belongs the glory of 
planting the first Christian church in Canterbury. She was later canonized 
hy the church. 

Kadegond© coatiaued. 

tHe energetic remonstrance of Germain, bishop of Paris, obliged him to 
leave her, and he allowed her to found a convent there, which she did about 
550. where she passed the rest of her life. She was at first abbess of this 
convent, but after it was firmly established she gave up her authority to a 
younjjer woman, whom she called Agnes, and lived for the remainder of 
"^ life as a simple nun. Her convent held a high reputation in that age 
lorthe devotif)n of its members to religion, and also for their cultivation of 
literature and the arts. 

Radegonde died at Poitiers, August 13, 587. She was afterwards can- 



A. D. Sixth Century. 


GHRODIELDE was a nun, inmate of the convent founded by Rade- 
gonde at Poitiers, who caused the temporary dispersion of this 
powerful community. Soon after Radegonde's death, in 587, 
Chrodielde, who pretended that she was the daughter of the late king 
Cheribert, induced many of the nuns to take an oath that as soon as she 
succeeded in forcing the abbess Leubov^re to leave the convent, by 
accusing her of several crimes, they would place her at their head. She 
then, with more than forty nuns, among whom was Baslne, daughter of 
Chilperic, went to Tours, where she wished to place her companions under 
the care of Gregory, bishop of Tours, while she went to lay her complaint 
before Gontran, king of Burgundy. 

Gregory advised her to return, but in vain ; and Chrodielde went to 
make her petition to the king, who promised to examine into the cause of 
her dissatisfaction. 

Chrodielde would not return to the cloister, but went, with her compan- 
ions, into the cathedral of St. Hilary, while the bishops, whom the king 
had sent, were investigating the affair. Here she collected around her for 
her defense, thieves, murderers, and criminals of all kinds, who drove away 
with violence the bishops who came to disperse them. 

Childebert, king of France, sent orders that these disturbances should 
be repressed by force if necessary ; but Chrodielde, at the head of her 
banditti, made such a violent resistance that it was with difficulty the 
king's orders were executed. 

The abbess of St. Radegonde was tried by the tribunal of bishops on the 
charges of severity, ill-treatment, and sacrilege, which Chrodielde had pre- 
ferred against her, and found entirely innocent of everything but too g^eat 
indulgence. Chrodielde and her followers were excommunicated on 
account of their violent conduct, and their attack on the convent and the 
abbess Leubovere, which latter they had drawn through the streets by the 
hair, and afterwards imprisoned. 



A. D. 508-548. 


f ■ \ HEODORA, Empress of the East, the wife of Justinian, was famous 
JL for her beauty, intrigues, ambitions, and talents, and for the part 
she acted in the direction of affairs, both in the church and state, in 
the reign of her husband. 

She was born probably in Constantinople, though according to some in 
Cyprus. According to Procopius she was the daughter of Acacius, a bear- 
ieeder of the amphitheater at Constantinople to the Green Faction. 

By the death of her father her mother was left destitute, with three 
daughters, Comito, Theodora, and Anastasia, none of whom was over seven 
years of age. The three successively appeared on the stage as pantomimic 
dancers, an occupation held in general contempt. In the Anecdota, attrib- 
uted to Procopius, scandalous stories are narrated of Theodora's youth, 
which it is impossible to verify or wholly refute. In 525, she married the 
consul Justinian, who had obtained from his uncle Justin I. abrogation of 
the law which forbade marriage between a senator and a woman of servile 
origin, or who had appeared on the stage. In 527 Justinian succeeded to 
the throne, and she was made co-regent. 

During the twenty- three years of married life she showed herself his 
wonhy consr)rt. Her courage and judicious counsels prevented his deposi- 
tion al the revolt of the Nika in 532, and in all questions of administration 
^e took a notable share. No female sovereign manifested larger interest 
m the unfortunate and destitute of her own sex, or strove more earnestly to 
^^viate their condition. It is supposed that thus she sought to atone for 
the possible faults of her own youth. She retained her ascendency over 
the mind of Justinian to the last. He consulted her in everything, and 
allowed her to interfere directly in the government of the empire. Her 
^'nly child by him was a daughter. 

Theodora was of small stature, pale, delicate, vivacious, graceful, had 
''•^ressive eyes, and was fascinating in manner. She died of cancer in 
M^, at Pythia, near Broussa, whither she had gone for the baths. 



A. D. 645-597. 


JjXREDEGONDA, a Prankish queen, and rival of the famous Brune- 
-L haut, was born about the year 545 and died in 597. She was maid of 
honor to Audovera, queen of Chilp6ric I. of Neustria, and the king 
being captivated by her beauty made her his concubine. She contrived by 
a trick the repudiation of the queen, but was disappointed by the marriage 
of Chilp6ric with Galsuinda, a Visigoth princess and sister of Brunehaut, 
who had been married to his brother Sigebcrt, king of Austrasia. 

Attributing this marriage to the influence of the Austrasian queen, Fre- 
degonda vowed deadly hatred to both sisters. She removed Galsuinda 
by assassination, became her successor, and brought about a war between 
the two brothers, in which Sigebert was victorious, but soon fell by the 
hands of assassins. 

Brunehaut, who became her captive, escaped death and returned to her 
own country ; but Meroveus, the son of Chilp^ric by his first wife, who 
had been secretly married to her, fell a victim to the revenge of his step- 

A series of atrocious crimes followed. Pretextatus was treacherously 
murdered ; Clovis, the brother of Meroxcus, was executed on the false ac- 
cusation of having caused the death of Fredegonda's three children ; the 
mother of the princes was strangled, their sister outraged and confined hi a 
convent. Finally she contrived the assassination of her husband, and 
assumed the government in the name of her son Clotaire. She now suc- 
cessfully renewed the war against Austrasia, and remained in power until 
her death, which occurred suddenly in 597. She was buried in the mon- 
astery of St. V^incent, since, St. Germain-des-Pres. 

Half the cruelties committed by this woman, whose ambition and intel- 
lect seem to have been equaled only by her crimes, have not been related 
in history. She tortured and murdered without the slightest remorse all 
who opposed her will. The only womanly affection she exhibited was her 
love for her children. 


A. D. 610-677. 


XJ>|YESHAH, the favorite wife of Mahomet, and daughter of Abu-Bekr, 
^^J^ the first caliph, was born at Medina about 6io A. D. At the time 
of her marriage to the Prophet she was only nine years of age. 
She had no children but his affection for her continued until death, and he 
expired in her arms. After his death, she was regarded with great venera- 
tion by the Mussulmans as filled with an extraordinary portion of Mahomet's 
spirit They gave her the tide of ** Mother of the Faithful," and consulted 
W on important occasions. 

Ayeshah entertained a strong aversion for the caliph Othman ; and she 
W actually formed a plot to dethrone him, with the intention of placing in 
His stead her favorite Telha, when Othman was assassinated by another 
«i«ny, in a sedition. 

The succession of Ali was also strongly opposed by Ayeshah. Joined 
l>y Telha and Zobier, at Mecca, she raised a revolt, under the pretense of 
avenging the murder of Othman ; an army was levied, which marched 
toward Bassora, while Ayeshah, at its head, was borne in a litter on a camel 
^>i great strength. On arriving at a village called Jowab, she was saluted 
^ith the loud barking of the dogs of the place, which, reminding her of a 
prediction of the Prophet in which the dogs of Jowab were mentioned, so 
intimidated her that she declared her resohition not to advance a step. It 
^^ not till a number of persons had been suborned to swear that the vil- 
^'^ had been wrongly named to her, and till the artifice had been em- 
Myed of terrifying her with a report of Ali's being in the rear, that she 
*^ prevailed upon to proceed. 

She was refuse^d admittance into the city. In the end, however, her 
ir'^'Ops j^ained possession. Ali assembled an army and marched against 
^'^^- Ayeshah violently opposed all pacific counsels, and resolved to pro- 
^^ to the utmost extremity. A fierce battle ensued in which Telha and 
Zobier were slain. The combat raged about Ayeshah' s camel, and an Ara- 
''iin writer says that the hands of seventy men who successively held its 



A. D. 606-68S. 


S> Qj) | CZ3 ^ 

BATIMA, the only daughter of Mahomet, and mother of all Arabian 
dynasties, was born in Mecca about 606 A.D. In the year 623 she 
married her cousin AH, who afterwards became a caliph. Turkish 
writers assert that the archangels Michael and Gabriel acted as guardians to 
the bride, and that seventy thousand angels joined the procession. Fatima 
died a few months after her father. 

The Fatimites, or descendants of Fatima, became a powerful Arab 
dynasty which ruled for two and one half centuries in Egypt and Syria, 
while the Abbaside caliphs reigned at Bagdad. They first attained to 
empire under Abu Mohammed Obeidallah, who, A. D. 909, announced 
himself in Syria as the director of the faithful, foretold by the Koran, and 
expected as the Messiah by a class of heterodox Mussulmans. Denounced 
by the caliph, he fled to Egypt, and traversed the whole of the north of 
Africa to Sedjelmessa, where he was imprisoned. He was delivered and rec- 
ognized as a messenger from heaven, by Abu Abdallah, who had just over- 
thrown the African dynasties. He made himself master of northern Africa. 

On the death of Adhed in 1171, the dynasty of the Fatimites was 
extinguished, and a new one established by the great Saladin. 

^xeahetln. continued, 

bridle were cut off, and that her litter was stuck so full of darts as to 
resemble a porcupine. The camel, from which this day's fight takes its 
name, was at length hamstrung, and Ayeshah became a captive. Ali 
treated her with great respect, and sent her to Medina on condition that 
she should live peaceably at home, and not intermeddle with state affairs. 
Her resentment afterwards appeared in her refusal to suffer Hassan, the 
unfortunate son of Ali, to be buried near the tomb of the Prophet, which 
was her property. She seems to have regained her influence in the reign . 
of the caliph Moawiyah. She died A. D. 677, aged sixty-seven, having 
constantly commanded a high degree of respect from the followers of 
Mahomet, except at the time of her imprudent expedition against Ali. 


SALADIX, TMK M( )IL\MMi:i )AN CoNtjlI .K< »K 


RepraducBd frnni the painting by Gustava 
Enra, a native of Strasburg. Dara Bxcallad 
as a painter, dasignar, and sculptor, having 
astaunding facility of hand and a wealth of 
ImaginatlDn. His " Mountebank's Family/' 
''Night of the Crucifixion," and "Dante and 
■yirgil " have already become classic. 



m. A. D. 589. d. 628. 


rHEODELINDA, daughter of Garibaldo, duke of Bavaria, and 
queen of the Lombards, is celebrated because of her instrumen- 
tality in converting the Arian Lombards to the Roman church. 
She was at first betrothed to Childebert, son of the haughty Brune- 
Vuut, but was rejected by her. She afterwards, in 589, married Autari, 
king of the Lombards, with whom sh« lived in great affection ; neverthe- 
less he died in 590, and not without suspicion of having been poisoned. 

Theodelinda became the mediator between the Lombards amd the Cath- 
olic church, and early became imbued with its doctrines. She then sol- 
emnly placed the Lombard nation under the patronage of St. John the 
Baptist, and at Monza she built in his honor the first Lombard church, and 
the royal palace near it. Under her direction, too, the relics of St. Augus- 
tine wea- brought to be placed in the church at Pavia. 

The people were very much attached to her ; but that turbulent age 
5»etmedto require a stronger hand than that of a young girl to sway the rod 
'^l the empire. She therefore found it expedient to contract a second mar- 
na^'cuith F"la\ ius Agilulphus, who, as her husband, was invested with the 
cn^i^'ns (,[ royalty before a general congress at Milan. She was destined to 
i**-' a second time a widow. Agilulphus died in 615. From that time she 
assumed the government as regent, which she maintained with vigor and 

Theodelinda encouraged and improved agriculture ; endowed charitable 
'Oundations, and, in accordance with what the piety of that age required, 
''^'"t monasteries. What was more extraordinary, and seems to have been 
r»rely thought of by the men sovereigns of that day, she reduced the taxes, 
'"*J tried to soften the miseries of the inferior classes. She died in 628, 
''^My lamented by her subjects. 

^eu men of this time have exhibited powers of mind so well balanced 
•^^ere those of Theodelinda ; and this unusual sense of the just and true 
^tted her for the manifold duties of government. 



d. A. U. 773. 



/ I \ HE life of this queen is but a recital of her misfortunes. The precise 
-L date of her birth is not known. She was the daughter of Desiderio 
or Didier, as he is generally named by English writers, king of the 
Lombards, and his queen Ausa. 

Charlemaghe ascended the throne of France in 768. Two years after, 
his mother Bertrade, making a journey into Italy, was struck by the flour- 
ishing state of Desiderio' s kingdom, as well as by the beauty and attractive 
charms of his daughter Ermengarde. She then formed the plan of a double 
marriage with this family, allotting Ermengarde to Charlemagne, and her 
own Ciola to Adelchi, son of Desiderio. This scheme was opposed by the 
existing Pope, Stephen III., who used many arguments to dissuade France 
from the connection. The influence of Bertrade, however, prevailed, and 
she had the satisfaction of taking home with her the young princess, for 
whom she cherished a warm affection. 

At first everything was done to bring pleasure and happiness to the 
young queen. The particular friendship subsisting between her and her 
mother-in-law has been commemorated by Manzoni in beautiful and touch- 
ing poetry. A terrible reverse, however, awaited her. Charlemagne, from 
causes now impossible to ascertain, repudiated her, and sent her ignomini- 
ously back to her family. He was entreated to revoke this cruel mandate, 
but in vain. After a year of deceptive happiness, Ermengarde returned to 
the court of Lombardy. Her father and brother received her with the 
utmost tenderness. 

> A little later, Ermengarde received intelligence that her faithless hus- 
band had just united himself to the young and lovely Ildegarde. This was 
to her a death-blow. She retired to a monastery founded by her parents, 
and of which her sister was abbess. Here her existence was soon termi- 
nated. She died in 773. 

Adelard, a cousin of Charlemagne, was so disgusted with the unlawful 
marriage of his sovereign, that he became a monk. 



A.D. 75S-aOS. 


j^RENE, the famous Byzantine empress, was born in Athens, about 752, 

T and died on the isle of Lesbos, August 15, 803. She was an orphan 

» and seventeen years of age, when her beauty and genius attracted the 

attention of the emperor Constantine V. , who destined her to be the wife of 

his son and heir, Leo. Their nuptials were celebrated with royal splendor 

at Constantinople, in 769. 

Obliged by her husband to abandon the worship of images, to which 
she had been educated, she, however, gained his love and confidence, and 
vas appointed in his testament to administer the government during the 
minority of their son Constantine VL, then ten years of age. She imme- 
diately manifested her zeal for the restoration of images. For this object 
she assembled a council at Constantinople in 786, which was interrupted by 
the gamson of the capital. In the following year she called another coun- 
cil at Nice, in which the veneration of images was declared agreeable to 
Scripture and reason, and to the fathers and councils of the Church. With 
the iconoclastic controversy is connected the struggle between the mother 
and the son for supremacy. 

As Constantine advanced toward maturity, he was encouraged by his 
lavontes to throw off the maternal yoke, and planned the perpetual banish- 
njwtof Irene to Sicily. Her vigilance disconcerted the project, and, while 
the two factions divided the court, the Armenian guards refused to take the 
oath of fidelity which she exacted to herself alone, and Constantine became 
w* fill emperor. Irene was dismissed to a life of solitude in one of the 
"^perial palaces, but her intrigues led to the formation of successive con- 
spirades for her restoration. 

On the return of Constantine from an expedition against the Arabs in 
797. he was dispatched by assassins. 

Irene succeeded to the throne, and for five years ruled the empire with 
prudence and energy. Intercourse was renewed between the Byzantine 
c*Hirt and that of Charlemagne, and Irene is said to ha\ e sent ambassadors 



Klfchth Century A. I>. 


QBASSA, a sister of Haroun al Raschid, a caliph of the Saracens, A.D. 
786, was so beautiful and accomplished, that the caliph often 
lamented he was her brother, thinking no other husband could be 
found worthy of her. To sanction, however, a wish he had of conversing 
at Xhe same time with the two most enlightened people he knew, he married 
her to his vizier, Giafar, the Barmecide, on condition that Giafar should not 
regard her as his wife. Giafar, not obeying this injunction, was put to 
death by order of the enraged caliph, and Abassa was dismissed from hb 

She wandered about, sometimes reduced to the extreme of wretched- 
ness, reciting her own stor)' in song, and there are still extant some Arabic 
verses composed by her, which celebrate her misfortune. In the divan 
entitled Juba, Abassa' s genius for poetry is mentioned ; and a specimen of 
her composition, in six Arabic lines, addressed to Giafar, her husband, 
whose society she was restricted by her brother from enjoying, is to be 
found in a book written by Hen Abou Haydah. 

She left two children, twins, whom Ciiafar, before his death, had sent 
privately to Mecca to be educated. 

Irc*ri«^ continued, 

to negotiate a marriage between that emperor and herself, and thus to unite 
the empires of the Kast and the West. 

As her golden chariot moved through the streets of Constantinople, the 
reins of the four white steeds wrrt- IkIcI by as many patricians marching on 
foot. Most of these patricians were eunuchs, and by one of them, the 
great treasurer Nicephorus, she was ensnared to her ruin. He was secretly 
invested with the purple, and immediately arrested and banished Irene to 
the Isle of Kesbo^. There, deprived of all means of subsistence, she gained 
a scanty livelihood by spinning, and died <»f ^rief within a year. Her pro- 
tection of ima^e worship has caused her to Ix- enrolled among the saints in 
the Greek calendar. 




ReproducBd fram a painting by J. L. GarDmB, 
ana of most popular French artists, and a pupil 
of the calabratBd Paul DalarnchB. GaraniB has 
palntad a variety of subjects, ancient and 
modern, which have gained him a foreniDst 
place In the modern French school. In IBBS, 
at the Paris Salon, he was a medaUst of honor; 
and twenty years prior to that time had bean 
made a Member of the Institute. 



Ninth Century A. 1>. 


JUDITH, the second wife of Louis le Debonnaire, son of Charlemagne, 
I was a (laughter of Welff, Duke of Bavaria. She was celebrated for 
>J her beauty and intellectual accomplishments, and succeeded in 
obtaining such a control over the king's affections that she governed not 
only the palace, but also exercised the greatest influence in the govern- 

Her eldest son, who afterwards reigned under the name of Charles the 
Bald, was bom in 823 ; but as the king had already divided his estate be- 
tween the sons of his former marriage, there was nothing left for him. 
Judith immediately exerted herself to obtain a kingdom for her child, and 
consequently by the consent of Lothaire, eldest son of Louis, such a pos- 
session was obtained. 

Pepin, the second son of Louis, having convinced Lothaire of his folly 
w yielding up his possessions at the request of Judith, induced him to unite, 
^ith himself in a rebellion against Judith and Louis. In 829, they sur- 
rounded Aix, took Judith and her husband prisoners, and, accusing Judith 
of too jrreat intimacy with Bernard, her prime minister, forced her to take 
^ ^eij, in the convent of St. Radegonde. 

*hey, however, permitted Judith to have a private interview with her 
husband on condition that she should urge him to immediate abdication. 
In^ she promised to do ; but, instead, advised Louis to yield to circum- 
'^tances and go to the monastery of St. Medard, at Soissons, but not to 
abdicate the crown. The king followed her advice, and in 830, Lothaire, 
having quarreled with his brother, restored the crown to Louis, who im- 
mediately recalled Judith. 

The pope released her from her conventical vows, and she cleared her- 
^ by an oath from the accusation of adultery that was brought against 

^^ ^33i the emperor was again betrayed and deposed by his children, 
although Judith had exerted herself in every way, even by cruelty, to re- 



Ninth Ontiirj A. D. 


fil NGELBERGA, Empress of the West, wife of Louis IL, emperor and 
^S^^ king of Italy, is supposed to have been of illustrious birth, though 
that is uncertain. She was a woman of courage and ability ; but 
proud, unfeeling, and venal. The war in which her husband was involved 
with the king of Germany was especially rendered unfortunate by her pride 
and rapacity. 

In 874, Angelberga built, at Plaisance, a monastery, which afterwards 
became one of the most famous in Italy. After the death of Louis, Angel- 
berga remained at the convent of St. Julia, in Brescia, where her treasures 
were deposited. In 881, Charles the Fat, of France, caused Angelberga to 
be taken and carried prisoner into Germany, lest she should assist, by 
her wealth and political knowledge, her daughter Ermengarde, who had 
married Boron, king of Provence, a relative of Charles. She was released, 
however, through the intervention of the pope. It is not known when 
she died. 

Angelberga had two daughters, Ermengarde, who survived her, and 
Gisela, abbess of St. Julia, who died before her parents. 

Jtadltli continued. 

tain for her weak husband the power he could not keep for himself. After 
a year of confinement, Louis was again placed on the throne ; and by the 
new division of the empire, arranged in 839, Judith had the satisfaction of 
seeing her son placed in })Ossession of a large ^hare of those estates from 
which he had seemed forever excluded. 

Louis the Mild died in 840, and Judith survived him only three years. 
She died at Tours. 

In her heart the mother's ambition was the predominating power. All 
her efforts were devoted to securing what she deemed to be an equitable 
partition of the royal patrimony. 



d. A. n. 9aa» 

tt) THELFLEDA, eldest daughter of Alfred the Great, and sister of 
\2i Edward L, king of the West Saxons, was wife to Etheldred, Earl of 
Mercia. She was of a masculine temperament and, after the birth 
«>t her first child, she made a vow of chastity and united with her husband* 
ID his profession of arms. She retained a cordial friendship for her hus- 
liandand together they performed numerous acts of munificence and valor. 
T(jgether they assisted Alfred in his wars against the Danes, whom they 
prevented the Welsh from succoring. Not less pious than valiant, they 
restored cities, founded abbeys, and protected the bones of departed saints. 
Alter the death of her husband, in 912, Ethelfleda assumed the gov- 
eniment of Mercia ; and, emulating her father and brother, commanded 
^i*s. fortified towns, and prevented the Danes from re-settling in Mercia. 
Tl)en. canning her victorious arms into Wales, she compelled the WY^lsh, 
attcr several victories, to become her tributaries. In 918 she t(X)k Derby 
^'>m the Danc^ ; and in 920 Leicester and York. Having become famed 
^'•r her spirit and courage, the titles of lady and (pieen were judged in- 
•'*<iequatf t(» her merit, and, in addition to these, she received those of lord 
and kinjr. 

Her courage and activity were em|)loyed in the service of her coimtry 
till her death, in 922, at Tamworth. in Staffordshire, where she was defend- 
'"Js' 'ijs'ainst the Danes. Her body was interred in the porch of the monas- 
l«T\«.f St. IVter. in Gloucester, which she had in concert with her husband 
*'^*^it^l She left one daughter, Klswina. 

T^he death of Kthelfleda was deej)ly regretted by the whole kingdom, 
^^P^iaily by her brother Edward, to whom she proved equally serviceable 
in thv cabinet and in the field. Ingul|)hus. the historian, speaks of 
tne extraordinary courage and other masculine virtues of this princess, 
^nd[>ays just tribute to her diplomatic skill as well as to her martial quali- 



Tenth Century A. D. 


^K ERBERGE, queen of Louis IV. of France, was the daughter of 
l^Y Henry, who became king of Germany in 918. She married first 
Gislebert, Duke of Lorraine, who was drowned in the Rhine. In 
940 she married Louis IV. , whose crown was secured to him by Hugh, 
Count of Paris, and William, Duke of Normandy. Five years after her 
royal husband was taken prisoner by the Normans, while endeavoring to 
free himself from the tutelage of Hugh. 

Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks, wished to obtain possession of 
him ; but the Duke of Normandy consented to give him up only on condi- 
tion that Louis' two sons should become hostages for their father. Hugh 
sent to demand them of Gerberge, but she refused, well knowing that the 
race of Charlemagne would be entirely destroyed if the father and children 
were all prisoners. She sent only the youngest son with a bishop ; so, 
Louis not being set free, Gerberge sent to demand aid from her brother 
Otho, king of Germany. Louis was at length liberated, by Otho*s assist- 
ance, and he confided to Gerberge the defense of the town of Rheims, in 
which she shut herself up with her troops. 

In 954 Louis died, and Gerberge exerted herself eflectually to have her 
eldest son Lothairc, although hardly twelve, placed on his father's throne. 
She and her brother Bruno, Duke of Lorraine, were appointed regents. 
She marched with her young son, at the head of an army, and besi^ed 
Poitiers ; and, in 960, she retook the city and fortress of Dijon, which had 
been treacherously given up to Robert of Treves, and had the traitor be- 
headed in the presence of the whole army. 

Lothaire reigned till 986, and was succeeded by his son Louis V. , th^ 
last of the Carlovingian dynasty, who reigned a single year under th 
protection of Hugh Capet. Louis V. was poisoned either by his moth^ 
or his wife, both of whom were dissolute women, and was succeeded t — ^ 
Hugh, the founder of the Capetian dynasty. 



RaproducBd frnni a painting by Edward 
Richtar, a Parisian genre and portrait painter, 
The " Jbtvbbs of MornccD/' "At the Fnrtune- 
Teller's," "SalDme," and the " Bazaar in Tunis," 
by the same artist, have been received with 
much favor. 







^ HE difficalty of tracinj^ any wt-ll (kfincd line of development during 
\ J this period is very well recognized by all comj>etent authorities. 
T This is not difficult to understand when the chaotic political condi- 
tion of Eun>pe is taken into accoiuit, f<j]]owin^ closely upon the disruption 
of the Roman F-mpire, and extendinj^ down to the time of the first Crusiide. 
Nevertheless, a number of elements were j)res(iit and j)Otent in giving 
woman whatever distinctive impress she may hav<- had during this sterile 
period, — sterile, it must be remembered, witli nsptct to a highly organized 
social order. The most j>rominent of these elements or forces were Chris- 
tianity, feudalism, and chivalry, in their actual relations witli domestic life ; 
and in order to measure the peculiar influence of thes<- institutions, it is 
desiraUe to invite attention to them separately. 

From the fall of the Roman Kmj)ire till the death of Charlemagne, A. IX 
814, various attempts were made to re-establish the emj>ire, but the warring 
of i)etty (iermanic kings and the conflicting ambitions of 
rival aspirants were very geiurally effective in defeating its 
restoration. During this ])eriod. a great revolution had taken 
place in the condition, social and political, <)t thr dominions of the Franks. 
The dynasty of the Merovingians, by its own discordant character and 
weakness, had fallen, and given way tt> ant)ther race of kings. Charle- 
magne gave to the royalty of the Franks a new character : he jn^ssi-ssed in 
a high degree the Roman spirit, and for a while In- brought back into exist- 
ence the Roman Kmi)ire, with all its powerful centralizati(»n. Hut Charle- 
magne*s influence and iK>wer of government belonged to himself, and dis- 
appeared after his death, and thus this event was followed very tjuickly by 
utter disorganization throughout his va^t dominions, rnder the terrible 
invasions of the Northmen, which soon follow r«|. ib.t only all » entral pt>WfT, 
Init in a manner all power whatever. disa])|>eart d. 

Out of this confusion aroM* an entirely new >t.ite of society, which we 
know as the feudal system. 



Under feudalism, alf central power had become paralyzed, and the great 

lords, with their vast territories, had by the existing system no armed force 

to defend them. Under these circumstances they introduced 

*" * a new method of distributing" their lands, which was by grant- 
System ^ ^ ^ 

ing it hereditarily on the condition that the tenant was bound 
not only to cultivate the portion of land he held, but to perform certain 
military services according to its extent ; or, in other words, he was bound 
to furnish to his superior lord in time of war so many armed men for so 
many acres. 

Touching the bond of feudalism, M. Sismondi makes the following 
observations : — 

* * The essence of the feudal bond was the military service ; the vassal 
cr^g^«^gc<i himself for the defense of his lord, towards and against all, to ren- 
der fhis service, either alone, or with a greater or lesser number of knights 
and followers in arms, according to the dignity of his fief ; this service was 
to last during a number of determined days. On the other hand, the lord 
bound himself so completely to protect his vassal, that he engaged himself 
to entire restitution if the vassal was ejected from his fief. To these engage- 
ments, which formed the essence of the feudal contract, others were joined, 
the nature of which seemed more chivalric, and the observation of which was 
likewise confided to the guarantee of the point of honor. Thus the vassal 
was bound, if his lord lost his horse in battle, to give him his own in 
exchange ; he was to cover him with liis body in danger, to deliver himself 
up to prison for him, or in hostage, to keep his secrets, to reveal to him the 
machinations of his enemies, to defend, in fine, his honor, and that of all 
the members of his family.'' 

This system brought with it new institutions and new forms of life. 
Under it the landed aristocracy assumed and exercised, each with his own 

domains, sovereign power, legislative, judicial, and military. 
instltntions and thus the state was transformed into a number of little 

sovereignties. The new lords of the land formed alliances 
among themselves, or made war upon each other at their own will, and 
their whole aim was to keep themselves in a prominent state of defense. 
The old residences, which had consisted in a confused mass of buildings 



with little or no capability of. defense, were now abandoned, and their 

places were supplied by almost impregnable fortresses. The castle, indeed, 

is become, in a manner, the symlx)! or imajje of feudalism. 

In this fortri*ss, placed at a distance from all social life without, the lord 

and his lady lived in a complete state of isolation. Without occupation in 

this solitary alnule, lifi- at home must have lx*en so weari- 
rtigtl^ some that the jijreat desire <if thr male part of the household 

would hf to be absent from it : and hence we find the jK)ssess- 
orsof fiefs passing ihi-ir tinu- on tht- hi^h road, in adventures of every kind, 
wars, plunderinjjs, and anythinj; which jiromised violent activity. The 
coarseness and ferocity which arose out of this life threw a new inifiediment 
in the way of social and intellectual improvement, and these early ag^es of 
feudalism were, indeed, aj^es of darkness. Vet, as one of the ablest of our 
modern historians has observed, "at the sune time that castles opposed so 
strong a barrier to civilization, whih* it had so much difticiilty in penetrat- 
inj( into them, they were in a certain resj)ecl a princij)le of civilization ; 
they j)rotected the d<'\eloj)nienl of M-iiliments and manners which have 
acted a powerful aii<l salutary part in modern >ocieiy ; everyl)ody knows 
that domotic life, the >j)irit of family, and particularly the condition of 
woman in nn»dern luirop<* are highly (le\<lop<-d. 

"Amonj^the causes which ha\<' contributed to this dexelopment. we 
must reckon life in the castle, the situation of the possessor of the fief in his 

domains, a> one of the \e\er. in an v other form 
*** * of societv, lia> the familv been reduced to il»^ most simple 

expiession. tin- husband, the \\if< , .md the childnn. an<i In-en 
so bound, so pre>sed tov^tilur. separattd from all other poutiful and rival 
relations. In tin- varioii> nther statr-* i»t siuieiy. thr heatl ••! the f.imily. 
without quillini: honn . nunuron> ••<'ruj)ali«»n> and di\er>ion>. which 
drew him from tin- int« rinr nf hi> dwt llinu. and prevented it from In-inj^ the 
center f>f his lif<-. llir r»>ntrarv wa^ th<' ease in f«u(lal s<u iely. So lonjj as 
he remaine<l in his i astir, the po>MSM»r of the fief li\eil there with \\\> wile 
and chihlrm. ahnM>t hi^ unly e<jnals, his ttnly intimate and jM-rmanent com- 
pany. This \h inv: «»blij^r<l to li\«* habitnallv in the boM)m of Iun family with 
his wife and rliildnn ir.ive rise to domestic ideas of j^re.U influence." 



Moreover, when the possessor of the fief left his castle to seek war and 
adventures, his wife remained in it, and in a situation wholly different 
from that in which women had hitherto always been placed. She remained 
mistress, chatelaine, representing her husband, charged in his absence 
with the defense and honor of the fief. This elevated and almost sovereign 
position, in the very bosom of domestic life, often gave the women of 
the feudal epoch, a dignity, courage, virtue, and a distinction, which 
they had not displayed under other circumstances, and contributed, no 
doubt, to their moral development, and to the general progress of their 

This is not all. The importance of children in the feudal mansion, of 

the eldest son more especially, was much greater than anywhere else. 

This broueht forth not only natural affection, and the desire 

to transmit his property to his children, but also the desire to 

transmit to them that power, that superior position, that sovereignty in- 
herent in the domain. The eldest son of the lord was, in the eyes of his 
father and all his people, a prince, an heir presumptive, the depositor>' of 
the glory of a dynasty. 

So that the weakness as well as the good sentiments of human nature, 
domestic pride as well as affection, combined to give the spirit of the family 
more energy and power. 

Add to this the influence of Christian ideas, which we have merely 
noted in passing, and it may be comprehended how this life of the castle, 
this solitary, gloomy, hard situation, was favorable to the development of 
domestic life, and to that elevation of the condition of woman which 
holds so great a place in the history of civilization. 

As a wife, at the time of the fullest development of the feudal system, 
woman had become, instead of the slave and property of her husband, his 
AtfTance ^Q"*^^ *^"^^ "^ most of the relations of life, an independent 
of agent. She had become capable of holding independent 

Woman pQ^y^^p ^f \^^y own, which was something more than reflecting^ 
that of her husband. .She was now an heiress, carrying with her as heir 
dower, castles, and domains, and provinces, with numerous vassals ; shc^ 
could be guardian of the manor, regent of the state, and as such, sign 



deeds and share in all obligations imposed by peace or war. Many of the 
great ladies of the middle ages ruled over extensive territories, and took a 
ver>' active part in political affairs. In the household her position had been 
equally advanced, and she was looked upon with a different kind of respect. 
Instead of serving the wine to the guests, she sat at the table, and hers was 
the place of honor, by the side of her lord. When her lord was absent, 
the lady of the house was at the head of the board. The lady of the 
castle, too, had the direction and control of the whole family, which was 
often very numerous, and entailed large responsibility. 

Under these circumstances, there arose a peculiar form of sentiment 
between the two sexes, one of which had not been known in the same guise 

The lady of the casde, as the head of the household, represented wo- 
mankind in full consciousness of independence and self-consciousness, arid 
this consciousness had been communicated to the rest 
ciilTalry ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ within the castle walls. When woman obtains 
this position, it immediately makes itself felt upon the other 
sex, and under it the harshness and ferocity which were naturally among 
the first characteristics of feudalism were gradually exchanged for elegance 
of manners and sentiments which were new to society. Out of this state 
^>i thinpi arose two words which will never he forgotten. These words are 
fouriesy and chivalty. Courtesy meant simply the manners and sentiments 
*hich prevailed in the feudal household : and was, above everything, that 
*Hich distinguished the society inside the castle from that without, from the 
l«ople of the country, and it is universally allowed that it was the influence 
*>^ the* female sex which fostered it. Chivalry arose from the same source, 
"Utiook on bolder forms and addressed itself to a somewhat different task. 
ih« knight learned to look upon woman as his patron and mistress and 
"pon himself as her servant, and as bound to offer himself in her defense, 
l^ut though all the princij)les of chivalry and gallantry were universally 
acknowledged and talked of. the things themselves sank into forms and 
'tatters o| show and ostentation, — to the lonrnamenl and the jonst, — and 
"U iheir greatest impress on romance and letters. 

Feudal society w;is, in comparison to what had gone before it, polished 



and brilliant, and presented many great qualities, but under the surface it 
Morals ^^^ ^^^ ^"^^"^ being pure. The whole society in the castle 
and mixed together on something like a footing of equality, and 
Amusements^, 1^^^^ the lord of the castle appointed one of the young 
bachelors to serve one of his daughters, it might and according to the 
romances, sometimes did, end in marriage. During a considerable portion 
of the day, the inmates were engaged in playing together at different 
amusements and games, and we can perceive in the descriptions given, that 
these were often suggestive of anything but chaste feelings, while the 
language in common use among both sexes was far from delicate. All 
these were combined with an extreme intimacy between the two sexes, who 
commonly visited each other in their chambers or bedrooms. Thus we 
may easily understand how all these customs would join in giving great 
license of tone and character to female society during the feudal period. 

It has been stated that feudalism raised woman to a higher place in 
domestic life ; that whereas before she was in a state of subjection, under 
BieTation ^^^ feudal system she exercised independent power. Un- 
of doubtedly, as a wife, woman was a gainer. The mantle of 

*^*^'^*^* authority with which her husband was invested, fell upon her 
whenever he was temporarily absent. The management of a feudal house- 
hold certainly gave the lady of the house a dignity and imposed upon her 
responsibilities which secured her respect and gave her freedom of action. 
She was called upon to direct a little army of subordinates, and was her 
husband's partner and equal. But this improvement in the status of 
woman is not discernible except in the governing classes. The women 
without title, rank, position, wealth, the women of everyday life, profited 
little. They shared in the subjection of their fathers, brothers, and hus- 
bands, and they enjoyed none of the privileges which the feudal system 
conferred on their more highly placed sisters. In a state of society where 
the mass of the people were in a dependent position, it is not likely that 
any special freedom would be granted to or even claimed by women. 
Under feudalism there was no sort of independence possible to women who 
were not born to wealth or rank. 

Women were under a twofold sovereignty — that of the feudal lord and 



of their male relatives. No woman in any position of life could be said to 
be a free agent. 
ilnto ^^ ^^^ were a great heiress, she was disposed of in mar- 

riage as best suited the king and his council without regard 
to her wishes. In the case of a vassal's daughter, the consent of the feudal 
lord must be obtained to her marriage. Every tenant paid a sum of money 
to the lord on the marriage of his daughter, and this tax was even levied in 
the case of granddaughters. A couple could not be betrothed without the 
permission of their feudal lord, and if they failed to obtain his consent they 
were subject to a fine. A woman living on the estate of a feudal lord was 
regarded as, in a manner, his property. If she married a stranger and left 
the manor, the lord was entitled to compensation, as being deprived of part 
of his * * live stock. * ' 

Powerful as was the Church in these ages, it was not able to protect 

women outside the shade of the cloister. And it will be readily understood 

PoaiUoB ^^'^ great was the influence of the priest in an age when the 

•rtlM mass of the people were so little able to think and judge for 

^**'*'" themselves, in an age when the supernatural encompassed 

<ia3y life with terrors, when the common laws of nature were dim mysteries, 

^hcn dise;ise and misfortune were ascribed to the malevole'nce of witches 

•md evil spirits. The Church was the supreme arbiter, and to question her 

deatx-s was to incur the risk of eternal misery. 

The |X)wers of evil could only be exorcised by holy water and priestly 
iid. and lapses into sin were atoned for by substantial otTerings. It was 
^^y to persuade women, always more suscc|)tibli- than nu-n to the emo- 
tional and imaginative side of religion, that their drranis and fancies were 
di\ine warnings. And hence they fell easy })rey to ecclesiastical tyranny. 

But if the Church tyrannized over tin- people and took advantage of 
their ijrnorance, it was a great uplifting and civilizing power in their lives. 

But lor the Church the middle ages would have been one dark night of 
unulumine<l barbarism. The Church summed up in herself all that existed 
'•f knowledge and culture. It was the symbol of order, j)rogre^s, and leani- 
Jn^. In time of war it was a haven of peace. It wa^ the Church that 
♦-rubied women to live secure, sheltered lives in the midst of turmoils and 



danger. It was the guardian of the people's consciences, and possessed 
over them a power of life and death. 

Looked at from a lighter side, the Church was a potent factor in every- 
day life. Its festivals were one of the chief recreations of the people. To 
ciiarGii and women especially, whose diversions were fewer than those of 
BTeryday nien, the feast days, with their processions and ceremonials, 
were welcome excitements. In the services of the Church, 
woman found an outlet for the gratification of her aesthetic sense, which 
nothing else afforded. If the main features of social life in this period be 
remembered, the sordidness of the dwellings, the absence of everything 
beyond the barest necessities in the majority of homes, the lack of indoor 
recreations, and of all the resources of modern times afforded by the means 
of locomotion, it will not appear strange that the Church as a social force 
should have wielded such power. 

After the founding of the Benedictine order, in 530, regular nunneries 
were also founded, and the conventical system spread rapidly in every part 

of Europe. This created a new interest for women of all 

System ranks and conditions. It is related in the annals of the Eng- 
lish Heptarchy that no fewer than thirty kings and queens 
resigned their crowns and rank to live and die in religious houses. The 
veneration in which they were held, however, soon by its excess engendered 
abuses. As numbers of the feudalry, when past the age of enterprise, or 
in ill health, or disgusted with the world, took refuge in convents, and there 
ended their days, it was usual for them to leave large bequests, and even 
give their whole property, for the maintenance of these institutions, and, 
when nunneries were established, numbers of noble women chose a clois- 
tered life. From these and other causes, a tide of wealth poured in, which 
caused a total alteration in the proper character of a system commenced 
with the most self-satisfying asceticism. 

It is difficult to estimate the exact result of the influence of the estab- 
lishment of monasticism upon the character and position of women. In the 
Influence of ^^^^'^'^ monasteries of England the two sexes lived together 
Monasticism in the same building, though they were bound to strict con- 
tinence and chastity. Corruption however, soon introduced 


itself. With the latter part of the eighth century, the nuns became pro- 
verbially dissolute in their character, and royal wives and mistresses were 
very frecjuently sought in the convents. Hut, on the other hand, it was in 
the nunneries that the education of j^irls of all classes was carried on. Con- 
vent schools were the only schools either for rich or j)oor, and the "sis- 
ters*' the only women able to qualify themselves to become instructors. 
The nuns, again, were the chief dispensers of charity. Their duties were 
by no means confined to the cloister ; but they went about among the 
I>eople, teaching, advising, consoling, and discoursing on subjects with 
which convent sistrrs are supposed to have litth* acfjuaintance. 

It is fre<iuently asserted, and with much force, that when the clergy 
lalK>re<l to emancij)ate the female sex, it was not williout self-interest. They 
had seen how the gentleness and pious sj)irit <>f the sex had assisted more 
than anything else in the early j)rogress of Christianity. They sought, 
therefore, to substitute their own influence ovrr woman for that of the 
family. The- women were drawn away frf >m earthly marriages to be, as they 
expressed it, married to Christ ; that is, to enter the monasteries, and be- 
come inms. The religious houses were thus filled with women who had 
either sejjarated from their husbands, or refused to accept the husbands 
designed fur them by their fathers, usually under the pnnection, if not under 
the encouragement, of the ecclesiastics. 

It a|)j),-ars that a man could divorce himself almost at pleasure ; and if 
he and his wife aj^re^-d to separate, each was ;rt liberty to marry again with- 

out publidv as^ieninu anv cause for their separation. 

This view of marriage was attributable very largely to the 
influence and j)re(t'pls of the Roman law. which continued to persist 
throughout the Middlr AjL^iS as a IhkIv of mtv j>receilents. 
.No legal j)roer>s was nMpiirfd. although the abuse of tlu- j)(»wer of divorce 
was sometimes punishe<l. Not until the time of Justinian did divorce 
by ctuisenl of both parties become subjtet to any restrictions. This 
famous law inakrr wa^ instrumental in counteracting^ numerous marital 
abuses, witii a \ lew nuiinly to jmblic ilecorum an<l the comfort of 
individual^. h is a remarkable illustration of the Roman view of 
marriage that, in view of what must have Ix.'en the great social evil of 



capricious di\orce, the right of either party to dissolve the marriage was 
never successhilly questioned. 

The matter of divorce subsequently passed into the hands of the 
bishops, who not only assumed the right of giving their sanction to such 
separation, but of annulling a marriage at their own will for any cause they 
chose to assign. A very small cause of dissatisfaction was oftentimes con- 
sidered a sufficient reason for ecclesiastical interference. But still from 
the pure Roman to the canon law the change was great indeed. The 
ceremony became sacred, the tie indissoluble. Those whom God hath 
joined let not man put asunder, was the first text of the new law of 
marriage, and against such a prohibition social convenience and experi- 
ence pleaded with much less hope of success. While marriage once created 
became indissoluble, the impediments to marriage also multiplied. The tie 
of consanguinity was extended, while the power of dispensing with disa- 
bilities and the power of annulling marriage on the ground of such disabilities 
became more and more the peculiar prerogative of the Church. 

So the Church, while with one hand it raised woman from the abasement 
into which she had been cast by paganism, lowered her with the other. It 
was ever careful to impress upon her its sense of her inferior status. The 
higher conception of womanhood was an ideal only, a theme for poets, a 
dream of saints ; the lower conception was the guide, the basis of everyday 
teaching. It was this lower conception, which, in different ways, deter- 
mined woman's position in the social fabric of European life, until the 
dawn of a new light many centuries after. 









1100 TO 1500 A. D. 




A. D. 1083-1148. 


»H & : C 4- - 

PNNA COMNENA, daughter of the Greek emperor Alexius Com- 
nenus, flourished about the year 1118. She renounced in her 
youth the amusements and occupations of her sex, to deliver up 
hersdf to a passionate fondness for study and letters. 

After acquiring a large acquaintance with history and belles-lettres, she 
made marked progress in philosophy, notwithstanding the obscurity in 
which it was, in those times, involved. She later employed her acquire- 
ments in composing a history', in fifteen volumes, of the life and reign of 
her father, — a work which she entitled The Alexiad ; eij^ht of these books 
were puUished by Haeschelius in 1610 ; and the whole fifteen with a Latin 
version in 165 1. In 1670 the learned Charles du Fresne published another 
edition with historical and philological notes. 

Anna Comnena has been accused of partiality in this work, in which 
tbe actions of her father appear to greater advantage than in the writings of 
the Latin historians, who, it is not impossible, might have clierishcd prej- 
udices s^inst a Greek emperor. The trutli is probably t(^ be found by 
^kii^ medium ground. The Journal drs Sai'iDis thus speaks of Anna in 

^^75: — 

"The elegance with which Anna Comnena has. in htteen books, de- 
^1)«1 the life and actions of her fathcT, and the strong and elo(juent 
"^nner in which she has set them off, are so much above tlie ordinary 
capadty of women, as almost to excite a doubt wluiher >he were indeed 
^^aulhorof the work. It is impossible to read the descriptions she has 
pven of countries, rivers, mountains, towns, sieges, battles, tlie retleetions 
*he makes upon particular events, the judgment slie j)asses u}>on human 
actions, with her digressions on various occasions, without |)erceiving tluit 
snt must have been skilled in grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and mathe 
^tics; nay, e\'en that she must have j)ossessed some knowledi^e nf law, 
P«>"^cs, and divinity — studies very rare and uncommon in her sex." 



A. D. 1101-1164. 



aELOISE, who has been immortalized by Rousseau, as well as ren- 
dered famous by her unfortunate love for Abelard, was born about 
iioi, and died in 1164. Her parents are unknown, but she lived 
with her uncle, Fulbert, a canon of the cathedral of Paris. Her childhood 
was passed in the convent of Argenteuil, but, as soon as she was old enough, 
she returned to her uncle, who taught her to speak and write in Latin, 
then the language used in literary and polite society. She is also said to 
have understood Greek and Hebrew. To this education, very uncommon 
at that time, Heloise added great beauty, and refinement, and dignity of 
manner ; so that her fame soon spread beyond the walls of the cloister, 
throughout the whole kingdom. 

Just at this time, Pierre Abelard, who had already made himself ver>' 
celebrated as a rhetorician, came to found a new school in that art in Paris, 
where the originality of his principles, his eloquence, and his great physical 
strength and beauty made a deep sensation. Here he saw Heloise, and 
commenced an acquaintance with her by letter ; but, impatient to know 
her more intimately, he proposed to Fulbert that he should receive him 
into his house, which was near Abelard' s school. Fulbert was avaricious, 
and also desirous of having his niece more thoroughly instructed, and 
these two motives induced him to consent to Abelard' s proposal, and to 
request him to give lessons in his art to Heloise. He even gave Abelard 
permission to use physical punishment towards his niece, if she should 
prove rebellious. 

** I cannot," says Abelard, '* cease to be astonished at the simplicity of 
Fulbert ; I was as much surprised as if he had placed a lamb in the power 
of a hungry wolf. Heloise and I, under pretext of study, gave ourselves 
wholly to love ; and the solitude that love seeks, our studies procured for 
us. Books were open before us ; but we spoke oftener of love than phi- 
losophy, and kisses came more readily from our lips than words." 

The canon was the last to perceive this intimacy, although he was often 



told of it, and heard daily the songs that Abelard composed for Heloise 
sung through the streets. When he did discover the truth, he was deeply 
incensed, and sent Abelard from the house. But he contrived to return, 
and carr>' off Heloise to Palais, in Brittany, his native country. Here she 
gave birth to a son, surnamed Astrolabe from his beauty, who passed his 
life in the obscurity of a monastery. 

The flight of Heloise enraged Fulbert to the highest degree ; but he 
was afraid to act openly against Abelard, lest his niece, whom he still loved, 
might be made to suffer in retaliation. At length Abelard, taking compas- 
sion on his grief, sent to him, implored his forgiveness, and offered to marry 
Heloise, if the union might be kept secret, so that his reputation as a relig- 
ious man should not suffer. Fulbert consented to this, and Abelard went 
to Heloise for that purpose ; but Heloise, unwilling to diminish the future 
fame of Abelard, by marriage, which must be a restraint upon him, refused 
to listen to him. She quoted the precepts and the example of all learned 
men, sacred and profane, to prove to him that he ought to remain free and 
untrammeled. She also warned him that her uncle's reconciliation was 
loo easily obtained, and that it was but a feint to entrap him more surely. 
But Abelard was resolute and Heloise returned to Paris. There they were 
s^f>n after married. 

FuUxfrt did not keep his promise of secrecy, but spoke openly of the 
n^rriage, concerning which, when she heard of it, a protest came from 
Hdoise that it had never taken place. This made lur uncle treat her so 
<^elly, that Abelard, either to protect her from his violence, or to prove 
^hatihe announcement of the marriage was false, took her himself to the 
<^'nvent of Argenteuil, where he ordered her to take the veil. 

Twelve years passed without Heloise ever having mentioned the name 
"^Mxlard. She became prioress of Argenteuil, aiul subsequently lived a 
''•i<^' of complete retirement. Abelard, hearing of her homeless situation, left 
Brituny and went to place Heloise in the little oratory of the I^iraclete, 
which had been founded by him. Here Heloise exerted herself to the 
*^^n^t to build up a convent, and was n warded with unusual success. 

She rarely appeared in public, hut devoted lierself almost wholly to 
prayer and meditation. She died May 17, 1 164. 




Twelfth Century A. D. 


HE knights who had returned from the Holy Land spoke with enthu- 
siasm of a Countess of Tripoli, who had extended to them the most 
generous hospitality, and whose grace and beauty equaled her 
virtue. Geoffrey Rudel, a gentleman of Blieux, in Provence, and one of 
those who were presented to Frederick Barbarossa in 1154, hearing this 
account, fell deeply in love with her without having seen her, and prevailed 
upon one of his friends, Bertrand d'Allaman, a troubadour like himself, to 
accompany him to the Levant. 

In II 62 he quitted the court of England, whither he had been con- 
ducted by Geoffrey, the brother of Richard L, and embarked for the Holy 
Land. On his voyage he was attacked by a severe illness, and had lost the 
power of speech when he arrived at the port of Tripoli. The countess, 
being informed that a celebrated poet was dying of love for her on board a 
vessel which was entering the roads, visited him on shipboard, took him by 
the hand, and attempted to cheer his spirits. 

Rudel, wc are assured, recovered his speech sufficiently to thank the 
countess for her humanity, and to declare his passion, when his expressions 
of gratitude were silenced by the convulsions of death. 

He was buried at Tripoli, beneath a tomb of porphyry, which the 
countess raised to his memory, with an Arabic inscription. 

The transcribed verses, "On Distant Love," which he composed pre- 
vious to this voyage, began thus : — 

** Angry and sad shall be my way, 

If I behold not her afar; 
And yet I know not when that day 

Shall rise, for still she dwells afar. 
God, who has formed this fair array 

Of worlds, and placed my love afar, 
Strengthen my heart and hope, I pray, 

Of seeing her I love afar.'* 



A. I>. 1122-1204. 


rj^UEEN ELEANOR succeeded her father, William X., in 1137, in 
T^C the fine duchy which at that time composed Gascony, Saintonge, 
and the comt6 de Poitou. She married the same year Louis 
VII., king of France, and went with him to the Holy Land. She soon 
gave him cause for jealousy, from her intimacy with her uncle, Raymond, 
ct)unt of Poitiers, and with Saladin ; and after many bitter quarrels they 
wtte divorced under pretense of consanguinity, in 1152. Six weeks after- 
wards, Eleanor married Henry II., duke of Normandy, afterwards king of 
England, to whom she brought in dowry Poitou and Guienne. 

Eleanor had four sons and a daughter by her second husband. In 
1162, she gave Guienne to her second son, Richard Coeur de Lion, who 
did homage for it to the king of France. She died in 1204. She was very 
Mous of her second husband and showed the greatest animosity to all 
whom she regarded as rivals. She incited her sons to rebel against their 
father, and was, in consequence, thrown into prison, where she was kept 
^'•r sixteen years. 

In her youth she was remarkably beautiful, and in the later years of her 

^^ned life she showed evidences of a naturally noble disposition. As soon 

•*> >he wa> lilxTated from her prison, which was done by order of her son 

l^ichard on his accession to the throne, he placed her at the head of the 

s'^vernment. No doubt she bitterly felt the utter neglect she had suffered 

durinjT her imj)risonment : yet she did not, when she obtained power, use 

^^ ^"pui^i^h her enemies, but rather devoted herself to deeds of mercy and 

I'i<ty. jToing from city to city, setting free all persons contined for violating 

^"'" jiiame laws, which, in the latter part of Henry's life, were cruelly 

'■"'"reed. Miss .Strickland thus closes her interesting biography of this 

f'^^utihil but unfortunate queen : " Eleanor oi Aquitaine is among the 

ver}* few women who have atoned for an ill-spent youth by a wise and 

'•enevolent old age. As a sovereign she ranks among the greatest of female 




Twelfth Century A. D. 


J^ERENGARIA of Navarre was a daughter of Sancho the Wise, king 
J^ of Naples, and married Richard Coeur de Lion soon after he as- 
cended the throne of England. Richard had been betrothed, when 
only seven years of age, to Alice, daughter of Louis VIL, who was three 
years old. Alice was sent to the English court for her education. 

The father of Richard Coeur de Lion, Henry IL, fell in love with the 
betrothed of his son, and had prevented the marriage from being solem- 
nized. But Richard, after he ascended the throne, was still trammeled by 
this engagement to Alice, while he was deeply in love with Berengaria. At 
length these obstacles were overcome. * ' It was in the joyous month of 
May, 1 191," to quote an old writer, "in the flourishing and spacious isle 
of Cyprus, celebrated as the very abode of the goddess of love, did King 
Richard solemnly take to wife his beloved lady, Berengaria." 

This fair queen accompanied her husband on his warlike expedition to 
the Holy Land. In the autumn of the same year Richard concluded his 
peace with Saladin, and set out on his return to England. But he sent 
Berengaria by sea, while he, disguised as a Templar, intended to go by 
land. He was taken prisoner and kept in durance by Leopold of Austria 
nearly five years. 

Richard's profligate companions seem to have estranged his thoughts 
from his gentle, loving wife, and for nearly two years after his return from 
captivity, he gave himself up to the indulgence of his baser passions ; but 
finally, his conscience was awakened, he sought his ever faithful wife, and 
she, womanlike, forgave him. From that time they were never parted till 
his death, which occurred in 1199. 

She survived him many years, founded an abbey at Espan, and devoted 
herself to works of piety and mercy. "From her early youth to her 
grave, Berengaria manifested devoted love to Richard. Uncomplaining 
when deserted by him, forgiving him when he returned, and faithful to his 
memory unto death." 




RBproducBd frDrn tha painting of G-BDrges 
Moreau, French figure painter, and pupil of 
Cab an el. Mareau has painted numernus "w/orthy 
pictures, of v/hich probably the best known are 
"Potlphar's Wife," " Death of Cleopatra," "The 
Family." and " Rn Egyptologist." He was 
hanored -y^th a riisdal by the Paris Salon, 




A. D. 1187-1252. 


j^ LANCHE of Castile, queen of France, was the daughter of Alphonso 
13 IX., king of Castile, and of Eleanor, daughter of Henry I. of 
England. In 1200 she was married to Louis VIII. of France ; and 
became the mother of nine sons and two daughters, whom she edu- 
cated with great care, and in such sentiments of piety, that two of them, 
Louis IX- and Elizabeth, have been beatitied by the Church of Rome. 

On the death of her husband in 1226, he showed his esteem for her by 
lea\ii^ her sole regent during the minority of his son, Louis IX., then only 
twelve years old, and Blanche justified by her conduct in the trying cir- 
cumstances in which she was placed, the confidence of her husband. The 
princes and nobles, pretending that the regency was unjustly granted to a 
woman, confederated against her ; but by her prudence and courage, op- 
posing some in arms, Jind gaining over others with presents and condescen- 
sions, Blanche finally triumphed. She made use of the romantic passion 
ot the young Count of Champagne to obtain information of the projects of 
the malcontents ; but her reputation was endangered by the favor she 
showed him, as well as by the familiar intercourse to which she admitted 
^gallant Cardinal Romani. 

In educating Louis she was charged witli putting him too much in the 
h*ndsof the clergy: but she proved an excellent guardian of his virtue, 
*"<J. in 1234, she married him to Margaret, tiaughter of the Count de 
'**>vcnce ; and in 1235, Louis having reached tlie age of twenty-one, 
^"C surrendered to him the sovereign authority. Hut even alter this, she 
attained great ascendency over the young king, of wliich >he sometimes 
"^de an improper use. 

When, in 124.S, Louis undertook a crusade to the Holy Land, he 
"^Iwmined to take his (pieen with him and leave his nic»ther regent. In 
WK second regency she showed the same vigor and prudence as in the 
^^^' The kingdom had sutiVrrd so nuieh from the domination of the 
pritslhood, that vigorous measures had become necessary ; and notwith- 



A. D. 1812-1369. 


♦> » €4 

FHILIPPA of Hainault was the daughter of the Earl of Hainault, 
married Edward IIL, king of England, in 1327. In 1346, wO 
after the victorious battle of Cressy, Edward lay before Ca 
David Bruce, king of Scotland, invaded the north of England, and rava 
the country as far as Durham. He was there met by Queen Philippe 
the head of twelve thousand men, commanded by Lord Percy. Aft 
fierce engagement, the Scots were entirely defeated, and their king 
many of the nobility taken prisoners. As soon as Philippa had seci 
her royal captive, she crossed the sea to Dover, and was received in 
English camp, before Calais, with all the 6clat due to her rank and her 
tory. Here her intercession is said to have saved the lives of six citizer 
Calais, who were condemned to death by Edward. 

Philippa' s conduct was marked by wisdom and generosity, and she 
on all important occasions the confidant and adviser of her husband, 
died before Edward, leaving several children, the eldest of whom was 
celebrated Black Prince. 

Philippa is said to have founded Queen's College, Oxford ; but 
agency in establishing a manufacturing colony of Flemings at Norwich 
the year 1335, was of far greater importance to the prosperity of the nat 
"Blessed be the memory of Edward III. and Philippa of Hainault, 
queen, who first invented clothes," says a monastic chronicler. He m< 
that, by the advice of the queen, the English first manufactured cloth. 

Philippa was also the friend and patroness of Chaucer and Froissart. 

Bianclne of Costllt^ continued. 

Standing her strong religious feelings, she exerted her utmost power aga 
the tyranny of the priests and in favor of the people. 

The unfortunate defeat and imprisonment of her son in the East sc 
fected her spirits that she died, in 1252, to his great grief, and the rei 
of the whole kingdom. She was buried in the Abbey of Maubisson. 



Thirteenth Century A. D. 


^^ARY, who attained considerable prominence among the Anglo- 
\ T / Norman Trotiveurs, in the thirteenth century, may be regarded as 
the Sappho of her age. Unfortunately she mentions but few cir- 
cumstances respecting herself ; she informs us only that she was born in 
France, without specifying in what province. She appears to have resided 
in England at the beginning of the thirteenth century, but does not speak 
o( the motive which led her thither. 

It may be conjectured that she was a native of Normandy, for her 
language is neither that of Poitou nor of (}ascony, the other provinces 
under the dominion of the English. She was versed in the literature of 
Bretagne, from whose writers she frequently borrowed, and it is by no 
means improbable that she acquired the knowledge of both the Armoric 
Md English languages in Britain. She was also mistress of the Latin. 

Her attainments afford testimony not merely of her capacity and talents, 
iHit seem likewise to imply a rank of life that allowed, with leisure, the 
means of study. Her Christian name only is mentioned, and the reader is 
left in ctjual ignorance concerning her patrons. 

Hit first jK)ems are a collection of lays, in French verse, forming various 
niitories and adventures of brave and gallant knights. The stories are 
generally remarkable for a singular or wonderful catastrophe. They con- 
^'tute the largest, and at the same time most ancient, si)ecinien of Anglo- 
^o^man poetry of the kind that has come down to the present age. 

The I^ys of Mary are twelve in number, and dedicated to some king, 
^Wname is left to conjecture. 

The smaller poems of Mary are important in giving us a wider knowl- 
^gc of ancient chivalr\', and the writer appears to have possessed, with a 
refined taste, great sensibility : her subjects are all melancholy ; she 
t'Hiches and melts the heart of her readers, and seems to ha\ e had at call 
^1 the passions of the mind. The third work of Mary is a tale in French 
^CTseof St. Patrick's Purgatory. 



A. D. 1207-1231. 


/J) LIZABETH of Hungary, daughter of Andreas II., king of Hungary, 
^^ was born at Presburg in 1207. At the age of four she was affianced 
to the Landgraf of Thuringia, Louis IV. , and was brought to his court 
in the Wartburg, near Eisenach, to be educated under the eyes of the parents 
of her future husband. She early displayed ^ passion for the severities of 
Christian life. She despised pomp and ambition, cultivated humility, and 
exhibited the most self-denying benevolence ; her conduct even as a girl 
astonished the Thuringian court. The marriage took place when Elizabeth 
was fourteen. Louis, far from blaming the devout girl whom he had made 
his wife, for her long prayers and ceaseless almsgiving, was himself partially 
attracted to a similar mode of life. A boy and two girls were the fruit of 
their union. Louis died as a crusader at Otranto in 1227. 

Great misfortunes soon befell the saintly Elizabeth. She was deprived 
of her regency by the brother of her deceased husband, and driven out of 
her dominion on the plea that she wasted the treasure of the state by her 
charities. At last she found refuge in the church, where her first care was 
to thank God that he had judged her worthy to suffer. 

When the warriors who attended her husband in the crusade returned 
from the East, she gathered them around her, and recounted her sufferings. 
Steps were taken to restore to the unfortunate princess her sovereign rights. 
She declined tlie regency, however, and would only accept the revenues 
which accrued to her as landgraxinc. The representations of other poten- 
tates soon induced her brother-in-law to allow her to return to Marburg, 
and to draw a yearly revenue of 500 marks. 

She now devoted herself wholly to a life of asceticism, put on nun's 
raiment, and took up her residence in a cottage at the foot of the hill on 
which stood her castle of Marburg. The remainder of her days were given 
up to incessant devotions, almsgivings, and mortifications. All her reve- 
nues were given to the poor, and what she required for personal expendi- 
tures she earned with her own hands. She died November 19, 1231. 



A.D. 1266-1290. 



BEATRICE PORTINARI is celebrated as the beloved of Dante, the 
Italian poet. She was born at Florence in the year 1266, and is 
said to have been very beautiful. The death of her noble father, 
Folco Portinari, in 1 289, is said to have hastened her own. The history of 
Beatrice may be considered as an affection of Dante — in that lies its sole 
interest. All that can be authenticated of her is that she was a beautiful 
and virtuous woman. She died in 1290, and yet she still lives in Dante's 
immortal poem, of which her memory was the inspiration. 

Beatrice was .seen by Dante only once or twi( e, and she probably knew 
little of him. She married .Simone de' Hardi. Hut the worship of her lover 
was stronger for the remoteness of its object. 

He says in the conclusion of the Rime (his miscellaneous poems on the 
subject of his early love) : " I beheld a marvelous vision, which has caused 
me to cease from writing in praise of my blrssed Beatrice, until I can cele- 
brate her more worthily ; which that I may do, I devote my whole soul to 
study, as she knoweth well ; in so much, that if it |)leases tin- (ireat Disposer 
of all events to prolonj^ my life for a few years upon this earth, 1 hope here- 
after to sing of my Beatrici* what never yet was said or sung of any wo- 
man. After the which may it seem good unto llini who is the master of 
grace that my spirit should go lu net- to beliold the glory of its lady, to wit. 
r>f that blessed Beatrice who now gl«»riously gazes on the countenance of 
Him qui est per omnia sircula brnni ictus.'' 

In the *' Convito " he resumes tht story of his life. 

It was in this transport of enthusiasm iJKit Dantc" conceived the idea of 
the ** Divina Commedia," his great poem, <>f which his Beatrice was des- 
tined to \yc the heroine. Tluis to the inspiration of a young, beautiful. 
and noble-minded woman, we owe one of the grandest efforts of human 
genius; probiibly the most p<rtret ti.»nsti«^uiatinn <»I the unseen worlds in 
any language. 



A. D. 1308-1348. 


^ ^ 'r^::-: z t= s ,> - 

£^ AURA, the blessed of Petrarch, is better known by that title, than by 
^^ her own name of Laura de Noyes. She was bom at Avignon, and 
married Hugo de Sade. Petrarch first saw her in 1327, and con- 
ceived a passion for her which histed during her Hfe ; yet her chastity has 
never been called in question. Petrarch wrote three hundred and eighteen 
sonnets and eighty-eight songs, of which Laura was the subject. She died 
of the plague in 1348, aged thirty-eight. She is said to have had a grace- 
ful figure, a sweet \oice, a noble and distinguished appearance, and a coun- 
tenance which inspired tenderness. 

The poetry of Petrarch ga\e Laura a wide celebrity during her lifetime. 
It is recorded that the king of Hoheniia, arriving at Avignon, sought out 
this well-sung lady and kissed her on the forehead in token of homage. 

All this may appear ver\' i)Ieasant ; romantic young women may even 
account Laura a very fortunate being : but there is a dark side to the pic- 
ture. The husband of Laura was not pleased with the notoriety which the 
devotion of Petrarch conferred on the object of his passion or his poetry-. 
Though these marks of attachment were pure and unobtrusive and often 
repressed by the coKlness of Laura, yet they awakened a keen sense of 
jealousy and distrust in her husband : and though no real infidelity of his 
wife was ever disco\eretl, still the chords of domestic happiness became dis- 
sonant, and life's sweetest harmonies were lost. 

The children of this ill- matched couple showed either that their train- 
ing was neglected, or their natural gifts \\ere very mediocre ; both conse- 
(juences unfavorable to the character of their mother. 

Though not insensible of her inherited weakness, her last moments were 
occupied by tlu* sul)limest considerations. She expired gently, and without 
struggle, like a lamp whose oil is gradually wasted. On the same day, at 
vespers, her body was carried to the church of the P'ranciscans, and in- 
terred in the chapel dc la Croix, built by her husband. 




RaprDducBd fram the painting nf Vacslav 
Brozlk, a Hnhaniian history paintar. Brozik 
was succBSsivBly a pupil of the Pragua ilcad- 
amy, Pilnty's Munich Acadamy, and nf Mun- 
kacsy In Paris. The Paris Salon awarded hini 
a madal in 1B7B. 




A. 11. 1310?. 1362. 


ANE of Flanders was one of the most extraordinary women of her 
age. Her husband, the Count of Montfort, havinj^ been, in 1342, 
made prisoner and conducted to Paris, she assembled the inhabi- 
^iints of Rennes to take up arms in her behalf. The movement was partici- 
Ftcd in by all Brittany, and she soon found herself in a position to protect 
"^^T rights. Having shut herself In the fortress of Hennebonne, Charles de 
oiois^ her husband's enemy, besieged her there, after an obstinate defense, 
^^ ^vhich the countess showed many of the cjualities of a commander. 

The repeated breaclies made in the walls at length rendered it necessary 
'^^r the l>esieged, who were diminished in numbers and exhausted by 
fatigue, to treat for a capitulation. During a conference for that purpose, 
m which the Bishop of Leon was engaged with Charles de Blois, the coun- 
tv.'ss, who had mounted a high tower which commanded a view of the sea, 
^k^cmii some sails at a distance, and immediately exclaimed, " Behold the 
succors! the English succors ! no capitulation !" 

The tiert prepared by Edward III. for the relit f of Hennebonne, hav- 

ii\\^ been detained by contrary winds, entered the hari)or under the 

command of Sir Walter Mauny. The garrison, by this reinforcement, 

Animated with fresh spirits, immediately sallied forth, beat the ix'siegers 

tr»»nuheir |)osts, and oi)liged them to decamp. The flames of war still con- 

Unued their devastations, when Charles de Blois, having investe(l the fort- 

rt-ss 0! Roche de Rien, the Countess of Montfort. reinforced by some 

hn\ilsh troops, attacked him during the night in his entrenchments, dis- 

I«r>.-d his army, and took him j^risoner. 

The mediation of France and I'jigland failed to ])nt an end to the dis- 

^"^^•^ in firittany. till Charles de Blois was at length slain, at the battle of 

• "ray. Through the influence of his motlur, the young C^)unt de Mont- 

^*^'n nficr obtained possession of tlu* (Inch v. and, though a zealous 

•' ''^^^ '>f lin^huu], had his title acknowledged bv the French king, to 

%/ /K'^mage for his dominions. 



A. D. 1347-1380. 

4 .000. >► 

^^NATHARINE of Siena was born in Siena in 1347, and early devoted 
^^^ herself to an austere life. The monks relate of this saint that she 
became a nun of the Dominic at the age of seven, that she saw 
numberless visions, and wrought many miracles while quite* young, that she 
conversed face to face with Christ, and was actually married to him. 

In 1365 she received the habit of the third order of St. Dominic, and 
soon became celebrated for her recluse life, revelations, and miraculous 
powers of conversion. Her influence was so great that she reconciled 
Pope Gregory XI. to the people of Avignon, in 1376, after he had excom- 
municated them ; and in 1377 she prevailed upon him to reestablish the 
pontifical seat at Rome, sexenty years after Clement V. had removed it to 

These public events in her life are hardly less extraordinary and surpris- 
ing than those which obtained for her the preeminence of saintship. 
Especially the latter. To put an end to the papal court of Avignon, and to 
bring back the papacy to Italy, had been urgently pressed by both Petrarch 
and Dante, as well as by the French cardinals and the king of France ; but 
without avail. The French pope's own prejudices and wishes were even 
enlisted in opposition to removal. It was under such circumstances that 
Catharine tried her powers of persuasion and succeeded in moving the 
center of Europe back again to its old place in Rome after the princes of the 
Church and the greatest men of Italy had attempted it in vain. 

One legend, among many which have sprung up and attached themselves 
to the life of this saint, is likely to cause most readers to feel an interest in 
her name. It is said that in revenge for the discomfiture of a company of 
heathen philosophers, with whom she had been compelled to dispute, the 
holy and learned lady was bound to a wheel with spikes, in such way that 
every turn of the machine would cause the spikes to pierce her body. But 
the cords were miraculously broken, and the malice of her enemies foiled. 
Hence St. Catharine, virgin and martyr, is always represented with awheel, 



b. 1388? A. D. 


JLT-IANA Beniers, prioress of Sopewell nunnery, near St. Albans, Eng- 
land, was the daujjhter of Sir James Berners, who was beheaded in the 
reign of Richard II. She was celebrated for her beauty, her spirit, 
3nd her passion for field sports, while historically the claim has been made 
'^t she was the earliest female' writer in the English language. 

She wrote, **The Boke of Hawkyng and Huntyng," which was one of 
^^^ first works that issued from the English press. A later edition was 
issued in 1810 by Haslewood, containing an examination of her claims to 
be rt.'garded as the first female writer in English. 

The indelicacies that are found in her book must be imputed to the 

^Tossness and Ixirbarism of the times in which she lived. She attained to 

an advanced age, and was highly respected and admired. The information 

V>uchinj^ the incidents of her life is exceedingly scanty, and must be largely 

drawn from her works. 

Catharine of Sit?na continued. 

and the extn-me popularity of this saint is indicated by the fact that a wheel 
^•^ a certain construction and appearance is to the present day called a 
^athariiK' wheel. She died April 30, 1380, and was canoaized in 1461. 
Her (i(-ith occurred in Rome. 

rather Raimondo, who was then at (ieneva, declares that in that city, 
at the hour of her death, he heard a voice communicating to him a last 
message (roni Catharine, which hr afterwards found she uttered on her 
JeathU^l word for word as he lu-ard it 

"^*r literary works consist of letters, poems, and devotional pieces. 

^ k*llers are by far the most interesting and valuable of lur reputed 
^**rks, and are 373 in munber. Many are addressed to kings, popes, 
cardinals, bishops, conventual bodies, and i)olitical corporations, and 
exhibit eloquence, exalted piety, no])le sentiments, and sound argumenta- 
^»'»n, as well as many philological excellencies. 




A. II. 1401-1437. 

._ — j.^.j 

^^ATHARINE of Valois, surnanied the Fair, was the youngest child 
\WM of Charles VL and Isabelle of Bavaria. She was born October 
Y 27, 1 401, at the Hotel de St. Paul, Paris, during her father's in- 
terval of insanity. She was entirely neglected by her mother, who joined 
with the king's brother, the Duke of Orleans, in pilfering the revenues of 
the household. On the recover)' of Charles, Isabelle fled with the Duke of 
Orleans to Milan, followed by her children, who were pursued and brought 
back by the Duke of Burgundy. 

Catharine was educated in the convent at Poissy, where her sister Marie 
was consecrated, and was married to Henry V. of England, June 3, 1420. 

Henry V. had previously conquered nearly the whole of France, and 
received with his bride the promise of the regency of France, as the king 
was again insane, and, on the death of Charlei=. VI., the sovereignty of 
that country, to the exclusion of Catharine's brother and three older sisters. 
Catharine was crowned in 142 1, and her son, afterwards Henry VI., was 
born at Windsor in the same year, during the absence of Henry V. in 
France. The queen joined her husband in Paris in 1422, leaving her infant 
son in England, and was with him when he died at the castle of Vincennes, 
in August, 1422. 

Some years afterward Catharine married Owen Tudor, an officer of 
Welsh extraction, who was clerk of the (jueen's wardrobe. This marriage 
was kept concealed several years, and Catharine, who was a devoted 
mother, seems to have lived very ha|)pily with her husband. Her children 
were torn from her, which act of cruelly j^robably hastened her death. 
She died in 1437. 

The nuns who |)iously attended her, declared that she was a sincere 
peniteiU. She had disregarded the injunction of ht-r royal husband, Henry 
W, in choosing Windsor as the birthplace of the heir of F'ngland ; and she 
had never believed the prediction, that ** Henry of Windsor shall lose all 
that Henry of Moimiouth had gained." But during her illness she became 
fearful of the result, and sorely repented her disobedience to her husband. 


Reproduced from the painting by Mme. Zoc Laure de Chatillon. 


A. I>. 1410-1431. 


JOAN OF ARC f Jeanne crArc), a famous heroine, was born January 
6, 1410, in the village of Domremy in Lorraine, France, of poor but 
decent and pious parents. She was their fifth child, and, owing to the 
indigence of her father, received no instruction, but was accustomed to out- 
of-door duties, such as the tending of the shei'p and the riding of the horses 
to and from the watering places. The neighborliood of Domremy abounded 
in superstitions, and at the same time sympathized with the Orleans party 
in the divisions which rent the kingdom of P>anc(». Joan shared both in 
the political excitement and the religious enthusiasm ; imaginative and 
dwout, she loved to meditate on the legends of the Virgin, ond especially, 
it seems, dwelt upon a current prophecy that a virgin sliould relieve France 
of her enemies. 

At the age of thirteen she began to believe herself the subject of siijier- 
wiural visitations, siK)ke of voices tliat she heard and of visions that she 
^*'; and, at eighteen, was possessed by the idea that she was called to 
Jdiver her country and crown her king. Her pretensions were, at first, 
treated with much scorn and derision. The fortunes of the dau|)hin. how- 
*^^'^*r, were desperate, and she was sent to Chin »n. wlu-re Cliarles held his 
^'"ft. Introduced into a crowd of conrtirrs from whom the king was 
•^"Jistir^ished, she is said to have singlrd him out at once. Her claims 
*^"'"t submitted to a severe scrutiny. She wa^ handed ovir to an ccdesias- 
ti^'sl commission, and sent to I*oiticrs for examination by thr sexeral facul- 
''winthe famous university there. Xo ividnuc inificating that shi- was a 
'Merin the black art, and the fact of her \irginity n-moxinji; all suspicions 
"'her being under sa tan ic intluenr<-, Ikt wish to had tin- army of her kini4 
"'^> granted. 

A suit of armor was made for her, a ronsr(rat<'(l sword which she 
''Scribed as buried in tht! (^hurch of St. C'atharini' at l''i«rb«»i>. was brouojn 
^'^J placfii in her hands. Thus (.([uiiJin-d slu- \n\\ lur^ill at tlu- hrad of 
^".'^'o troops under the generalship of Dunois, thrrw herself upf»n the 



English who were besieging Orleans, routed them, and in a week force 
them to raise the siege. Other exploits followed. In three months Charh 
was crowned king at Rheims, the '* Maid of Orleans" standing in full arm( 
at his side. Her promised work was done. 

Dunois, however, was unwilling to lose her influence and urged her t 
remain with the army, and she did so ; but her victories were over. In a 
attack on Paris in the early winter (1429) she wa^ repulsed and woundet 
In the spring of the next year she was taken prisoner, and was at one 
carried to the Due de Luxembourg's fortress at Beauvais. An attempt t 
escape by leaping from a dungeon wall was unsuccessful, and she was take 
to Rouen. Here she was tried for sorcery and convicted. The papei 
were sent from Rouen to Paris, and the verdict of the. University of Par 
was unanimous that such acts and sentiments as hers were diabolical, an 
merited the punishment of fire. 

Sentence of condemnation was read to her publicly on a scaffold^ by th 
Bishop of Beauvais, and the alternative offered of submission to the Chord 
or, the stake. The terrified girl murmured a recantation, put her mar 
to a confession, and was taken back to prison. Here she heard he 
"voices" again ; her visions returned. A man's apparel being left in he 
cell to tempt her, she put it on ; the Bishop of Beauvais seized upon tli 
act as a virtual relapse into her old unbelief, and hastened the executio 
of the first sentence. A huge i)ile of wood was erected in the mark< 
place of Rouen, and, surrounded by a vast assembly of soldiers and eccles 
astics, Joan of Arc was burned on the last day of May, 1431. The Seiii 
carried her ashes to the sea. 

The infamy of this transaction lies heavily upon all concerned with it 
upon the Burgundians who gave her up ; upon the English who allowe 
her execution ; upon the French who did the deed, and the French wh 
would not prevent it. and upon the king who did nothing to avenge her. 

The character of the "Maid of Orleans" was spotless. She was di* 
tinguished for her |)urity, innocence, and modesty. Her hand never she 
blood. The gentle dignity of her bearing impressed all who knew her, an 
restrained the brutality of her soldiers. She must ever be sanely estimate 
as a " martyr to her religion, her country, and her king." 



m. A. D. 1423. d. 1446. 


J^^Xuas thif eldest daughter of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset (son 
of John of Gaunt ) and of Margaret, daughter of the Earl of Kent. 
She was seen by James, son of Robert III., king of Scotland, 
while ho was detained a prisoner in the Tower of London, and he fell pas- 
^«<>naiely in love with her. On his release, in 1423, after nineteen years* 
captivity, he married Joan, and went with her to Edinburgh, where they 
»^Te crowned. May 22, 1424. James then immediately commenced that 
vigorous administration which had become necessary through the bad 
K*>vernmcnt of his predecessors. In 1430, Joan became the mother of 
J'inies, afterwards James 11. of ScoUand. 

Joiin jK)ssessed a strong influence, which she always exercised on the 
i^idcof mercy and gentleness. In 1437, the queen received information of 
^ ct.nspiracy formed against the life of her husband, the head of which was 
•^»rR()lx.Ti (iraham, and hastened to Roxburgh, where the king then was, 
^' warn him of the danger. Not being well supported by his associates, 
»rahani. who was actuated partly by personal and partly by political 
"^"tUfs, was baffled, imprisoned and banished, and his estates seized. In 
^'^'' '^i)s'hlands. whither he had fled, he formed new |)lans. The king imnie- 
(.uidy t(M>k refuge with his wife in the I )ominican abbey near Perth; i)ut 
'"<' ^'onspiratr)rs. having bribed a domestic, found their way into the room, 
'hf (jutt-n threw herself between them and her husband, but in vain ; 
^^l<r nrt.-iving two wounds she was torn from tiic arms ol James I., who 
■*aN rmir(|(; February 21. 1437. James had made an heroic resistance, 
tnoiiahai i^^[ Yi^. Ix^gged his life of the assassin, (iraham. 

J"an married, a second time, James Stuart, called the Black Knight, son 
"I Lnrd I^orne. to whom >hv bore a son. afterwards Earl of Athol. She 
(i^^'m 1446, and was buried at Perth, near the body of the king, her first 
■''I'^band. H<-r life exemplihed nian\ womanly \ irtues. a serene dignity, 
ami a surpassing courage. 



A. D. 14091449. 


f^ GNES SOREL was oorn in Fonncnteaii, in Lorraine, and became 
^^1 maid of honor to Isabella of Lorraine, sister-in-law of the queen of 
Charles VII. of France. The king became enamored of her, and 
at last abandoned the cares of government for her society. But Agnes 
aroused him from enervating repose to deeds of glory, and induced him to 
attack the English, who were then ravaging France. She maintained her 
influence over him till her death, 1449, at the age of thirty-nine. Some 
have falsely reported that she was poisoned by orders of the dauphin, 
Louis XL From her beauty, she was called the fairest of the fair ; be- 
sides beauty she possessed great mental powers. 

Agnes Sorel bore three daughters to Chark'^ \'II., who were openly 
acknowledged by him. 

She herself relates that an astrologer, whom she had previously in- 
structed, being admitted to her presence, s;iid before Ciiailes, that unless 
the stars were deceivers she had inspired a lasting passion in a great 
monarch. Turning to the king Agnes said, "Sire, suffer me to fulfill my 
destiny, to retire from your court to that of the king of England ; Henry, 
who is about to add to his own the crown you relincpii^h, is doubtless the 
object ()f this pn-dirtion." The severity of this reproof rtTrctually aroused 
Charles from his indolence and supineness. 

Th(* tomb of Agnes was strewed with flowers by the prK-ts of France, 
Even Louis, when he came to the throne, was far from treating her memory 
with disrespec t. The canons of Loches, from a servile desire to gratify the 
reigning monarch, had, notwithstanding her lil>eralities to the Church, pro- 
posi'd tt> destroy her mausoleum. Louis reproved them ft»r their ingrati- 
tude, ordered them to fulfill all her injunctions, and added six thousand 
livres t«) the charitable donations which she had originally made. Francis 
I. honored and cherished her memory, and dedicated several poetical effu- 
sions to it. 



A. D. 14^-1481. 


"\ i ARGARET of Anjou, queen of Enj^laiid, was born at Pont-iVMous- 
JV-L son, a castie in Lorraine, March 23, 1429, and died at the chateau 
of Dampierre, August 25, 148 1. Her childhood was passed amid 
many troubles that befell her family, in Italy, France, and Lorraine. As a 
Pniven^al princess, she was well educated, and at an early period of her 
lite manifested considerable talent. 

Report of Margaret's beauty reached Henry VH. of England from a 
gentleman of Anjou, who acted under the inspiration of Cardinal Beaufort, 
and her i)ortrait was obtained for his inspection. This decided the king's 
action, and commissioners were appointed to negotiate a truce with France 
and Burgundy, Charles VH. favoring the marriage of Henry and Mar- 
garet, with the view of making it the basis of peace between France and 

The Earl of Suffolk had the chief part in the transaction on the English 
swe. and the ceremony by proxy was arranged to take place at Nantz in 
N'^vember, 1444. Margaret did not reach F^ngland until the next April. 
'" ^447. f»ccurred the death of the Duke of (iloucester, of which she has 
"^" considered guilty by some historians, but without evidence. Sue 
^»m became unpopular, and the English connected the loss of their French 
P^iis^^-ssions with Iut marriage. 

Marj^aret's only child, a son, was said by her enemies to be either 
^^ <jfepring f)f adultery, or a suj^posititious child. Prince Edward was 
o^'m while his father was suffering from one of his tits (»f inil)r(Mlity, and 
»ncn ihequet-n was at the head of the g()\ernment. The Duke of ^'o^k 
*•*-'' made protector, but on the rest(jration of the king's health In- was 
<^i>nib>><'d^ wht-reupon he asserted his rights by an a|)j)('al to arms, and 
the \orkists won the first battle of St. Albans, which re^tortd thmi t(^ 
P^^. Parliament censured the cjueen and her friends, but in 1456 Henry 
assumed his rights, and the government was \ irtually in Margaret's hands. 

Personal ill-feeling Ix'tween the cjueen and the I'-arl of Warwick caused 
^ renewal of the war, and the Lancastrians were at tirsi \iet(»rious : but the 



Yorkists rallied, defeated their foes, and obtained possession of the king's 
person, who recognized York as his su accessor. 

Margaret fled with her son, first to Wales, and thence to Scotland. 
Receiving assistance from the Scotch, she returned to England, and was 
joined by her supporters in the northern counties ; York advanced to op- 
pose her, but was defeated and slain at Wakefield, the queen behaving wit); 
cruelty after battle. Marching to London, she defeated Warwick in the 
second battle of St. Albans, and released her husband. 

The Londoners, disgusted with the ferocity of her northern troops, would 
not admit her into their city, but recognized York's eldest son as king, by 
the title of Edward lY. She retreated north and was followed by Edward. 
The great battle of.Towton, 1461, was fatal to the Lancastrian cause. Mar- 
garet fled to Scotland with her husband and son. Thence she went to France, 
in the hope of obtaining aid from Louis XL, in which she met with little 

She returned again to .Scotland, and afterward went to Flanders. After 
remaining some time at Bruges, .she took up her residence in her father's 
dominions, where she superintended her son's education. She visited the 
French court, at Tours, in 1469, during which time the daughter of the Earl 
of Warwick was betrothed to the queen's son. 

From now on, she continued to ])e buffeted al)out by the fortunes (often 
misfortunes) of war until the battle of Tewkesbury, May 4, 1471, when 
she fell into the hands of the \ ictor, her son having previously been 
slain. Her husband was put to death a few weeks later. She was impris- 
oned in the Tower, and afterwards at Windsor and Wallingford, until 
November 3, 1475, when she was ransomed by Louis XI.. who paid 50,000 
crowns for her liberty, her father having ceded Provence to him for the 
purpose, and returned to her father's protection. She formally renounced 
all the rights her English marriage had given her and resided in deep seclu- 
sion at Reculee, near Angers, one of the i)()ssessions of her father, seldom 
leaving that retreat. 

Her last days were passed in the chateau of Dampierre, in suffering and 
bitter regrets. . 



A. D. 1441-1509. 


«s,i^^^.^^ - 

^^ARGARET was the only daughter and heiress of John Beaufort, 
^T^^ Duke of Somerset (grandson to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancas- 
ter), by Margaret Beauchamp, his wife. She was born at Bletshoe 
*n Bedfordshire, in 144 1. While very young she was married to Edmund 
Tudor, Earl of Richmond, by whom she had a son named Henry, who 
vas afterwards king of England, by the title of Henry VII. 

On November 3, 1456, the Earl of Richmond died, leaving Margaret a 
ven- young widow, and his son and heir, Henry, not al)ove fifteen weeks 
old. Her second husband was Sir Henry Stafford, knight, second son of 
ihe Duke of Buckingham, by whom she had no issue. Soon after the 
death of Sir Henry Stafford, which happened about 1482, she married 
Thomas. Lord Stanley, afterwards ICarl of Derby, who died in 1504. After 
^pcndinji^ a life in successive acts of beneficence, she paid the great debt of 
nature on June 29, 1509, in the first year of the reign of her grandson, 
Henry VIII. She was buried in Westminster Abbey, where a monument 
^*«i5 erected to her memory. It is of black marble, with her efiigy in 
JsTit co|)p(.r . jjjid ti^^. head is encircled with a coronet. 

Marj^aret was cel-jbrated for her dev(Uion and charity, though slightly 
""^^ with asceticism. She rose at five.- in ihr morning, and from that hour 
'Jniil dinner, which in those davs was at ten, spent her time in prayer and 
"^-'htaiion. In lur house she kepi constantly tuilve poor persons, whom 
^^^ provided with food and clothing : and although tlK- mother of a king, 
"""^^n ttas her acti\e benevolence that she was often seen dressing the wounds 
•^^ the l«)tt(H;t mendicants, and relieving them by her skill in medicine. She 
3'^' evinced her respect for learning, both bv her own works, and bv numif- 
''■*'^t end(>wments for its encouragement. She was a mother to the slu- 
«'ntN of both universities, and a patroness to all the learned men of 
Ln^'laml. Two public lectures in (li\inily were institiit<<l by her. one at 
Oxforrj an(^| another at Cambridge ; but thox- gciurons efforts wrw sur- 
pa-^scfj hy luT last and noblest foundations, the colK-^es of Christ and .St. 
j"hn in the latter university. 


A. 1>. 14ffl.l504. 


.4. SA BELLA of Castile was born in Madrij^al, April 22, 1451. She was 
•!• the daiigliter of John IL of Castile by his second wife, Isabella of 
Portugal, and was therefore descended, through both parents, from 
the famous John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. 

Until her twelfth year, Isabella lived with her* mother in retirement in 
th(» small town of Arevalo. After numerous intrigues on the part of her 
royal sponsors to contract political marriages that were distasteful to her, 
she finally married, in 1469, Ferdinand V., king of Aragon, whose suit 
both policy and affection inclined her to accept. 

After the death of her brother Henry IV., in 1474, she ascended the 
throne of Castile, to the exclusion of her elder sister, Joanna, who had 
the rightful claim to the crown. During 'the lifetime of her brother, Isa- 
bella had gained the favor of the estates of the kingdom to such a degree 
that the majority, on his death, declared for her. From the Others, the 
victorious arms of her husband extorted acquiescence, in the -battle of 
Toro, in 1476. 

After the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile were thus united, Ferdinand 
and Isabella assumed the royal title of Spain. Thenceforward their for- 
tunes were insc-parably blended. For some time they held a humble court 
at Dueiias, and afterward they resided at Segovia. 

With the. graces and eharms of her sex, Isabella united the courage of a 
heroine, and th(r sagacity of a statesman and legislator. She was always 
present at the transiution of state affairs and her name was placed beside 
that of her husband in publi(* ordinances. The conquest of Granada, after 
wiiirli the Moms were entirely expelled from Spain, and the discovery of 
America, were, in a great degree, her work. When all others had heard 
with in( redulity the scluine «)f Cnluml.)us. she recalled the wanderer to her 
]>resenci.' with the words. ** I will assume the undertaking for my own 
iT«»\\n of Castile, and am ready to pawn my jewels to defray the expenses 






*^ H IT rm^ 


ReprDducBd frnni the painting by Vacslav 

(Sbb "Laura and Fetrarch.") 


of It, if the funds in the treasury should be found inadequate." In all her 
undertakings, the wise cardinal Ximenes was her assistant. 

She has been accused of severity, pride, and unbounded ambition ; 
but these faults oftentimes promoted the welfare of the kingdom, as well as 
developed her virtues and talents. A spirit like hers was necessary to 
Humble the haughtiness of the nobles without exciting their hostility ; to 
conquer Granada without letting loose the hordes of Africa on Europe ; 
and to restrain the vices of her subjects, who had become corrupt by reason 
ol the bad administration of the laws. 

By the introduction of a strict ceremonial, which subsists to the present 
day at the Spanish court, she succeeded in checking the haughtiness of the 
numerous nobles about the person of the king, and in depriving them of 
their pernicious influence over him. Private warfare, which had formerly 
prevailed to the destruction of public tranquillity, she checked, and intro- 
duced a vigorous administration of justice. 

The ver>' sincerity of her piety and strength of her religious convictions 
led her more than once, however, into great errors of state policy, which 
bave never since been repaired, and into more than one act which offends 
the moral sense of a more refined age. 

In 1492. Pope Alexander VI. confirmed to the royal pair the title of 
Catholic king, already conferred upon them by Innocent V'lII. The zeal 
for the Roman Catholic religion, which procured them this title, gave rise 
t<^ tht' inquisition, which was introduced into Spain in 1480, at the sugges- 
ti«.>n of their confessor, Torquemada. This was followed by a wholesale 
pn/scripiion <A the Jews and other acts of fanaticism which history has been 
veiy slow to approve, though all historians agree in applauding her beauty, 
virtue, piety, learning, and political wisdom. 

J-sak-lla died in 1504, having extorted from her husband (of whom she 
« as very jealous ) an oath that he would never marry again. She had five 
childTt-n : Isabella, married to Kmmaniiel of Portugal; Jnan, a virtuous 
prince, who died in 1497, aged 20 ; Juana, who married Philip, Archduke 
of Austria, and who was the mother of the emperor Charles \'. : Maria, 
tt bo espoused Emmanuel alter the death of her sister : and Catharine, the 
uifeof Henr>' VIII. of England. 



A. D. 1462-1528. 



QNNE of Beaujeu was born in 1462, and was early distinguished f<5r 
genius, sagacity, and penetration, added to an aspiring temper. She 
married Pierre de Bourbon, a prince of slender fortune and marked 

On his deathbed, Louis, as an exhibition of his confidence in the talents 
of his daughter, bequeathed the reins of empire with the title of governess 
to her, during the minority of her brother, Charles VI IL, a youth of four- 
teen. Anne fully justified, by her capacity, the choice of her father. 

Two competitors disputed the will of the late monarch and the preten- 
sions of Anne ; her husband's brother, John, Duke of Bourbon, and Louis, 
Duke of Orleans, presumptive heir to the crown ; but Anne conducted 
herself with such admirable firmness and prudence that she obtained the 
nomination of the states-general in her favor. By acts of popular justice, 
she conciliated the confidence of the nation ; and she appeased the Duke de 
Bourbon by bestowing upon him the sword of the constable of France, 
which he had been long ambitious to obtain. But the Duke of Orleans was 
not so easily satisfied. Having offended Anne by some passionate expres- 
sions, she ordered him to be arrested ; but he fled to Brittany and sought 
the protection of Francis II. 

Anne became Duchess of Bourbon in 1488, by the death of John, her 
husband's elder brother ; and though before this, Charles VIII. had assumed 
the government, she always retained a place in the council of state. Charles 
VIII., dying without issue in 1498, was succeeded by the Duke of Orleans, 
who, notwithstanding the severity exercised towards him by Anne, still 
continued her in the council. 

The Duke de Bourbon, died in 1503 ; Anne survived him till November 
14, 1522. They left one child, Susanne, heiress to the vast possessions of 
the family of Bourbon, who married her cousin Charles de Montpensier, 
constable of Bourbon. 



A. D. 1476-1514. 

< — jat— > 

vAJNNE of Bretagne, or Brittany, only daughter of Francis IL, Duke of 
-••^ Bretagne, was born at Nantes, January 26, 1476. She was carefully 
educated, and gave early indications of great beauty and intelli- 
gence. When only five years old she was betrothed to Edward, Prince of 
Wales, son of Edward IV. of England. But his tragical death, two years 
after, dissolved the contract. The death of her father in 1490, which left 
her an unprotected orphan, and heiress of a spacious domain, at the time 
*'hen the Duke of Orleans was detained a prisoner by Anne of Beaujeu, 
forced her to seek some other protector ; she was consequently married by 
proxy to Maximilian, emperor of Austria. But Anne of Beaujeu deter- 
nimed to obtain possession of Bretagne, and, despairing of conquering it 
">' anns, resolved to accomplish her purpose by effecting a marriage be- 
tween her young brother, Charles VIII. of France, and Anne of Bretagne, 
who yielded a reluctant consent, and the marriage was celebrated, Decem- 
ber 16, 149 1. 

• ^nne soon became attached to her husband, who was an amiable 
though a weak prince, and on his death, in 149S, she abandoned herself to 
the deepest grief. She retired to her hereditary domains, where she af- 
lected the rights of an independent sovereign. 

Louis, Duke of Orleans, succeeded Charles VIII. under the title of 

Louis XII., and soon renewed his former suit to Anne, who had never 

entirely lost the preference she had once felt for him. The first use Louis 

made of his regal power was to procure a dixorce from the unfortunate 

Jeanne, daughter of Louis XL, who was personally deformed, and whom 

he had been forced to marry. Jeanne, with the sweetness and resignation 

that marked her whole life, submitted to the sentence and retired to a 

convent. Soon after, Louis married Anne at Xantes. 

Anne retained a strong influence over her husband throughout her 
whole life, by her beauty, amiability, and the purity of her manners. She 
was a liberal rewafder of merit, and patroness of learning and literature. 



m. 1493, <L 1519. 


■<»-» <> - 

T ^UCREZIA, sister of Cesare Borgia, and daughter of Rodriguez 
I Y Borgia, afterward Pope Alexander VI., was married in 1493 to 
Giovanni Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, with whom she lived four years. 
Her father, upon his accession to the Holy See, dissolved the marriage and 
gave her to Alphonso, Duke of Bisceglia. On this occasion she was created 
Duchess of Spoleto and of Sermoneta. She had one son by Alphonso, 
who died young. In June, 1500, Alphonso was stabbed to death by assas- 
sins, supposed to have been employed by the infamous Cesare Borgia. 
Lucrezia has never been accused of any participation in this murder, or in 
any of her brother's atrocious deeds. She then retired to Nepi, but was 
recalled to Rome by her father, and toward I he end of 1501 was married to 
Alphonso d'Este, Duke of. Ferrara. 

This third marriage was celebrated with great pomp, and marked a new 
era in her career. When Alphonso was absent in the field of battle he in- 
trusted her with the government, in which capacity she gained general 
approbation. She became a patroness of literature, and lived with wise 
discretion. Her conduct while living at Rome with her father has been 
the subject of much obloquy, which seems to rest chiefly on her living 
in a flagitious court among profligate scenes. No individual charge can be 
substantiated against her. On the contrary she is mentioned by contem- 
porary poets and historians in the highest terms. Many of the reports 
about her were circulated by the Neapolitans, the natural enemies of her 
family. She died at Ferrara in 15 19. In the Ambrosian Library there is a 
collection of letters written by her, and a poetical effusion. 

Anne of Bretagne continued. 

Her piety was fervent and sincere, tliough rather superstitious ; but she 
was proud, her determination sometimes amounted to obstinacy, and, when 
she thought herself justly offended, she knew not how to forgive. She 
died January 9, 1514, and Louis mourned her loss with the most sincere 



ReproducBd from a painting by Joseph CbIbs- 
tin BlaiiG Bxhibitsd in the Paris Salon, IBGS. 
Blanc was a pupil of Bin and Cabanel, and wan 
the prize at Rame in 1BFj7. His best piclures are 
"The First Sin." " Hrigand's Wile/' and "Judith 
and HaloiErnes." 












^^nfHE twelfth century was a turbulent period of transition, both in 
® I fe France and in England, from an old state of society to a new one. 
It witnessed in both countries the great struggle between kingly 
government and feudal power, and, at the end of it, the advantage re- 
mained with the crown, though the victory was but imperfect. 

The position of woman, it is true, had been, in some degree, raised at 
the beginning of this period, especially among the aristocracy. Kings of 
the Norman line granted the hereditary right of succession to 
*|**^ such titles of nobility as earls, barons, etc., without excep- 
tion of sex ; so that on the failure of male heirs, the title 
should devolve and be confirmed to the women, and they could convey it 
"}' marriage into other families. Thus women became nobles in their own 
"R"t On the other hand, the authority of the father over his daughters, 
»n regard to giving in marriage, had been transferred to tlie feudal lord, or 
^t 'east was placed under his control ; and his right to the disposal of wards 
^^more strictly enforced than ever, and was made a means of profit and 
extortion. One of the old writers complains that " wards were bought 
i*ndsold as commonly as were beasts." In the charter of Henry I., pre- 
^Ted to the laws of that monarch, and written in the first year of his reign, 
Wonuia** ^' ^' ^^^^ ^^ iioi, he promises to act in regard to his 
MarttAl authority over the barons in this regard, with the upmost dis- 
*" interesledness. *' And if," he says, *'any one of my barons 
or men wish to give in marriage his (laughter, or sister, or j^randdaiighter, 
or kinswoman, let him talk to me about it. But I will neither take any- 
thing from him for this license, nor will I forbid him to give her, unless he 
should intend to unite her with my enemy. And if my baron or other man 
being dead, his daughter remains his heir, I will give her w ith her lands by 
the advice of my barons. And if, the husband being dead, his wife sur- 
vive, and be without children, she shall have her dower and marriage, and 



I will not give her to a husband, except according to her will. But if 
the wife survive with children, she shall have her dower and marriage, as 
long as she shall keep her body lawfully ; and either the wife or some other 
near of kin shall be the guardian of the land and children. And I order 
that my barons shall forbear similarly towards the sons or daughters or 
wives of their men." Such was woman's marital position under feudalism ; 
forbearance was proclaimed nominally, but was far from bein<y the practice, 
if various writers of this period are to be accredited. 

One of the most singular characteristics of this period is the curious 

mixture of religion and love. The knight wrote poems in honor of the 

Virgin Mary, which cannot be easily distinguished from those 

and addressed to the lady of his affection. The love of God and 

i^ove of lYiQ ladies was the prime motive of every true knight in his 

course of chivalry. To this he publicly and solemnly devoted himself. 

La Dame des Belles Cousines, a shining light in the days of chivalry, held 

that the love of God should not go on without the love of the ladies, and 

that a " lover who comprehended how to serve a lady loyally was saved,'' 

St. Palaye does not hesitate to accept this as a serious article of the faith of 

a knight. Speaking of the education of gentle youth he says, '* The first 

lessons given to them had reference principally to the love of God and of 

the ladies — that is to say, to religion and to gallantry. 

** If one can credit the chronicle of Jean de Saintre, it was generally the 
ladies who undertook the duty of teaching them at one and the same time 
f/iet'r catechism and the art of love. But in like manner, as the religion 
which was taught was accompanied by puerilities and superstition, so the 
love of the ladies, which was prescribed to them, was full of refinement and 

The poet Chaucer observes as follows: "Women are the cause of all 
knighthood, the increase of worship, and of all worthiness, courteous, glad 
and merry, and true in every wise." Gassier in his ** History of the Chiv- 
alry of France," speaking of the romancers or troubadours, has the 
following : — 

**Many knights are numbered among these poets. To consecrate his 
heart and his homage to a mistress, to live for her exclusively ; for her to 



aspire to all the glory of arms and of the virtues, to admire her perfec- 
tions and assure to them public admiration, to aspire to the title of her 
ff^^, servant and her slave, and to think himself blessed if, in 
btdoars recompense of so great a love, and of so great efforts, she 
deign to accept them ; in a word, to serve his lady as a kind 
of divinity whose favors cannot but be the prize of the noblest sentiments, 
a divinity who cannot be loved without respect, and who cannot be re- 
spected without love — this was one of the principal duties of every knight, 
or of whosoever desired to become one. The imagination sought to exalt 
Itself with such a scheme of love ; and, by forming heroes, it gave reality to 
blithe flights of the poet's imagination of that time. 

" The fair whose charms and whose merits the knights-troubadour cele- 

*^ted, those earthly goddesses of chivalry, welcomed them with a win- 

^^g generosity, and often repaid their compliments with tender favors. 

* It is easy to understand that, love and war being the spring of all 

^*'" actions, some celebrated the deeds of arms which had rendered so 

^*^J' orave knights illustrious, while others sang of the beauty, the graces, 

^"^ charms of their ladies, and of the tender sentiments with which 

^ *3*es inspired them. ' ' 

y tl-|e customs of Burgundy, a young maid could save the life of a 

^* if she met him by accident, for the first time, going to execution, 

^^d him in marriage. "Is it not true," asks Marchangy, " that the 

^*^ who can interest a simple and virtuous maid, so as to be chosen for 

^^^d, is not so guilty as he may appear, and that extenuating circum- 

i^tance^ ^peak secretly in his favor? " 

^^ not necessary to adduce further [)roof of the eminence to which, 

"^*^V, woman was exalted through the spirit of chivalry. Her empire 

_,--. was notorious and unchalleni^ed. All writers of those times 

Cli%^^j c<?lebrate it, and in recent times it has been attested by the 

charming pen of Scott and by the sneer of Gibbon. The 

•hct)^' of the worship is beyond dispute ; but it may be interesting to 

e?t^^Uie how the practice of chivalry accorded with its profession, and 

Vk'bcther the power and position of the sex were substantially as dazzling as 

speculation represented them. Upon reflection we shall probably all admit 



that they were so. For though the phase of lady worship most familiar to 
us is seen in the practice of the knights- errant, to whose vagaries a certain 
amount of ridicule attaches, there is ample evidence of a real, practical, 
established female ascendency. Independently of the effects of real or fan- 
cied passion, or generosity, or condescension, the sex, as such, undoubtedly 
experienced and exercised the benefits and the powers which the knight's 
profession assigned to it. 

Dunham, in his History of the Middle Ages, says: — 

'*That woman should be regarded with new respect, that love and 
poetry should thrive together and become the greatest charm of life, was to 
be expected. In fact, from this period the sex assumed an empire which 
had never before existed — an empire which religion could not reach — 
over the minds of the fiercest nobles. It was not uncommon for a knight to 
expiate even a venial fault by years of penance at the mandate of some 
proud beauty." 

But though possessed of such great and arbitrary powers, woman was 

not a wholly irresponsible despot. She had her duties as well as her privi- 

xiie ^^R^S' ^"^^ notwithstanding that here and there a saucy sister 

Petninine strained her power to the utmost while taking little thought 

spiiere ^^ ^^^^ ^^^,^ obligations, yet with the sex generally it was not 
so ; indeed it could not have been so without breaking down the system, 
which rested as much upon the fitness of women to be loved and served as 
on the merit of men in loving and serving them. To justify this extreme 
idolatry, it was necessary that the idol should be worthy of such worship ; 
and a very high standard indeed was set up. The dame and the demoiselle 
were eminent for courtesy, affability, and grace ; while at the same time 
they cultivated all useful arts which were proper to their sphere. They 
were emphatically ftviiymie. Fast and majinish women were not, as we 
shall see, wholly unknown, but they were nonconformists, dissentients from 
the pure faith of chivalry, — women who did not perceive their true mis- 
sion nor the real source of their strength. That source was, as has been 
said above, undoubtedly their weakness, and the absence of all pretension 
on their part. Anything like self-assertion or competition would, in those 
blustering ages when their influence began to bud, have been fatal to the 



tender plant Woman became the arbitress of men's deeds, because she 
refrained from meddling in the affairs of men ; she ruled because she did 
not rival. St. Palaye, who has helped us before, we again cite in testimony 
of her training and office : — 

"Courts and castles were excellent schools of courtesy, of politeness, 
and of the other virtues, not only for pages and esquires, but even for 

young ladies. The lattervvere there instructed betimes in the 
.^ most essential duties which they would have to fulfill. There 

were cultivated, there were perfected, those simple graces 
and those tender feelings for which nature seems to have formed them. 
The)' prepossessed by civility the knights who arrived at tlieir castles. 
According to our romances, they disarmed them on their return journeys 
and expeditions of war, gave them changes of apparel, and waited on 
them at table. The examples of this are too frequently and too uniformly 
repeated to allow of our questioning the reality of this custom. We see 
therein nothing but what is conformable to the spirit and the sentiments at 
the time almost universally diffused among ladies ; and one cannot refuse 
toreco^ize the marks of usefulness which were in everything the stamp of 
our chiN-alr)'. 

"These damsels, destined to have for husbands those same knights who 
\Tsited at the houses where they were brought up, could not fail to attach 
them to themselves by the attentions, the considerations, and the services 
*hich they lavished upon them. How admirahk' the union which ought to 
pniceed from alliances established on foundations like this I The young 
i(irls learned to render one day to their husbands all the ser\ ices which a 
*amor, distinguished by his valor, can expect from a tenck-r and generous 
woman : and they prepared to be to them the most touching recompense 
and the sweetest solace of their labors. 

Chivalry passed its meridian and began to decline when it became a 
ndiculous mania for renown. Knighthood was no longer the rt.\v;ird of 

high-minded virtue, but was bestowed on any man who had 
^ wealth or power to obtain it for his own seltlsh purposes. 

The profligacy of the troubadours was open and flagrant ; 
the crusaders, who made a pilgrimage to the holy sepulchre in expiation of 



their sins, fearfully added to the list on their way ; poor knights, who had 
no money to i)ay iheir retainers, made no scruple of obtaining it by rob- 
bery and violence, and wandered about in quest of adventures, letting out 
their swords to richer brethren ; women departed from the modesty which 
had procured them homage, and bestowed their smiles so indiscriminately 
that they lost their value. Vet, as the affectation of anything is always 
more excessive than the reality, the exploits of the knights during the 
rapid decline of chivalry were more outrageously fantastical than they had 
ever lx?en. It was common for a cavalier to post himself in some very 
public place, and fight every gentleman that passed, unless he instantly 
acknowledged that the lady of his affections was the handsomest and most 
virtuous lady in the world ; and if, as often happened, he was met by one 
as mad as himself, who insisted upon maintaining the superior charms of 
his dulcinea, a deadly combat ensued. 

At the beginning of the fourteenth century, a society of ladies and 
gentlemen was fornu-d at Poictou, called the Penitents of Love. In order 
to show that love could effect \\\v strongest metamorphosis, they covered 
themselves with furred mantles and sat before large fires in the heat of 
summer, while in winter they wore the slightest j)ossible covering. Thus 
chivalry became an absurd and disgusting mockery, and was finally 
laughed out of the world by the witty Cervantes. 

But though thf form became grotesque, and died in a state of frenzy, 
the important end achieved by the spirit of true chivalry ought not to be 
XeacliliiirM f**^^*^^^^*"- '^ stood in the place of laws, when laws could 
of xnae not have bevn enforced, and it raised woman to a moral rank 
ciiiva ry j^^ society unknown to the most rrfmed nations of anti(|uity 
— a rank she can never entirely lose, and from which her comparative free- 
dom is derived. It taught monarchs to lay the foundation of a beautiful 
social system by introducing the wives and daughters of the nobles at 
court, where none but men had previously been seen. "A court without 
Lidies," said Francis I., "is a year without a spring, or a spring without 

Beyond the walls of the castle, and having no relationship of their own 
with feudalism, to which the foregoing discussion has almost exclusive 



^^crencc, lay two other great classes of the population. First, there were 
"^^ mhabitants of the towns, who embodied, perhaps, to a greater degree 
^W any of the others, the spirit of social and political freedom and prog- 
^^ The other was to a great extent a servile class, attached to the 
^und, or personally to the lord of the domain, reduced to servility 
throi^h conquest, and largely intermixed in the course of time with slaves 
/'^uced to that condition by different means. Among the masses, in 
"^A these classes, there was far less of social refinement than among tHe 
^^da\ or gen//e class. 

F'or our knowledge of the women among the masses at that time we 

"'"^t look to the fabliaux and popular tales, to the farces, and to the 

'^^ong popular literature generally, and there we shall find it pic- 

tiie tured pretty fully, and it must be confessed in not very 

***** amiable colors. 

"The generality of the buri^her women are represented as ill-educated, 

^^^^*^ in language and manners, and violent in temper. They tyrannize 

®^*^r their husbands, and beat them, and are often beaten in their turn. 

irit^ylove gadding alx)ut. This is perhaps easily understood, when we 

^^nsider that town life, as far as the male sex was concerned, was very 

"^^»ch out-of-doors, and that the women were left to themselves, and 

^HQrefore sought society among themselves, and, as they had not this at 

'^oiTie, they sought some common place of meeting. This place was the 

^^vern, which, in the medieval town, was the great place of resort for both 


The love of women for the tavern is continually alluded to by the early 

Popular writers. The farces of these writers were first made to enliven the 

dull mysteries, or nligious plays, with which the medieval 

^ clergy sought to edifv their congregations on certain occa- 

sions. When the hearers appeared to he too much wearied 

*Uh the religious piece, or when it was judged probable that they might 

"^« One of these farces was introduced between the scenes, the subject 

usually taken from vulgar life. 

In the middle of the religious play of the Life of St, Fiarn\ a farce is 
Jntrodured, the subject of which is a scene of poj)ular lift-, the charac trrs 



being men of the country instead of the town, whose manners appear not 
to have differed. A scuffle has taken place between a yeoman, a ser- 
geant (or bailiff), and a brigand, in which the sergeant* s arm 

" *^* is broken. The wives of the bailiff and yeoman meet in anoth- 
Plctnre ^ 

er scene, and the latter tells the former of her husband's mis- 
hap, at which she expresses her joy, inasmuch as he had beaten her 
severely the night before, and she hopes he may be disabled from doing it 
again. The yeoman's wife then proposes to adjourn to a tavern : — 

•' Sister, I know a tavern. 
Where there is a wine so dainty, 
That to all bodies it sets the heart laughing 
Who drinks it." 

Accordingly they proceed to the tavern, and address themselves to the 

hostess : — 

** Hostess, God's blessing to you, 
Put us in a private room, 
And then bring us to drink." 

So the women are shown into a private apartment, and are served with 
wine ; and here they enter into a rather free conversation on the characters 
of their husbands, not much to the advantage of the latter. Says the wife 

of the bailiff : — 

•* You shall drink first of all, 
Gossip, you are the elder. 
Moreover you have brought 
The news first 
Of my husband, how he is 
In evil plight ; I am in great joy, — 
I wish he had his head 

Entirely broken." 

However, it turns out that the bailiff's hurt was not so great as had been 
supposed ; and the drinking room was not so secret ; for the women are 
alarmed soon after by seeing their husbands approach the tavern. They 
arrive, find their wives and beat them, and, as their wives are very ready at 
defending themselves, the farce ends in a general scuffle. Such was 
burgher life in one of its lower phases. 

There was another establishment peculiar to the medieval towns which 



formed ^. favorite resort to the townswomen, called in French cstuves or 
public baths. The women of the medieval towns appear to 
31^^^^ have spent much of their time in these cstuves. They met 
there as at a party of amusement, and often clubbed together 
provisions to make a banquet, much in the manner of fashionable picnics in 
the days of George III. of England. The earlier French popular literature 
imrodiices us to the scenes which occurred on these occasions, but they are 
too coarse and disreputable to be described in modern print. In the man- 
ner in which they were conducted, these establishments offered so many 
lacUilies to discreditable intrigues that they became known as houses of ill- 
lame. They continued to exist in France until rather a late period ; in 
London they were suppressed by Henry VIII. 

* "e tone of society in the towns, as revealed by these scenes in the 
*'*''^» Ji-as extremely gross, and the language the women use, and the 

^^^^^ subjects of which they talk, would not bear repetition at the 

lAt^ [)resent day. This was, no doubt, less the case with the 

higher classes, though the women of these classes, even, are 

•fess/^ warned against the use of obscene words and expressions, as 

^" ^liey were not uncommon. Morality, too, appears to.have been at 

■'^ ^^^^3, and the burgher women are represented as engaged continually 

in low ^x^ trignc's, and as too often faithless to tht-ir husbamls. 

\ar \, ^y^ circumstances conduced to this state of things. The women of 

the t«»^ iVs, and of the common class in the country, were left much to them- 

^^.^.^ selves, and were perhaps on that account more rxposed to 

corruption. But the literature of the feudal agt? destroys any 

(JoO^^ ^hich might remain on our minds that the j)ri(sthoo(l, (k*j)ri\r(i of 

-Y^c V^^viJejri- of marriage, were the grrat corruj)ti'rs of fcinak* morality. 

-^YvJ^ ^as chiefly the outside the walls of the feudal castles. The clergy 

^ilh»n — the chaplains of the feudal chieftains — were too widely sej)arate(i 

•^ rocial level from the ladies of the household, and under too close ob- 

y.nati<m of the lord and his knights and escjuires, to he vtry dangerous. 

/f tt<is the parish priesthood especially, who mixed with their parishioners 

^,n a ^*x»ting of equality, and, in fact, belonj^ed. generally, by l)Ioo(i to the 

^mc class, who, armed with the dem(»ralizing system of auricular confes- 



sion, were the great underminers of the social morals of the Middle 

In the popular stories of the time, every woman almost had a priest, or 
a '' clerk," or a monk, for her lover, and not a few of the stories turn upon 
the alliance or rivalry of clergy and laity in the same pursuit. Moreover, a 
very considerable portion of the clergy, down to a very late period, so far 
set the regulations of the Church at defiance, that they lived with concu- 
bines, who were acknowledged by the parishioners as their wives, and were 
commonly spoken of as the *' priestesses," who were considered as holding 
rather a high position in the popular society, and whose children were 
proud of their descent. The priests' wives, or priestesses, formed quite 2k 
class in medieval society, although they were not acknowledged by the 

Another point to be emphasized as characteristic of the Middle Ages is 
the spirit of superstitious devotion so generally manifested. No guest was 

saper- so welcome in bower and hall as the pilgrim returned from the 

•tltloas Holy Land, with many a tale to tell of victories gained by 
knights of the holy cross over the worthless infidel. The 
troubadours^ after a youth spent in love and minstrelsy, almost invariably 
retired to the silence of the cloister. Noble and beautiful women, upon the 
slightest disgust with life, or remorse of conscience, took the vow that sep- 
arated them fore\'er from the world, and pledged them to perpetual chastity 
and poverty. When this vow was taken, all jewels and rich garments were 
laid aside, and the head shorn of its beautiful ornament of hair. 

The building in which they secluded themselves was guarded by massive 
walls, and iron-grated windows. The rich and the noble seldom died with- 
out leavine something to endow a convent. At last, they 
Conirents . . 

became powerful instruments of oppression ; for, if a noble- 
man had numerous daughters, and wished, in the pride of his heart, to cen- 
ter his wealth on one only, he could compel all the others to take the veil ; 
if they were not sufificiently beautiful to aid his ambitious views, or dared to 
form an attachment contrary to his wishes, the same fate awaited them. 

If a nun violated her vow of chastity, she suffered a penalty as severe 
as that imposed on the vestal virgins ; being placed in an opening of the 



walb, which was aften^ard bricked up and thus left to perish slowly with 

But the influence of convents was far from being wholly evil. Their 
gates were ever open to the sick, the wounded, and the destitute ; in 
the most turbulent times, the sweet charities of life there found a kindly 
nurser)-, and many a young mind was trained to virtue and learning, under 
the fostering care of some worthy abbess. 

Aschi\'alr\' and the military spirit declined, men began to take pride in 
literature ; and women, of course, assumed a corresponding: 
character. The merits of Arist()tle and Plato divided the 
attention of the learned. The universities declared in favor of Aristotle ; 
■'"^ poets, lovers, and women were enamored of the ethereal Plato. Wo- 
men preached in public, supported controversies, published and defended 
theses, filled the chairs of philosophy and law, harangued the popes in Lat- 
in. «Tote Greek, and read Hebrew. Nuns wrote poetry, women of rank be- 
<^*roc divines, and young girls publicly exhorted Christian princes to take 
upvmsforthe recovery' of the holy sepulcher. 

" niay Ih? necessary' to speak briefly concerning the matter of dress at 

™ remote periods under consideration. I^xtravagancc* in the display of 

^^ jewelry and of rich materials in the dress had increased 

greatly toward the end of the twelfth ( entury, and were still 

on the increase. 

Among the new sul)stances. derived like so many others from the ICast, 

Has one a»mm<»n enough now. but then greatly prized — cotton, which ;ip- 

ftears to have l>een introduced into Pranct- in the twelfth century. It 

;ippears to ha\ e iK^en in general use throughout lunopc- in the thirteenth 

a-niury. The use of silk among the higher classes was very considerable, 

dJid it was mixed perhaps with other substances, and received various 

cJ'vrs. s'^ as to form a variety of silken stutfs known inuKr (hftcrcnt nanus. 

.Siji^ uas a cloth of very fine texture made of wool. It was often employed 

:o evade the ecclesiastical rule which enjoined, by way of penance, the 

* tearing (»f a woolen garment, intended, of course. 1«) be rough, next to 

he >kin. Cavulot, which came from the Past, is said to have been made 

A the hair of camels. 



In the latter part of the twelfth century, and in the thirteenth, embroid- 
ery of various kinds was employed in these stuffs, and in dresses made 
from them, to a very extravagant degree. It was not unusual to have the 
crests and armorial bearings of the family embroidered upon the outer 
dress ; and it was often covered with large figures, not only of plants and 
flowers, but of animals also. Widows were closely muffled, and wore caps 
and veils very much like nuns. 

A taste for rich and elegant dress displayed itself first in Italy and 

'France, and thence spread into the more northern nations. Petrarch's 

National Laura is described as wearing gloves brocaded with gold , 

Pecaifarltfes and dressed magnificently in silk, though a pound of silk ai 

n Dress ^j^^^ period was valued at above twenty dollars, in our money. 
Spanish ladies wore necklaces of steel, to which thin iron rods were fas- 
tened, curving upward to expand the veil when thrown over the head. 

All nations prided themselves on long and beautiful hair. Among the 
Saxons and Danes, married women only covered it with a headdress ; girls 
wore their tresses loose and flowing. A faithless wife had her head shaven, 
and the Church sometimes ordered it as a penance for other sins. The 
Spanish and Italian ladies retained the Roman predilection for golden hair. 
In order to obtain the desired hue, they made use of sulphur and aquafortis, 
and exposed their heads to the sun during the hottest hours of the day. 

The writers of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries make much more 

frequent mention of the variations of the fashions than those of more 

remote periods. The causes of this may easily be dis- 

covered, both in the principal events of the last centuries of 

the Middle Ages, and in the reciprocal relations of the nations of Europe. 
The long wars between the English and French, and the military expedi- 
tions of the Germans, French, and Spaniards to Italy, caused such an in- 
termixture of nations as had not taken place since the time of the crusades. 
When the soldiers who had been in foreign service for many years returned 
to their native land, they very often retained the dresses and decorations 
which announced their extraordinary achievements and adventures ; and 
these foreign costumes and ornaments found admirers and imitators among 
their countrymen and countrywomen. 








A. D. 1500 TO A. D. 1800 





A. D. 1480-1536. 


F^lATHARINE of Aragon, fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
^^^ king and queen of Castile and Aragon, was born December 15, 
1485. Married in 1501, when scarcely sixteen, to Arthur, Prince 
^t Wales, son of Henry VII., she was left a widow April 2, 1502, and on 
^«e 25di of June was betrothed to her brother-in-law, Henry, then only 
^M'cn years old. The pope's dispensation enabling such near relatives to 
Quarry was obtained in 1504, and the marriage took place in June, 1509, 
5cven weeks after Henry's accession to the crown as Henry VIII. 

The queen,by her manners, good sense, and superior endowments, con- 
trived to retain the affection of this fickle and capricious monarch for nearly 
twaty years. She was devoted to literature and was the patroness of liter- 
arjrmciL She bore several children, but all of them, excei)ting a daughter, 
a fteiw anitt Queen Mary, died in their infancy. Scruples, real or pretended, 
3tleiq;th arose in the mind of Henry concerning the legality of their union, 
udthey were powerfully enforced by his passion for Anne Boleyn. 

In 1527, he resolved to obtain a divorce from Catharine on the grounds 
of the nullity of their marriage, as contrary to the Divine laws. Pope 
QcmeDt VII. seemed at first disposed to listen to his application, but over- 
Ured by Charles V., emperor of Germany and nephew to Catharine, he 
cvaed die negotiations to be so protracted that Henry became very impa- 
tient Catharine conducted herself with gentleness, yet firmness, in this 
^lynv emergenc>-. 

Beil^ cited before the papal legates, Wolsry and Campeggio, who had 
opened their court at London, in May, 1529, to try the validity of the 
l^ioS^s marriage, she arose and, knc-eling Ix-fore her hnsl)ancl, reminded hin., 
* a pathetic yet resolute speech of Ikt lonely and unprotected state, 
'wlof her constant devotion to him, on proof of which she appealed to his 
Own heart ; then, protesting against the proceedings of the court, she rose 
^'rf withdrew, nor could she ever be induced to appear again. 

Hcnrj', soon after, threw oil liis submission to the court of Rome, de- 



A. D. 1499-1549. 


MARGARET was born in AngouKime, April ii, 1492, and died at 
the chateau Odos, in Bigorre, Deceml)cr 21, 1549. She was the 
daughter and eldest child of Charles of Orleans, Count of Angoii- 
lenie, and of Louise of Savoy. Her father died when she was in her 
twelfth year, hut she was well educated by her mother, and at the court of 
Louis XI L 

She was married in 1509 to Charles, Duke of Alen9on, a prince of 
the blood royal, but who has suffered in history, as he did at the time, 
by the splendor of the alliance made for him. The five years that im- 
mediately followed this marriage were passed in the duchy of Alenyon ; 
but when Margaret's brother became king of France, as Francis L, she not 
only became attached to his court, but had a large part in the government. 

She w«'is superior to her brother in ability, and her learning and wit 
made her the fit companion of the statesmen of those times. She spoke 
several languages fluently and correctly. 

After the defeat and capture of her brother at Pavia, in February, 1525, 
Margaret aided her mother to carry on the government for some months ; 
but in August she went to Madrid, where Francis was then a prisoner to 
Charles V. Her visit was reputed to have saved his life ; and her warm 
reproaches to the emperor, because of his uncliivalrous treatment of 
Francis, had a powerful eflect even on his cold nature. The Duke oi 
Alen^on, her husband, died April 11, 1525. She afterwards became the 
wife of Henri d' Albert, Count of Beam, and titular king of Navarre. 

Cutlx<irino of Arfujroii continued. 

clared himself luad c>f the Church of luigland, had his marriage formally 

annulled by Archbishop Cranmer, and in 1532 married .Xnne Boleyn. 

Catharine took up her abode at Amplhill in Bedfordshire, and after- 
wards at Kimbolton Castle, in Huntingdonshire. .She employed herself 
chiefly in religious duties, bearing her lot with resignation. She died in 
January, 1536. 


A. D. 1507-153G. 


aNXE BOLEYN, second wife of Henry VIII., was born in 1.507, and 
was the daughter of Sir Thomas Holeyn, by Elizabeth Howard, 
(laughter of the Duke of Norfolk. She spent some three years at 
the court of France, and soon after her return to England was wooed by 
Lord Hcnr)' Percy, and by king Henry himself, who in 1522 began to shower 
•eaith and honors on her father, and who ere this had dishonored her sister 
Man*. \ot till the king's divorce from Catharine of Aragon was set afoot, 
dots Anne seem to have favored his addresses ; but long before Cranmer 
pn»nounce(i the divorce, she was Henry's mistress. They were secretly 
numd in Januar\', 1533, and Anne was crowned the following June. Her 
^laujjhter, the famous Elizabeth, was born on September 7 of the same year. 
Anne continued to be much loved by the king until 1536, when the dis- 
appointment caused by the birth of a still-born son alienated his affections. 
^ next May day, the king rode off abruptly from a tournament held at 
Greenwich, leaving the queen behind, and on the morrow she was arrested 
andhrouj^ht to the tower. The story runs that his jealousy was kindled by 
"^r dropping a handkerchief to one of her lovers in the lists below ; any- 
'"•ow, a s|>ecial commission had been secretly engaged in examining into 
charges of Anne's adultery with her own brother, Lcird Ro( hford, and 
♦jtheni, including Mark Smeaton, a musician. Only Smeaton made any 
confession; but they were all convicted oi high treason and nut death, 
^'neaton was hanged, and two days later on Tower (Jreen, Anne submitted 
"^-T slim neck to the headsman's axe. Henry, the next day, married Jane 

" ^ as through the influence of Anne Boleyn that the translation of the 
Vnpturt-s was sanctioned by Henry \'III. Her own private coj)y of 
iyndale's translation is still in existence. She was a woman of highly 
•-uuivaied mind, and there are still extant soiiie verses comj)ose(l by her, 
shortly before her execution, which are touching in the extreme by reason 
^'^ tJic^ef and desolation they express. 



A. I>. 1521-1546. 


FNNE ASKEW, daughter of Sir William Askew, oi Kelsay, in Lin- 
colnshire, England, was born in 152 1. She received a very liberal 
education, and early manifested a predilection for theological 
studies. She had read and studied the Scriptures quite extensively and 
espoused with great earnestness the opinions of the Reformation. 

Her eldest sister, who was engaged to Mr. Kyme of Lincolnshire, died 
before the nuptials were completed. Sir W^illiam Askew, unwilling to lose 
a connection which promised pecuniary advantages, compelled his second 
daughter, Anne, to fulfill the engagement entered into by her sister. But 
however reluctantly she gave her hand to Mr. Kyme, to whom she bore 
two children, she rigidly fulfilled the duties of a wife and mother. 

Her husband was a strong Catholic, and turned her out of doors. She 
went to London to sue for a separation, and attracted the sympathy of 
the queen, Catharine Parr, and many of the court ladies. 

At first a Roman Catholic, she had gradually become convinced of the 
falsity of transubstantiation. On coming to London she was obliged to 
suflfer numerous indignities lK)th at the hands of the Church and the civil 

Her denial of the corporeal presence of Christ's body in the eucharist 
caused her arrest and committal to prison. When examined before the 
lord chancellor Wriothesley, bishop of London, and the lord-mayor of that 
city, she was asked, whether the priests cannot make the body of Christ? 
She answered, " I have read that (lod made man, but that man can make 
(iod I have never yet read." 

Yet Hiirnet says, that after much pains she signed a recantation acknowl- 
edging that the natural body of Christ was present in the sacrament after 
the consecration, wlu-ther the ofiiciating priest W(.*re a man <»f holy or evil 
life. Her recantation did not save her. She was recommitted to Newgate, 
anil aski'd to disclose who were her correspondents at court. She refused 
to reply, and was racked in the presence of the lord chancellor, but would 
disclose nothing. 



d. A. I). 1544. 


- ♦-.'-^^ 

MARGARET ROPER, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas More, was a 
woman of fine mind and charming disposition, the dehght and 
comfort of her celebrated father. The greatest care was taken in 
^w education ; and she became learned in Greek, Latin, many of the sci- 
ences, and music. 

Erasmus wrote a letter to her, as a woman famous not only for virtue 
^d piety but for solid learning. Cardinal Pole was so delighted with the 
elegance of her Latin style, that he could not believe it was the production 
of a woman. 

She married William Roper, Esq., of Well-hall in the Parish of Eltham, 
in Kent ; she died in 1544, and was buried at St. Dunstan's church, in 
Canterbury, with her father's head in her arms ; for she had procured it 
^er it had remained fourteen days on London bridge, and had preserved 
11 in a leaden box, till there was an opportunity of conveying it to Can- 
terbury, to the burial place of the Ropers. She had five children, one of 
*'nom, Mary, was nearly as famous as herself. 

Mrs. Roper wrote, in reply to Quintilian, an oration in defense of the 
•^cn man, whom he accuses of having, by venomous flowers in his garden, 
P<>isoned the poor man's bees. This performance is said to have rivaled 
V"'niilian's in eloquence. 

^ne also wrote two declamations, and translated them into Latin, and 
^niposed a treatise Of the Four Last Vlihiq^s, in which she showed so 
°^"^h strong reasoning and justness of thought, as obliged Sir Thomas to 
confess its superiority to a discourse in which he was himself employed on 
^"^ same subject. The ecclesiastical history of Lusebius was translated by 
tnis scholarly woman from the Greek into Latin. 

'^Hw A«Vco%v continued. 

Her fortitude probably saved the life of the (jueen. As she was not able 
^^ stand after the torture, she was carried in a chair to the stake at Smith- 
"^d, July 16, 1546, and suffered along with four others. She underwent 
^nis last trial with the same courage as the former. 



A. I>. lftlG-15A8. 



/ I \HIS queen, upon whom has l)ccn indelibly fixed the epithet of 
-I- ** Bloody Mary," was born at Oremwich Palace, February i8, 
15 16, a daughter of Henry VIII. by his first wife, Catharine of 
Aragon. She was carefully educated in Sj^ain, was an ardent Catholic and 
became a proficient scholar in Latin, so that Erasmus commends Ikt letters 
in that language. 

Edward VL, her brother, dying 15S3. ^^^^ ^^'*^*^ proclaimed queen in July 
of the same year, and crowned in October. I'pon her accession, she 
declared that she would not persecute her Protestant subjects : but, in the 
following month, she restricted preaching, and in less than three months 
the Protestant bishops were excluded from the House of Lords, and all the 
statutes of Edward \'I. respecting the Protestant religion were repealed. 

In July, 1554, she was married to Philip 11. of .Spain, who was t-leven 
years younger than herself, and by temper little disposed to act tlu* h^ver. 
His ruling i)assion was ambition, which this fond consort was resoKcd to 
gratify. In this point, however, she was less successful than in her favorite 
wish of reconciling the kingdom to the pope, which was effected in form, 
by the legate, Cardinal Pole. 

The sanguinary laws against heretics were renewed, and put in execu- 
tion. The shocking scenes which followed, the pages of history tell in 
tears. In three or four years, two hundred an<l seventy-seven persons 
were conunitted to the fiames. On T'ebruary 4, 1555, John Rogers was 
burned at the stake ; Cranmer, Latim<r, and Ridley shared the same 
fate. The ruin of England seemed impending, when in the summer c^f 
1558 the (pieen was attacked by an intermittent fever, of \\lii<h she died 
at .St. James Palace, November 17. 

To her, no doubt, the propagators of heresy were the enemies of man- 
kind, and she ha<l little cause to lovt? them. \\{ j)erha|)s she hardly real- 
ized the full horror of what was done under her sanction. Tennyson calls 
her "unhappiest of cjueens, and wives, and women." 



A. D. 1537-1554. 


H-H06 — K 

T (^ADY JANE GREY was born at Brod^atc, Leicestershire, England, 
I \ in October, 1537. She was the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, 
Marquis of Dorset, who in 1551 became Duke of Suffolk, and of 
Lady Frances Brandon. 

Udy Jane was brought up rigorously by her parents, every petty fault 
punished with "pinches, nips, and bobs" ; but Aylmer, her tutor, after- 
wards bishop of London, endeared himself to her by his gentleness, and 
under him she made great progress, especially in languages — Latin, Greek, 
French, Italian, and Hebrew. 

Roger Ascham tells how in December, 1550, he found her reading Plato's 
Pkirdoin the original, while the rest of the family were hunting. She also 
s^ and played well, and was versed in other feminine accomplishments. 
^" ^S53, after the fall of the Duke of Somerset, the Duke of North- 
wraberland, foreseeing the speedy death of the boy-king Edward VI., de- 
termined to change the succession and secure it to his own family. Lady 
Jiine. not sixteen years old, was therefore married, strongly against her 
wish, to Lord Dudley, Xorlhuml)erlan(rs fourth son, on May 21, 1553 ; 
ai^donJulvQ, three days after Edward's death, the council informed her 
that ^he was named as his successor. 

*-^n the 19th, the brief usurpation over, she found herself a prisoner in 
the Tower and four months later, j)leading guilty of high treason, she was 
^ntenatl to death. .She spurned the idea of forsaking Protestantism for 
love of life, and bitterly condemned Northumberland's rrcantation. This, 
t^^ther with her father's participation in Wyatt's rebellion, sealed her 
d'M'Hi and she was beheaded on Tower I fill, IVbruary 12, 1554. 

from the scaflold she made a hj)eech in which she said : " The fact, in- 
'Jeed, against the (jueen's highness was unlawful, and the consenting to by 
nie; but touching the procurement and tlesire thereof by m(* or on my be- 

Wf, I do wash my hands thereof in innocency I die a 

true Giristian woman. ' ' 



A. I>. 1519-1589. 


^^ATHARINE DE'MEDICI, the wife of one king of France and the 
\T^ mother of three, was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of 
T Urbino, and was born at Florence in 15 19. In her fourteenth year 
she was brought to France, and married to Henry, the second son of 
Francis I. The marriage was a part of the poUtical schemes of her uncle. 
Pope Clement VII., hut as he died soon after, she found herself friendless 
and neglected at the French court. 

It was not till the accession of her eldest son, Francis II., in 1559, that 
she found some scope for her ambition. The Ciuises at this time were in 
power, and Catharine entered into a secret alliance with the Huguenots to 
oppose them. On the death of Francis II. in 156c), and accession of her 
second son, Charles IX., the government fell entirrly into her hands. 

She entered into a secret treaty with Spain for the- extirpation of heretics 
and subsecjuently into a plot with the Guises, which resulted in the fearful 
mass;icre of St. Bartholomew's day. This event brought the whole power 
of the state into the hands of the (jueen mother, who boasted of the deed 
to Roman Catholic governments, and excused it to IVoti-staiit (»nes. 

Al)Out this time she succeeded, by gold and inlrij^ms, in getting her 
third son, afterwards Henry III., clicted to tin- Polish thn»ne. Hut lur 
arbitrary and tyrannical administration roused the opposition oi a Roman 
Catholic party, at the head of which was her own fourth son, the Duke of 
Alen^on. It was very generally Ix-lievird that she was privy to the machi- 
nations that led to his death. Many vexations preyed on the proud heart 
of the (jueen mother in her last days : and. amid>t the c<»ntu>ion and strife 
of parties, she died at Hlois on January 5, 15S1;, iniheeded and unlamented. 

Catharine de'Mediei may fairly be regarded as a representative woman 
of an ::ge when the first princii)les of human coiiduel N\ere hopelessly con- 
founded by religious strife and tlur inlrij^ues and curruptions of the courts. 
Virtue had given place to luxiny. extravagance, cunning, sensuality, and 
cruelty ; qualities which the prevailing ctMulilions tencied to develop. 






ReprDducBd Irnm thB painting af A. L. Mayer, 
a Hungarian painter, and pupil of Piloty. 
Mayer's works have recBived much praisB, as- 
pB::ially his picturss, " Faust," and " Maria ThB- 
resa Nursino tha Faor Woman's Child." 




A. 11. 1^33-U\OH. 


^2) LIZABKTH, qiiei.n of ICnt^laiul, and the last sovereign of the house of 
^^r Tudor, was horn at (jRcnwich, Scplt-inbcr 7, 1533. She was a 
daughter of Henry \ IH. and Anne Holeyn. Her chiUihood wiis 
])assed in comparative retirement, and she was e(ineated hy persons who 
favored the reformed reli^don. She learned the I-atin, dreek, French, and 
Italian languages of the famons Ro^er Asi ham. 

In 1554 Klizaheth was confined in the Tower l>y order of Oueen Mar\', 
who believed her to he imj)lieate<l in Wyatt's rebellion, an<l rej^arded her 
with jealousy Inrcause she was the favorite with the Protestant j»arty. She 
narrowly escaped death, for some «>f the bishops and courtiers advised 
Mary to order her execution. After she had passtd several months in the 
Tower, she was removed to Woodstock and aj>j)eased Mary by professing 
to be a Roman Catholic. 

On the death <>f (Jueen Mary, on Nov. 17. I55«S. Flizalu-th ascen<ied 
the throne, and tlu^ majority of th<* people rejoired at her a(•^•rs^ion. She 
appointed William Cecil secretary t)f st.ite. and Nieln»las Bacon keeper 
of the great seal. .She retained several Roman Catholic^ in her privy 
council, but she refused to hear mass in tlu- royal chaj)el. 

The Prott*stants wen- the maj<)rity in the Parlianunt which met in 1559, 
abolished the mass, adopted the Thirty-Niiu- .\itieles as the nliii^ion of the 
State, and recognized thr (juem as tlir luad <>! the Church. .Sht- <ieclint'd 
an offer of marriage made to lur bv Philip nf .Spain. Her fonign policy 
was pacific. She waged n«» war f«»r < ninpust, but to pn»m<»tr the .stability 
of her throne she aided tlu- Protectant in>urgents in Sci aland. France, and 
the Netherlands, with nn)niy and trtM»j>^. 

In 1563, the l^uliament. an.\iMn> ih.ii ^h<* ^li«»nl<l ha\r An luir. entreated 
her to marry, l)Ut .she rrtnrnrd an <\.»>i\«' an^wir. .ni<l v\onld neither accept 
the hand of any of lu-r sin"t«»r^ n«»r (lcci<l« in t.t\««r of any » lainiant of the 
throne. Among lur suitors urrc thr l*irn«h 1 )nk« •»[ An^«»n. tlh- .\rch- 
dukc Charles of Austria, aimI Ri»1m rl Dudley, I'.arl «»i L« ice>trr. who was 



for many years her chief favorite. William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, was her 
prime minister and most trusted adviser during the greater part of her reign, 
the prosperity of which was largely due to his prudence and influence. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, fleeing from her rebellious subjects, took refuge 
in England in 1568, and was detained as a prisoner by Elizabeth. The 
latter regarded Mary as a dangerous rival, because the English Catholics 
wished to raise her to the throne of England, and formed several plots and 
conspiracies for that object. Mary was beheaded February 8, 1587. 

Philip II. of Spain had long meditated a hostile enterprise against 
Queen Elizabeth, who had offended him by aiding his revolted Dutch sub- 
jects and by persecuting the English Catholics. For the invasion of England 
he fitted out the Invincible Armada, which consisted of about 130 vessels 
with over 19,000 soldiers, and sailed in May, 1588. A violent storm dis- 
persed the Spanish ships, many of which were wrecked, and the rest were 
encountered by the English fleet, mostly consisting of small but excellently 
equipped veSvSels, under Admiral Howard, and thoroughly beaten, August 
8, 1588. 

The disastrous failure of this expedition did not terminate hostilities l>e- 
tween England and Spain. An English fleet look Cadiz in 1596. 

After the Earl of Leicester died, 15SS, the Earl of Essex was the queen's 
favorite courtier. The I*uritans were severely persecuted in the latter part 
of her reign. She died March 24, 1603. and was succeeded by James \'I. 
of Scotland, who became Janice I. of England. 

Her reign was one of the most j)rosperous and glorious in English his- 
tory. The Elizabethan age was almost unequaled in literature, and was 
illustrated by the genius of Shakespeare, Sj>enser, Bacon, Sidney, and Ra- 

The darkest slain on the memory of I^lizabelh is her trealment of Mary. 
Queen of Scots. Her executi<^n. tliouj^h clamored for by the ICnglish 
nation, was an act of cruelly peculiarly revolting on the j>art of a female 
sovereign and kinswoman. And IClizabelh's affected rehic tance to sign the 
death warrant, coupled with the most fla^ duplicity following closely 
upon it — all of which was o\er-acted and disgusting — is almost as injurious 
to the reputation of Elizabeth as the deed itself. 



A. I>. 1548-1587. 


^^ARY STUART, Queen of Scots, celebrated for her beauty, her 
\T / wit, her learning, and her misfortunes, was born December 8, 
1542. She was the daughter of James V. of Scotland by Marie 
ol Lorraine, a French princess of the family of Guise. Her father died a 
Iwdays after her birth, and on September 9, 1543, she was crowned queen 
of Scotland, the Earl of Arran conducting the government. 

In 1548 she was affianced to Francis, Dauphin of France, son of Henry 
11. and Catharine de' Medici, and in the same year she was brought to 
France to be educated at the French court. When she grew up she added 
to a striking and fascinating personal beauty all the accomplishments and 
cWms which a perfect education can give. 

Her marriage with the dauphin was celebrated April 24, 1558, in the 
Church of Notre Dame, and when Mary I. of England died in the same 
year she had her arms quartered with those of England, and threatened to 
rouse the Catholics against Elizabeth's title. 

On July 10, 1559, Henry II. died, and was succeeded by Francis II. 
^Jan- thus became Queen of France, but Francis died December 5, 1560 ; 
she was childk*ss, and had little power at court, where the influence of 
Catharine de' Medici was now paramount. In the same year her mother 
^j«i. and she then returned to Scotland. 

brought up a Roman Catholic and used to the gay life of the French 
^^urt. she found the dominant Protestantism of Scotland and the austere 
"^ners of her subjects almost intolerable. Nevertheless, the first period 
'•I her reign was fairly successful ; and she strove to conciliate the Protes- 
^"^. The latter, however, were s(K)n estranged l)y her unfortunate mar- 
"^^ with her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, a Catholic, who, on 
'^^bruar)' 9, 1567, was blown up by gunpowder as the result of a treacher- 
ies plot he had inspired. Three months after the death of her husband 
^iiry married the Earl of Both well, whom public opinion accused of the 
fflurder of Darnley. 



From this time a series of misfortunes attended the queen, and a gen- 
eral revolutionary uprising took place. In the battle of Carberry Hill 
(June 15) Bothwell was defeated and fled, and Mary was confined in Loch- 
leven Castle and compelled to abdicate. She escaped, however, and rallied 
a new force, but was defeated at Langside, May 13, and fled to Hnj^land. 
Here she was immediately imprisoned — first at Carlisle, after\vards in vari- 
ous other places, and at last in Fotheringay Castle. 

After eighteen years' imprisonment, during which she was the center of 
Catholic plots, she was tried on a charge of complicity in the conspiracy of 
Antony Babington against the life of Klizabelh, and on October 25, 1586. 
a sentence of death was pronounced against her. On February i, 1587, 
Elizabeth signed the warrant of execution, and on F'ebruary 8, Mary, Queen 
of Scots, was beheaded. She insisted to the last that she was innocent of 
Babington' s plot. 

She was buried at Peterborough, whence, in 161 2, her body was re- 
moved to the chapel of Henry VII. at WestminsUr. 

At the intimation, in her death verdict rendered by the (jueen's council, 
that her life was an impediment to the security <A the revealed religion, 
Mary "seemed with a certain unwonted alacrity to Iriumph, giving Ood 
thanks, and rejoicing in her lu*arl that she was held to he an instrument" 
for the restoration of her own faith. This note of exultation as in martyr- 
dom was maintained with unflinching courage to the last. She wrote to 
Elizabeth and the Duke of (iuist* two k-tters of almost matchless eloquence 
and pathos, admirable esjMcially for their loyal and grateful remembrance 
of all her faithful servants. 

That the life of Mary .Stuart was not onr of mmunglc-d innocence and 
virtue is abundantly evident, but the exact UK'asurc of her guilt, or the exact 
degree of her coinj)licity in the crinus conunitled for lur sakr and in her 
name, has nc»t been made out. And still more obscurr and entangled seem 
those ideas and passions from which such guilt >j)ran3L:. Thrrc are two 
brilliant dramatical delineations of h<r character onr hv Schiller and the 
other by Hjijrnson — and a number of j)rose works relalinii to her his- 
tory that give us \arying estimati-s of this romantic and unhappy person- 





RaprDducBd frnm a palntiiicr by Ferdinand 
Heilbuth, a G-erman painter. . The peculiar talent 
□f Heilbuth in treating life and manners has vjun 
hiin a wide reputatian. The Paris Salon gave 
him a medal of hnnnr lu lEBl. His " Titian with 
his Lady Love" and "On Monte Pincio " (the 
latter In the Corcoran G-allery, Washington)' are 
bath renowned pictures. 

'^^(^ / V ^^5^^^ 


A. D. 1537-1581. 


^LEONORA D'ESTE, an Italian lady of illustrious descent, was 
Ql daughter of Hercules H.. marquis of Kste, and Renie, daughter of 
Louis XIL, king of France, and was born in 1537. She was en- 
dowed by fcHtune with an exalted social station, and by nature with extraor- 
dinary beauty, taste, and intellect ; but her chief claim to historical memo- 
riafization was her relation with Tasso the poet. 

Tasso was twenty-one years old when he appeared at the court of 
Alphonso of Este. An indiscreet remark having been made by a certain 
ca\'alicr upon his devotion to the princess Eleonora, he challenged the 
ofiendcr, who, with three brothers to aid him, basely attacked the bard. 
Tasso valiantly combated the whole four until interference put an end to 
the dud. Alphonso felt offended at the cause of this rencontre, and sent 
TasBointo exile, where he remained subject to the duke's recall. 

Taaso was an admirer of beauty, and wrote verses to the charms of the 
k>vdy Eleonora that could not but touch her heart. It is said that, being 
^t the wedding of one of the Cionzago family, celebrated at the court of 
^te, he, blinded by his passion, imj)ressed a kiss on the clieek of the prin- 
"^'tts. The color mounted t<> Alphonso' s brow ; but he turned coldly to his 
courticra, and said, **\Vhat a great pity that the hncst genius of tht* age- 
^become suddenly mad ! " 

I'pon this charge of madnc^ss, the j>rince caused Tasso to be shut up in 
^he hospital of St. Anna. His \^n\^ years kA inij)ris()nnu-nt, his sufferings, 
'■^'' laments, are well known. Obliged to witness the cruel j)unishnient ol 
^iT lover, and knowing the inflexible (haracter (^f her brother, I'^leonora fell 
•-to a slow fever, and died in 15S1, about a year after Tasso' s imprisonment, 
l^ht doors of Tasso' s prison were at length opened : but she was dead I 
'Omh, love, fortune, all had vanished : tame, it is true, remained. The 
•^urd-crown was placed on his brow at Rome in the midst of a pompous 
•t">tival : but this could not recompense him for his wasted youth and his 
ioftt Eleonora. 



A. D. 1571-1599. 



^^ABRIELLE D'ESTREES, a descendant of one of the noblest 

I®!' houses in Picardy, was born in 157 1, and died April 10, 1599. 

Gabrielle was about twenty years of age when she met Henry for 

the first time at the chateau of Coeuvres, where she resided with her family. 

She was fair and of singularly beautiful complexion ; her eyes were 
blue, and combined, in a remarkable degree, tenderness with brilliancy of 
expression ; her hair had a golden hue, her forehead was bold and large ; 
her whole presence was beaming with intelligence and instinct with gentie- 
ness and grace. 

She inspired the French monarch with a violent passion, which, however, 
did not interrupt her relation with her old lover, the Duke of Belleg^rde. 
But Henry still urged his suit, and often stole by the sentinels of his ene- 
mies, in the dress of a j)easant, to see the object of his love. The heart oi 
Gabrielle was at length moved by such ardor and devotion, and she be- 
came the mistress of the chivalric monarch, who never loved any other 
woman so passionately. 

To escape the severe scrutiny of her father, Henry married her to a 
nobleman named M. de IJancourt, as a nominal husband, and subsequendy 
raised her to the rank of Marchioness of Monceaux, and in 1595 to that of 
Duchess of Beaufort. At the same time he lavished riches upon her in 
great profusion, and at the time of her death she was possessed of more 
than twelve estates, some of which are to this day pointed out in the 
vicinity of Paris. 

Henry would have divorced liimself (as he afterwards did) froir 
Margaret of X'alois, his legitimate wife, for the purpose of raising Gabriellt 
to the throne of France, had it not been for his friend and ministe 
Sully, with whose influence she was unable to cope. She had three chil 
dren by the king — Casar and Alexander, afterwards Dukes of Vendome, 
and Catharine Henrietta, subsequently the Duchess of Elbeuf. 



A. D. 1583-1599. 


BEATRICE CENCI was the daughter of Francesco Cenci, a Roman 
nobleman of colossal wealth. According to Muratori, Francesco 
was twice married, Beatrice being the youngest of twelve children 
by the first wife. After his second marriage he treated the children of his 
^rst wife in a revolting manner, and was even accused of hiring bandits to 
murder two of his sons on their return from Spain. 

The beauty of Beatrice inspired him with the horrible and incestuous 
desire to possess her person ; and with mingled lust and hate he persecuted 
her from day to day, until circumstances enabled him to consummate his 

The unfortunate girl besought the help of her relatives, and of Pope 
Clement V 1 1., but did not receive it ; whereupon, in company with her step- 
mother and her brother, Giacomo, she planned the murder of her unnatural 
F^ent, into whose brain two hired assassins drove a large nail, Septem- 
**r9, 1598. 

The crime was discovered, and both she and Giacomo were put to the 
torture ; Giacomo confc*ssed, but Beatrice persisted in the declaration that 
i»he was innocent. All, however, were condemned and beheaded, Septem- 
ber 10. 1599. 

Such is Muratori' s narrative. Others allei^e that Beatrice was the inno- 
^t victim of an infernal plot. The results, howe\er, of Bestolotli's in- 
vestigations go far to deprive the story of the Cenci tragedy of the romantic 
elements on which Shelley's i)owerful drama mainly turns. 

Francesco, it would appear, was profligate, but no monster ; Beatrice, 
^^ the time she murdered her father, was not sixteen, hut twenty-one years 
of age, was far from beautiful, and was probably the mother of an illegit- 
'"late son. And Bestolotti finther sliows that the sweet and mournful 
^^'^HJntenance which forms one of tht- treasures of the Barberini Palace in 
Rome, cannot possibly be a portrait of Beatrice by Guido, who never 
painted in Rome till some nine years after Beatrice's death. 


A. I>. 155)2-1615. 


MARGARET of Valois, queen of France, was born in 1552, and died 
in Paris, March 27, 161 5. She was the daughter of Henry IL and 
of Catharine de' Medici and was celebrated for her beauty, her 
profligacy, and her talents. In 1572 she was married to the king of Na- 
varre, afterward Henry IV. of France, the marriage being the pretext on 
which the leading Protestants were assembled at Paris, to Ik? massacred on 
the eve of St. Bartholomew. After his escape from thc*se tragic scenes, 
Margaret was permitted to join him at Biarn, where she remained five 
years, tolerating the king's infidelities, though he would not tolerate her 

In 1 58 1, on the invitation of her mother, she returned to the French 
court. There the profligacy of her life drew upon her the condemnation of 
her brother, Henry III., who compelled her to return to her husband, by 
whom she was received with bitter reproaches. .She fled from him, and took 
up her residence at Agen, where she made war on him as a heretic. Thai 
place being taken in 1585, she vainly sought another asylum, and was 
seized and imprisoned in the fortress of I'sson ; but her arts made her 
mistress of the place, from which she drove the governor and held it for 
twenty years. 

She became queen of France in 1594. <>n the triumph of her husband, 
but he refused to restore her to freedom luitil she sliould renoimce her 
rank, to which she would not consent until after the death of (»abrielle 
D'Kstrees. They were divorced in 1599, but she did not recover her lib- 
erty until some years later. She visited the court in 1605, where she did 
homage to her successor, Marie de' Medici. The remaining ten years of 
her life were passed in l*aris or in its vicinity. 

Alnu^st to the last she led a vicious life ; but at length she fell into 
hypochondria, and was terrified at the a|)[)roach (»f death. .She founded a 
convent in Paris, the imnates of which were reijuired to have fme voices, 
and herself instructed them in the nnisic which was restful to her. 


A.D. 1A0A?-1617. 


FOCAHONTAS, an Indian woman of Virginia, daughter of the chief 
Powhatan, was born about 1595, and died in (^ravesend, England, 
in March, 16 17. She was remarkable for her friendship toward the 
EngHsh colonists, a striking evidence of which is said to have been given 
when she was about twelve years old. 

Captain John Smith was taken prisoner, and it was decided to put him 
to death. His head was laid upon a stone, and the savages were brandish- 
ing their clubs prej)aratory to dashing out his brains, when Pocahontas 
threw herself upon the captive's body, and her intercession with her father 
saved his life. Recent researches discredit this story. 

When Smith returned to Jamestown, he sent [)rcsents to Pocahontas 
and her father : and after this, according to Smith's narrative, Pocahontas 
*' with her wild train visited Jamestown as freely as her father's habitation." 

In 1609 she passed through the wood in the night to inform Smith of a 
plot formed by her father to destroy him. in 161 2 she was living in the 
territory of the Indian chief Jaj)azaws. Captain Samuel Argall bribed Jap- 
azaws to betray her intt^ his hands, and began to treat with Pocahontas for 
her restitution, but they were unable to agree. 

While she was on shipboard, an attachment sprang up between her and 
an Englishman named John Rolfc, and the consent of Sir Thomas Dale and 
of her father having been gained, they were married at Jamestown in April, 
1613. A peace of many years duration between the English and the In- 
dians was the consecpience of the union. Before her marriage she was l)ap- 
tized, receiving the name of Rebecca. In 16 16 she accomj)anied Dale to 
England, where she was an object of great interest t<^ all classes of people, 
and was presented at court. Pocahontas prepared to leave England, but 
she suddenly died when on the point of t-mbarking. 

She left one son, Thomas Rolfe. who was educated by his uncle, a Lon- 
don merchant, and in after life went to X'irginia, where he became a person 
of note and influence. 



A. I>. 160S-1666. 



^JJfNNE of Austria, queen of France, daughter of Philip III. king of 

' ^^^ Sj)ain, was born in 1602, and died January 20, 1666. She was 

married December 25, 1615, to Louis XIIL, and was the mother 0/ 

Louis XIV. Hardly any queen of France was so much calumniated, or so 

undeservedly unhappy. 

Cardinal Richelieu, the all-powerful minister of the weak Louis XIIL, 
dreading the influence of the wife, or, as others pretend, having been re- 
fused by her as a lover, succeeded in prejudicing the mind of the king till 
he allowed Anne to be continually persecuted, exiled, and, at times, left to 
suffer the greatest penury. Richelieu accused her of conspiracy with 
the Dukes of Lorraine, with England, with her own brother, the king of 
Spain, with all the enemies of France, and with the conspirators at the 
court, against his own supremacy. 

When Richelieu represented her as wishing to get rid of Louis to marry 
Gaston, and Anne was compelled to appear before the king's counsel to 
answer this grave charge, her dignity here came to her aid and she scorned 
to make a direct reply. She merely observed, contemptuously, that too 
little was to be gained by the change, to render such a design on her part 

At the death of Louis XIIL, the parliament in 1643 appointed her 
regent during the minority of Louis XIV. The Cardinal Mazarin, who, 
likewise, was said to have been her lover, ruled in her name, and this 
occasioned the revolt of some of the princes of the blood and other French 
grandees, — a rising known in French history under the name of the 

She possessed a peculiar and extremely delicate sense of feeling over 
the whole body ; scarcely any linen or caml)ric was fine enough for her 
use. It was another peculiarity of hers, that, though she loved flowers 
passionately, she could not bear the view of natural or even painted roses. 



A. I>. 1090-1643. 


(jVj^'NE HUTCHINSON, the founder of the Antinomian party in the 
•*-^ New England colonies, was the daughter of a Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land, clergyman named Marbury, and was born in 1590. In Eng- 
land she was interested in no preaching but that of John Cotton and her 
brother-in-law, John Wheelwright, and it was her desire to enter the minis- 
tr\' of the former, which induced her to follow him to New England. 

She came to Boston with her husband, September 18, 1634, was admitted 
a member of the Boston church, and rapidly acquired esteem and influence. 
She instituted meetings of the women of the church to discuss sermons and 
doctnnes, in which, with a ready wit, bold spirit, and imposing familiarity 
with the Scriptures, she gave prominence to j)eculiar speculations. 

Her tenets were that the person of the Holy Spirit dwells in every be- 
li^er, and that the inward revelations of the Spirit, the conscious judgment 
0^ the mind, are of paramount authority. Amoqg her partisans were the 
young j/ovemor Vane, Cotton, Wheelwright, and almost the whole Boston 
church, while the country clergy were generally united against her. 

She soon threw the whole colony into a flame. The progress of her 
s^tinients occasioned, in 1637, t:he first synod in America. "The dis- 
pute, ' siiys Bancroft, *' infused its spirit into tvcTvthing ; it interfered with 
"^*^ levy of troops for the Pequot war ; it influenced the respuct shown to 
tfie majrist rates, the distribution of town lots, the assessment of rates ; and 
it last the C(mlinued existence of the two parties was considered inconsis- 
^twith public peace." 

Accordingly, Mrs. Hutchinson was called before the court in November, 
^"37; and, being convicted of traducing the ministers and advancing 
^'*rs. was banished from Massachusetts. She went with her husband to 
'^Me Island, and in 1642, after her husband's death, removed into the 
^<^^'tor\' of the Dutch beyond New Ha\'en. Here, in 1643, her home was 
attacked and set on fire by the Indians, and herself and all her family, 
excepting one child, who was carried captive, perished. 



A. D. 169A-ia80. 


^)nNE HARRISON FANSHAWE, the eldest daughter of Sir John 
-1-A- Harrison, of Balls, England, was born in London, March 25, 1625. 
Her mother was Margaret Fanshawe, of an ancient and highly re- 
spectable family ; and, what was of more importance to her daughter, she 
was an eminently pious as well as an accomplished woman. When about 
nineteen, Anne Harrison married Sir Richard Fanshawe, a relative of her 
mother. He was a lawyer, went abroad with his wife, arid was finally 
appointed secretary to the English ambassador at the Spanish court. 

As a supporter of Charles IL, he was taken and imprisoned after the 
batde of Worcester, during which imprisonment his wife exhibited the 
highest form of devotion. He was finally released, on heavy bail, and was 
joined by her at Tankerslys Park, Yorkshire, where husband and wife de- 
voted themselves to literary pursuits. After the restoration. Sir Richard 
was sent to the court of Portugal, and subsequently to Spain. While 
occupying the latter post, he suddenly died. 

The queen of Spain was so moved by the desolation of the heart-broken 
widow, that she offered her a pension of thirty thousand ducats per annum 
if she would embrace the Catholic religion. Lady Fanshawe was deeply 
grateful for this kindly interest, but refused to accept any favors with such 
conditions attached. 

Through the financial assistance of Anne of Austria, the remains of Sir 
Richard were sent to England for interment and subsecjucntly Lady Fan- 
shawe erected a hand.some monument to the memory of her husband. 
Their union of twenty- two years had been a pattern of conjugal fidelity and 
happiness ; the widow continued as constant to the memory of the dear 
departed as she had been in her affection to liim while he lived. Her 
whole aim and jjlan of life was to educate her children : and she wrote her 
own Memoir * ' for her dear and only son. ' ' She survived her husband 
fourteen years, dying January. 1680. 



A. I>. 1631-1664. 


eATHARINE PHILIPS, "the matchless Orinda/' was born the 
daughter of a respectable Presbyterian London merchant, on Jan- 
uary I, 1 63 1. A precocious child, she early became strongly royal- 
ist in feeling, and in her seventeenth year she married a worthy Welsh 
gentleman, James Philips of Cardigan Priory. 

Her earliest poem was an address to Henry Vaughan, the Silurist, on 
the appearance of his Olor Iscamis. About the same time she seems to 
have assumed' her melodious nom de plume of Orinda, having formed 
among her neighbors of either sex a society of Friendship, the members 
of which must needs be re-baptized — the ladies as Lucasia, Rosania, 
Regina, Valeria, Polycrife ; the gentlemen as Palaemon, Sylvander, An- 
tenor (her own husband), and Poliarchus (Sir Charles Cotterel, her greatest 
Wend, to whom her forty-eight Letters were published in 1705). 

Orinda is the earliest English sentimental writer, and she has tears at 
*ill e\'en for the marriages of the lady members, which she resents as out- 
^es on the sufficiency of friendship. Yet she was a worthy woman and 
a good wife, despite her overstrained sentimentality, to whom Jeremy 
Taylor dedicated his Measures and OJJlces of Friendship. She went to 
^Min in 1662, and here Roger, Earl of Query, and the rest gave her a 
"Ottering reception. On a visit to London she caught smallpox, and died 
He 22, 1664. 

At Dublin she translated Corneille's Povipcy, and, in her last year, the 
P'^'iter part of his Horaee. Her poems were surreptitiously printed at 
l-ondon in 1663, but an auth(>rit.iti\e edition was issued in 1667. The 
"^^tchless Orinda' s poetry has long since faded into forget fulness, despite 
^he chorus of contemporary praise from Cowley and every poet of note. 
'^^Is found her poems in 1S17 while writing Kndymion, and in a letter 
^*^ Re)'nolds speaks of them as showing "a most delicate fancy of the 
'^^cher kind." Her daughter, Joan, was also a talented writer of verse, 
^cording to Mr. Gosse. 



A. D. 1626-16S9. 


eHRISTINA, queen of Sweden, only child of the great Gustavus 
Adolphiis, was born December 17, 1626, and succeeded her father 
in 1632, when only six years old. Distinguished equally by beauty 
and the possession of a lively imagination, a good memory, and uncommon 
intelligence, she received a man's rather than a woman's education, and to 
this may partly be attributed the many eccentricities of her life. 

During Christina's minority, the kingdom was governed by the five 
highest officers of state, the principal being Chancellor Oxenstiern. In 
1644 she assumed the reins of power, and in 1650 was crowned with the 
title of king. She had previously declared her cousin, Charles (Gustavus, 
her successor. For four years thereafter she ruled the kingdom with vigor, 
and was remarkable for her patronage of learned nun, such as (irotius, 
Salmasius, and Deticartes. In 1654, however, at tlie age of twenty-eight, 
weary of the personal restraint which royalty imposed on her, she alxlicated 
in favor of her cousin, reserving to herself sufficient revenues, entire inde- 
pendence, and supreme authority over her suite and household. 

I'pon leaving Sweden, she proceeded to Brussels, where she embraced 
the Roman Catholic religion. .She next went to Rome, which she entered 
on horseback, in the costume of an Amazon, with great jxunp. Confirmed 
by Pope Alexander \*ll.,she adopted the surnanu- of .Xlesandra. She 
next visited Paris ; and there in 1657 she caused her grand ecpierry, Mon- 
aldeschi. who had enjoyed her entire confidence, to be j)nt to di^ath in her 
own household for treason. The death of the king in i^Cx) caused her to 
hasten from Rome to .Sweden, but, failing in her attem|)t to be reinstatcnJ 
on the throne, she again left the country. In 1666 she asj)ired to the 
crown of Poland, but was unnoticed by the Poles. 

The remainder of her life was spent at Koine in artistic an<l scientific 
pursuits. Here she live<l lor some twenty y<ars, (inarrding. intriguing, 
and collecting : corresjionding with men of letters and founding academies : 
consume<l by the desire for that political power which she had thrown 



d. A. D. 1679. 


T ADY DOROTHY PAKINCiTON, daughter of Lord Coventry, and 
JL/ wife of Sir John Pakington, \vi\s eminent for her learning and piety, 
and ranked among her friends several celebrated divines. A volume 
entitled 71k^ Whole Duty of Man was ascril>ed to her at first, though the 
mistake in authorship has since been discovered. 

Her acknowledged works are, The Gentiemen s Callinfr^ the Ladies' 
Callings The Government of the Tonfi^ue, The Christian s Birthright, and 
The Causes of the Decay of Christian Piety. Her theological works are 
strictly orthodox, and evince ardent piety of fe<»ling. She was at the time 
of her decease engaged in a work entitled The Government of the Thoughts^ 
which was praised in high terms by Dr. Fell ; this work, however, she did 
not finish. 

Lady Pakington had ri'ceived a learned education, which w*as not at 
that time uncommon to give to women of high rank ; that she used her 
talents and learning wisely and well, we have this testimony in the writings 
of Dr. Fell. He s;iys of her, ** Lady Pakington was wise, humble, tem|>er- 
ate, chaste, patient, charitable, and devout ; she iive<l a whole age of great 
austerities, and maintained in the midst of them an undisturlx'd serenity." 
She died May lo, 1679. 

CtirlMtino of i^wi.Mlori continued, 

away, and endeavoring to assert her vanishetl influence to the last. She 
wrote a great deal, but her Afaxifns and Sentemrs, and Ke flections on ike 
Life and Actions of Alexander the ihcat, are all that have been pre- 

Her death ()r(nirri"<i in Rome. .April 19, 1689. and she w;ls buried under 
a sonorous e|)ita|)h. in St. Peter's. 

Her magnitirtnt library was purchased by Alexander VI 1 1., her collec- 
tion of antic juities and part of her paintings by a nephew of the Pope, and 
the remaindtr of lur pictures by the regent of Orleans. 



A. D. 168A-1719. 


f I ARANQOISE d*Aubign6 Maintcnoii was born at Niort, Xovemher 27, 
-L 1635, ^^^ died at St. Cyr, April 15, 17 19. Her l)irthplace was a 
prison, Chateau Trompette, where her father. Constant d'Aiibign6, Baron 
of Surimeau, was confined for having killed his wife and her lover, whom 
he had taken in adulter^'. 

The mother of Fran^oise was the daughter of the governor of the prison, 
whom d*Auhigne had persuaded to marry him secretly. In 1639 he was 
discharged from prison, and with his wife and children emigrated to Mar- 
tinique, where he died in the utmost poverty. His widow returned to 
France, whither she was soon followed by her daughter, who, after various 
vicissiludt»s and much suffering from poverty and ill treatment on the part 
of her relatives, found herself, at the age of fifteen, in Paris, an inmate, in a 
dependent and almost menial position, of the house of her g<>(imr)th«r, the 
Countess de Neuillant, who had converted her from Calvinism to Catholi- 

The comic poet Scarron, who was a paralytic and a cripj)le. lived in the 
same street with the Countess de Neuillant, became interested in the young, 
beautiful, and intelligent girl, whose adventures had been related to him. 
and furnished money to enable her to enter a convent, whirh |>overty had 
hitherto prevented her from doing. Fran«;oise called to thank her bene- 
factor, and at their t'lrst interview he j)roposed to lur to bn ome his wif<\ 
.After a week's deliberation she consented, and they were married in 1651. 
She was at this lime exreetlingly beautiful, graceful, and witty, and the 
house of Scarron soon became the ri-sort of the most brilliant intellects of 
Paris. Scarron died October 14, i66<..). leaving his young widow nearly 
penniless, his j)ension ceasing at his death. 

In 1669 she become g«»verness to the children of Loui> XIW by 
Madame de Montespan, much to the dissatisfaction of the king, wlio at tirst 
did not like the extreme gravity and reserve of the young widow. 

Her talents and wisdom, however, soon attra* t<*d his attention, and she 



d. A. D. 1650. 


BAUGHTER of Camillus Molsa, knight of the order of St. James of 
Spain, and granddaughter of Francis Maria Molsa, a celebrated 
Italian poet, was a woman of very high accomplishments, uniting 
in an extraordinary degree, wit, learning, and beauty. Her father, observ- 
ing her genius, had her educated with her brothers, and by the best 
roasters, in the chief branches of literature and science. Some of the most 
distinguished men of the time were her instructors and eulogists. She was 
mistress of Latin, Greek, and the ethics of Aristotle, Plato, and Plutarch. 
She also understood Hebrew and natural philosophy, and wrote her own 
language, the Tuscan, with ease and spirit. She played on the lute and 
violin, and is also said to have had a highly cultivated singing voice. 

Tarquinia Molsa was greatly esteemed by Alphonsus II., Duke of 
Ferrara, and his court. The city of Rome, by a decree of the senate, in 
wWch all her excellencies were set forth, honored her with the title of 
Sinf^uiar, and bestowed on her the rights of a Roman citizen. This 
<ltCTeewas passed December 8, 1600. 

She was married to Paulus Porrinus, but losing her husband while still 
ven* young, she would never consent to be married again. H(t grief was 
Sfi acute at the rt*sult of his death that she was called a second Artemisia. 
She retained her personal charms till an advanced period of life, confirming 
the opinion of Euripides, that " the autumn of beauty is not less pleasing 
than its spring." Although so courted and extolled, she avoided notice 
i'ld distinction, and retained to the last her fondness for a retired life. 

Madame <!•* Nlalntemon continued, 

t)ecame his confidant and adviser, was made marchioness, and took the 

n^rae of Maintenon from an estate, and, after resolutely refusing to become 

rhe king's mistress, became his wife by a secret marriage in 1683. From 

ihh time till his death, Louis was greatly under her intluence, after which 

trvcnt she retired to the convent of St. Cyr. 




A. D. 1644-1710. 


^LLE. DE LA VALLIERE, duchess, a French lady celebrated for 
her intimate relations with Louis XIV., born in Tours in August, 
1644, died in Paris, June 6, 17 10. 

After the death of her father, a French nobleman and superior officer, 
her mother married the Baron de St. Remy, who was attached to the 
household of the Duchess of Orleans. Introduced at court and appointed 
maid of honor to Henrietta of England, sister-in-law of Louis XIV., 
Louise de La Valliere soon received the homage of several distinguished 
persons, whose attentions she discountenanced from a feeling of sincere love 
and admiration for the king. 

All who became acquainted with the young lady were struck with her 
modesty, gentleness, and truthfulness, as well as with her personal charms 
and varied accomplishments ; and the most eminent French writers, as 
Racine, La Fontaine, and Madame de Sevigne, bestow the highest encomi- 
ums upon her virtues and graces. 

Her love for Louis XI \'. was as enthusiastic as it was disinterested : 
and after having for some time resisted his advances, she became his mis- 
tress in 1661, but on several occasions felt iniptlled by conscientious 
scniples to desert her lover, who twice succeeded in bringing her back from 
the conven^in which she had taken refuge. In 1674, however, she left him 
definitely, and took the veil in the Carmelite convent of the Faubourg St. 
Jacques under the name of Sister Louise. She received the visits of the 
queen, the Duchess of Orleans, and other warm admirers, and, engaged in 
works of piety and charity, spent the rest of Irt life in the seclusion of 
that convent. 

She bore four children to the king, two of whom were K-gitimatized, 
Mile, de Hlois, who married the Prince of C'onti, and llu* Count of Verman- 
dois. She wrote a book entitled Krfintions on thr Mm v of (lod, by a 
Penitent Jl on/an, 1680. A collection of her letters was also published in 
1767. Her life has been a very sugj^estive literary theme. 



A. D. 1654-1720. 


|XXE LEFEV^RE DACIER, a French woman distinguished in letters 
and as a scholar, was born in Saumur, France, in March, 1654, ^^^ 
died in Paris, August 17, 1720. 

She was the daughter of the celebrated scholar, Tanneguy-Lcfevre, and 
acquired her first instruction from overhearing his lessons to her brother. 
lefe\Te, amazed at the extent of the information thus obtained, devoted 
fcimself to her education : and at his death, in 1672, she was one of the 
nwst accomplished scholars in Europe. 

Immediately subsequent to the death of her father, she went to reside in 
hris, where in 1674 she published an edition of Callimachus. The repu- 
tation acquired by this work procured her an invitation to assist in prepar- 
njg the Delphin editions of the cl.issics. In the discharge of this duty she 
P^pared editions of Florus, Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, Dictys Cretensis, 
and Dares Phrygius. 

In 1683 she was married to Andre Dacier, a favorite of her father, under 
*hom they had for many years been fellow pupils. This marriage was called 
"<he marriage of the Greek and Latin." Two years afterward, they both 
abjured Protestantism, and received from the king a pension of two thou- 
sand livres. Madame Dacier tlu-nceforth continued to devote herself no less 
assiduously to literary j)ursuits, and produced translations of sexeral plays 
^ Plautus. the whole of Terence, the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, the 
"utusanti Clouds of Aristophanes, and the whole of Anacrconand Sappho. 
*^"t translations from Homer involved her in a controxersy with M. de la 
•'"tic. and othe^^, concerning the comj)arative merits of ancient and mod- 
^■"^ literature, Madame Dacier vigorously sustaining the former. She also 
agisted her husband in the translation of Marcus .Aurelius and Plutarch's 

She was distinguished for modesty and. amiability, and, amid her en- 
jrr^^sing literary avocations, di<l not neglect lur domestic and maternal 



A. D. 1660-1M5. 



^^|AUGHTER of Henry Killigrew, born in London in 1660, died in 
M^ June, 1685, was characterized by one of her admirers as "a Grace 
for beauty, and a Muse for wit." Her father was one of the preb- 
endaries of Westminster some time before the restoration of Charles II. 

The daughter showed indications of genius very early and this being 
carefully cultivated, she became eminent in the arts of poetry and painting. 
An exhibition of the latter is her portrait of the Duke of York (afterward 
James II.) and his duchess, to whom she was a maid of honor. She also 
painted some historical pictures and some pieces of still life, for her own 

She was a woman of exemplary piety and virtue. Dryden speaks of 
her in the highest terms, and wrote a long ode to her memor}-, from 
which the following stanza is extracted : — 

** Now all those charms, that blooming grace. 
The well-proportioned shape and beauteous face. 
Shall never more be seen by mortal eyes: 

In earth the much lamented virgin lies! • 

Not wit, nor piety, could fate prevent, 
Nor was the cru»*l destiny content 
To finish all the murder at a blow. 
To snap at once her life and beauty too; 
But, like a hardened felon, took a pride 
To work more mischievously slow, 
And plunder 'd first, and then destroyed. 
Oh I double sacriltrge on things divine. 
To rob the reiique and deface the shiine! 
But thus Orinda died : 

Heaven by the same disease did l)oth translate. 
As equal were their souls, as equal was their fate." 

She died of smallpox, and was buried in the chapel of the Savoy hospi- 
tal, on the north side of which is a j)lain monnnient of marble aiul freestone 
erected to her memory, and hxed in the wall, on which is a Latin inscrip- 


Reproduced from a copper etching after the original portrait 


A. I>. 1086-1714. 


/|f\NE, queen of Great Britain and Ireland, was born at St. James 
\Ji Palace, London, on February 6, 1665. She was the second 
daughter of James IL of Enghind by his first wife, Anne Hyde, the 
daughter of the famous Earl of Clarendon. When she was six years of 
age, her mother died ; and her father soon after professed himself a mem- 
ber of the Church of Rome ; but his daughters were educated in the prin- 
ciples of the Church of England, to which Anne always retained an ardent 
ii not a very enlightened attachment. 

In 1683 Anne was married to Prince Cicorge of Denmark, an indolent 
and good-natured man, who concerned himself little about public affairs, 
^ had as little capacity for dealing with them. At an early age she 
^<)nned an intimacy with Sarah Jennings (afterwards the Duchess of Marl- 
•^orough), who exercised an almost unbounded influence over her, both 
Wore and after her accession to the throne. She was the mother of seven- 
^^tti children, all of whom died young and before she became queen. 

In the revolution of 1688, Anne supported the cause of the Prince of 

^^rangc, but was afterwards implicated in intrigues for tht^ restonition of her 

>'Uher. She succeeded William III., who died March 8, 1702, at a time 

^ hen the strife of parties was extremely violent. She pursued the foreign 

policy of the late king, which involved luigland in the long war of the 

Spanish succession as the ally of Austria anil the enemy of I*' ranee. 

Amoi^ the important events of the reign were a number of sii;nal victories 

gained by the Duke of Marlborough over the armies of Louis XIV., and 

^^t union of England and .Scotland in 1707. Her political principles, if 

^ht had any, were favorable to royal preroi^ative rather than constitutional 

Ji^y, and rendered her |)artial to the Tories. 

She became gradually alierijited from ihtr nuclus^ of Marlborough, who 
*as a Whig, and transferred h«r fa\oritiMn to .Mr>. Mashani, whose in- 
^4ru<-"^ undermined the Whig party so effectually, that the Tory statesmen. 
the Earl <if Oxford and Lord Bolingbroke, came into power in 17 10. The 


A. D. 1668-1731. 


^"v HIS voluminous writer was the daughter of a merchant of Newcastle- 
Vr upon-Tyne, where she was born in 1668. She was well educated, 
and among other accomplishments was mistress of French, and had 
a good knowledge of the Latin tongue. Her uncle, a clergyman, observ- 
ing her uncommon predilection, took her under his tuition, and taught her 
mathematics, logic, and philosophy. She left her native place when she was 
about the age of twenty, and spent the remaining part of her life at London 
and Chelsea. Here she pursued her studies with assiduity, acquired great 
proficiency in the exact sciences, and extended her knowledge of the classic 
authors. Among these latter, Seneca, Epictetus, Hierocles, Antoninus, 
Tully, Plato, and Xenophon were her favorites. 

She wrote .An Essay in Defense of the Female Sex\ A Serious Pro- 
posal to the Ladies, and many other books and essays with the purpose 
of raising the standard of female education and female character. She 
was, however, a woman conservative and decidedly opposed to the new- 
fangled spirit of the times. She died at Chelsea, May 11, 1731, and was 
there buried. 

Queen Ann*^ continaed, 

queen and these Tory ministers concurred in designs and intrigues to secure 
the succession to her brother, the Pretender. The Kuroj)ean war was 
ended by the treaty of Utrecht, Lord Bolingbroke became j>rime minister 
in place of the Karl of Oxford, and the poor (jueen was kept in a state of 
constant unrest through the (juarrcls of her ministers. She died of 
apoplexy on August i, 17 14, and was succeeded by (jeor^o I. 

Her reign, illustrated by the genius of Newton, Addison. Pope, Boling- 
broke, Swift, DeFoe, and Arbuthnot, was almost as celebrated in literature 
as the Augustan age of Rome, although she did little to make it so. 

Queen Anne was of middle size, and c<^)mely though not beautiful 
She was virtuous, conscientic^us, and afTectionate, more worthy of esteem 
as a woman than of administration as a queen. 




A. D. 1670-1734. 


"l^RS. MASHAM'S name occupies a prominent place in the political 
\Y-1- writings which characterized the reign of Queen Anne. She was 
the daughter of Mr. Hill, a wealthy merchant of London, by reason 
d whose bankruptcy she was obliged to become the attendant of Lady Riv- 
ers. From this position she was advanced to the place of waiting maid to 
l\\e princess Anne, and after her mistress ascended the throne gradually 
acquired considerable influence over her. She was not a woman of superior 
mind or attainments, but there were many points of sympathy between the 
queen and herself, which may account for the ascendency of this favorite. 
She possessed great powers of mimicry, and considerable taste in music, of 
vWch latter accomplishment the queen was very fond. 

In 1707, Abigail Hill married Mr. Masham, a man of ancient family, 
one of the pages of the court. This marriage was performed secretly, and 
m the presence of the queen. The Duchess of Marlborough, who had hith- 
^obeen a favorite of the queen, on learning these facts, gave way to such 
Violence, that it severed finally the tie between herself and her sovereign ; 
•*"^ in a short time she was deprived of all offices and dignities at court, 
'^e of her situations, that of the privy-seal, was given to Mrs. Masham. 

l*olIowing upon this, Mrs. Masham leagued herself with the queen's 
Wy, who were intriguing to remove the Duke of Marlborough and his 
adherents, and became an instrument in their hands. In 171 1 a change of 
n^'nbtr)' took place, and Mr. Masham was raised to the peerage. Hence- 
^^^, Lady Masham became involved in all the intrigues of the court, 
specially in those of the Tories in favor of the exiled House of Stuart, 
"hich she warmly advocated. 

Mrs. Masham was plain in appearance, and delicate in health. One of 
i^r physical blemishes was a remarkably red nose, furnishing the wits of the 
day with a constant subject at which to level their shafts. After the death 
of the queen she lived in great retirement, and died at an advanced age. 



A. D. 1062-1694. ' 


MARY IL was born at St. James Palace, Westminster, April 30, 1662. 
She was the daughter of James II. by Anne Hyde, his first wife. 
She married, November 4, 1677, at the age of fifteen, William, 
Prince of Orange, and sailed two weeks after to the Hague. Here she 
lived till February 12, 1689, when accepting a solemn invitation from the 
states of England she followed her husband to London. 

The throne was declared vacant by the flight of James II., and William 
and Mary were crowned as next heirs April 11, 1689. Though Mary was 
declared joint possessor of the throne with her husband, yet the administra- 
tion of the government was left entirely to him. This arrangement cost 
Mary no sacrifice, but was in strict accord with her desire. "There is but 
one command which I wish him to obey," said she, **and that is, * Hus- 
bands, love your wives.' For myself, I shall follow the injunction, * Wives, 
be obedient to your husbands in all things.* " 

She kept the promise voluntarily made, and all her efforts were directed 
to promote her husband's happiness, and make him beloved by the English 
people. He had great confidence in her abilities, and when, during his 
absence in Ireland and on the continent, she was left the regent of the 
kingdom, she managed parties at home with much prudence, and governed 
with a discretion not inferior to his own. 

Queen Mary was strongly attached to the Protestant religion and the 
Church of England, and was evidently led to consider its preservation a 
paramount duty, even when opposed to the claims of filial obedience. The 
unfriendly terms on which she lived with her sister, afterward Queen 
Anne, have often been alluded to as a blemish on her character. But 
political jealousies, and the foolish attachment of Anne to overbearing 
favorites, may sufficiently account for this rupture. Aside from this, Mar)' 
was, in truth, an amiable and excellent queen, and by her example made 
industry and domestic virtue fashionable. She died of smallpox, at Ken- 
sington, in the year 1694. 



A. D. 1684-1727. 


— -^t=#;-<g*- - - 

CATHARINE I., Empress of Russia, was a peasant's daughter, and her 
original name was Martha Skavranska. Her parents lived at Rin- 
g^, a small village not far from Dorpt, on Lake X'itcherve, in Livonia. 
^Hedate of her birth was April 15, 1684. Being left an orphan in her fif- 
^<*enth year, she was brought up chiefly by a Lutheran pastor named 
Gliick, in Marienburg, Livonia. 

In 1702 she married a Swedish dragoon, but Marienburg being taken 
^y the Russians in the same year, she was made prisoner, and became the 
mistress of Prince Menschikoflf. She then attracted the notice of Peter the 
Great, and won so much on his affections that he married her ; and the 
tnarriage was publicly avowed in 1711. Some years prior to this, however, 
she went over to the Greek Church, and took the name of Catharina 

When Peter the Great and his army seemed entirely in the power of the 
*"rkish army on the Pruth in 171 1, Catharine, according to the common 
account, through skillful bribery, procured the deliverance of the Russians. 
Iroin this time forth she was received with great fa\or and was solemnly 
downed in 17 12. 

On the death of Peter the Great, in 1725, she was acknowledged 
fc-o^press and sole ruler of all the Russians. She showed herself worthy 
^^ this high station by completing the grand designs which lur illustrious 
consort had begun. The first thing she did on her accession, was to cause 
^'^r)' jrallows to be taken down, and all instruments of torture to be de- 
stroyed. She instituted a new order of knighthood, and performed many 
actions worthy of a great mind. 

She was much beloved for her great humanity, but ere long began to 
yield to the influence of a number of faxorites, addicted herself to drunk- 
enness, ami lived such a life as could not fail to hurry her to her grave. 
She died May 17, 1727. Her daughter — Elizabeth — became empress. 



A. D. 1690-1768. 


rVV ARY WORTLEY MONTAGU, born about 1690 at Thoresby, 
\ J / Nottinghamshire, England, was the eldest daughter of Evelyn 
^ Pierrepont, Duke of Kingston, and Lady Mary Fielding. She 
was a clever, attractive child, the pride and delight of her father, who, 
having lost his wife in 1694, ^"^ continuing a widower, introduced his 
daughter to society, and made her preside at his table at a very early age. 

In 17 1 2 she married, without the consent of her father, Edward 
Wortley Montagu, eldest son of Hon. Sydney Montagu. For more than 
three years after her marriage, she lived near Sheffield, where her son was 
born, her husband being kept principally in London during this time by his 
parliamentary duties. On the accesssion of George L, Mr. Montagu 
obtained a seat at the Treasury Board, and from this time, Lady Mary lived 
in London, where she gained a brilliant reputation by her wit and beauty, 
and was on terms of intimate friendship with Addison, Pope, and other 
literary men of the day. 

In 17 16 Mr. Montagu was appointed ambassador to the Porte, and in 
August of that year he set out for Constantinople, accompanied by his 
wife. They remained abroad till 17 18, and during this time Lady Mary 
wrote the well known Letters to her sister, Pope, and other friends. The 
Letters give a true description of Eastern life and manners, and are written 
in a clear, lively style, sparkling with wit and humor. The next twenty 
years of her life she passed in PZngland. 

For reasons which are not well known, in 1739, she left England and 
her husband, from whom, however, she parted on very good terms, though 
they never met again. She lived in Italy, first on the shores of the lake 
of Iseo, and afterwards at Venice, till 1761, when at the request of her 
daughter, the Countess of Bute, she returned to England. She died 
August 21, 1762. Of her two children, both of whom survived her, one 
was the eccentric and profligate Edward Wortley Montagu, and the other 
became the wife of the Marquis of Bute, a distinguished nobleman. 



A. D. 1697-1780. 


QX accomplished French woman, resplendent in the age of Louis XV. , 
was born in Paris in 1697, ^"d died in the same city September 24, 
1780. She was of noble birth, and was educated in a convent, but 
at an early age astonished her parents by her skeptical opinions on religious 

At h*enty years of age she was married to the Marquis du Deffand, 
irom whom her indiscretions soon caused her to be separated, after which 
she launched into a career of fashionable dissipation, and for many years 
was one of the most brilliant ornaments of the court of Louis XV. Al- 
though incapable from a natural selfishness and want of sympathy of enter- 
taining the passion of love, she knew how to inspire it in others ; and over 
the greater part of her numerous lovers, among whom, it is said, was the 
^ent himself, her influence remained unimpaired until their dotage. 

Her conversational powers and clear, cool judgment caused her to be 
courted by the most eminent men of the time, and when in her fifty-sixth 
y^r she became totally blind, her salons in the convent of St. Joseph were 
the favorite resort of Montestjuieu, X'oltaire, President Henault, David 
Hume, D'AIembert, and many others. At this period of her life she be- 
c^e acquainted with Horace Walpole, between whom and herself a cor- 
^pondence was for many years carried on. 

As she grew old her selfish traits developed more disagreeably, and 
the ungenerous manner in which she treated her companion and reader, 
Mile, de Lespinasse, alienated many of her friends. Her hitter years were 
"^ked by i>eevishness and cnnuL and she died unhappy after several 
"Availing efforts to consecrate herself to the life of a devotee. 

Her epistolary writings comprise her correspondence with H6nault, 
•Vontes<}uieu, D'AIembert, and the Duchess of Maine, and with Horace 
U'alpole. Her prose style is a model of elegance, but her poetry never 
rose above mediocrity. 



A. D. 1706-1749. 


Vjt most remarkable women of her time, notorious for intimacy with 
Voltaire, was born at Paris, December 17, 1706. At an early 
period she displayed a great aptitude for the acquisition of knowledge. 
She studied Latin and Italian with her father, the Baron de Bretuil, and 
subsequently betook herself with zeal to mathematics and the physical 
sciences. Maupertius was her instructor in geometry, and the works of 
Newton and Leibnitz became her constant study. It was while thus dev^ot- 
ing herself that she met Voltaire. 

Distinguished alike for her beauty and talent, she soon found a host of 
suitors for her hand. Her choice fell on the Marquis du Chatalet-Lomont, 
• but her marriage did not hinder her from forming, in 1733, a liaison with 
Voltaire, who came to reside with her at Cirey, a chateau on the borders of 
Champagne and Lorraine, belonging to her husband. Here they studied, 
loved, quarreled, and loved again, for several years. 

In 1747 Madame du Chatelet, however, became sensible to the brilliant 
qualities of a certain M. Saint- Lambert, a captain of the Lorraine Guards ; 
and the result was that the philosopher had to make room for the soldier. 
Voltaire was both grieved and indignant on discovering that he had a rival, 
but Madame du Chatelet' s assurances of unabated friendship reconciled 
and induced him to remain near her. She died at Luneville, September 
10, 1749, a few days after having given birth to a child. 

Her first writing was Institutions dc Physique, a treatise on the philoso- 
phy of Leibnitz. She also translated the Principia of Newton into French, 
accompanying it with algebraic elucidations. 

Madame du Chatelet' s ideas of morality were those of her time. She 
was graceful, remarkable for her simplicity of manner, and renowned for 
the accuracy of her judgment. Proud of her rank and birth, haughty to 
her inferiors, violent and imperious in her temper, she ruled despotically 
over her lovers, as she was ruled by her passions. 



A. D. 1707-1791. 


rXOUNTESS SELINA HUNTINGDON, a patron of Calvinistic Metho- 
^^ dists in England, was born in 1707, and died June 17, 1791. She was 
one of three daughters and co-heirs of Washington Shirley, Earl of 
'■^^'^^rs, and at the age of twenty-one was married to Theophilus Hastings, 
'^^^ of Huntingdon, a man distinguished for piety. His sudden death in 
'''^^^, and also the death of her four children in youth, caused her to 
^^^^^me deeply religious. 

Ai the time when the founders of Methodism, Wesley and Whitefield, 
^'^r^j exciting in England a spirit of more intense devotion than was gener- 
^*y prevalent, the Countess of Huntingdon embraced their doctrines with 
"^^ whole heart. She inclined to Whitefield' s peculiar doctrines rather than 
^^ AVesley's, but she chose herself to become the founder of a sect which 
^*^s called ** The Countess of Huntingdon's Connection." 

She had the control of a large income during her forty-five years of 

^'idowhood, and as her own personal expenses were small, and she was 

^sisted by other opulent persons, she supported a college at Trevecca, in 

South Wales, for the education of Calvinistic ministers, and built sixty-four 

cHapels, the ministers of which she assisted to support. Her largest chapel 

*as at Bath, which she freciuently attended. The ccjllege was removed 

3lter her death to Cheshunt, Herts, where it still exists, and for the supjx^t 

^^ it and also her chapels she left a trust. Not only in tliese ways did she 

^<^nt the title of public beivefactor, but she also expended large sums in 

private charities. According to the census of 1831, there were 109 chapels 

Wonging to the *' Connection," with accommodations for 40,000 hearers. 

Udy Huntingdon lived for others, and at her death, which took j)lace 
•^'tit a long career, she was mourned by all who knew her. Kven those 
^horejjarded her conduct as the result of mistaken enthusiasm, nspected 
"^*r lor the noble virtues of her character and her Christian (onduci. 

«he Congregational polity prevails among lur societies, .some of which 
"^^'^ formally identified themselves with the Congregationalists. 



A. D. 1717-1780. 


^I^HIS noted woman, archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary and 
® |fe Bohemia, and empress of Germany, born at Vienna, May 13, 
17 17, was the eldest daughter of Charles VI. of Austria, emperor 
of Germany. In 1724 Charles, by his will, known as the Pragmatic Sanc- 
tion, regulated the order of succession in the House of Austria, declaring 
that, in default of male issue, his eldest daughter should be heiress of all the 
Austrian dominions, and her children after her. The Pragmatic Sanction 
was guaranteed by the Diet of the Empire, and by all the German princes, 
and by several powers of Europe, but not by the Bourbons. In 1736 she 
married Francis of Lorraine, to whom she gave equal share in the govern- 
ment upon the death of her father in 1740. 

At the time of her accession the monarchy was exhausted, the finances 
embarrassed, the people discontented, and the army weak. To add to the 
gravity of the situation, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, and Sardinia, abetted by 
France, put forward claims to the whole or to portions of her dominions. 
Maria Theresa, however, went immediately to Vienna, and took possession 
of Austria. Bohemia, and her other German states. She then repaired to 
Presburg, took the oaths to the Constitution of Hungary, and was solemnly 
proclaimed queen of that kingdom in 1741. Frederick of Prussia offered 
the young queen his friendship on condition of her giving up to him 
Silesia, which she resolutely refused, and he then invaded that province. 
The Elector of Bavaria, assisted by the French, also invaded Austria, and 
pushed his troops as far as Vienna. The queen took refuge in Presburg, 
where she convoked the Hungarian Diet ; and appearing in the midst of 
them with her infant son in her arms, she made a heart-stirring appeal to 
their loyalty. The Hungarian nobles, drawing their swords, unanimously 
exclaimed, '* We will die for our queen, Maria Theresa 1 " And they' raised 
an army and drove the French and Bavarians out of the hereditary states. 

In the meantime, Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria, was chosen em- 
peror of Germany, under the name of Charles VII. ; and Frederick of 



Prussia soon made peace with Maria Theresa, who was obliged to surrender 
Silesia to him. 

^" ^745 Charles VII. died, and Francis. Maria Theresa's husband, was 
eleaed emperor. Three years later the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle termi- 
nated the war of the Austrian succession, and there ensued a period of peace. 
During this period, Maria Theresa instituted important financial reforms, 
^d her utmost to foster agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and 
improved and nearly doubled the national revenues, whilst the burdens 
were diminished. 

In 1756 began the Seven Years' War, between France, Austria, and 
Russia on the one side, and Prussia on the other, to confirm Frederick in the 
possession of Silesia. This was ended in 1763, leaving Austria and Prussia 
*ith the same boundaries as before. On the conclusion of hostilities the 
oppress renewed her efforts to promote the national prosperity, ameliorat- 
ing the condition of the peasantry, mitigating the penal code, founding 
schook, organizing charitable societies, in short, promoting the welfare of 
^^ subjects by all the wise arts of peaceful progress. 

After the death of her husband, in 1765, the queen mother associated 
"^ son Joseph, elected king of the Romans in 1764, with herself in the 
government of the hereditary states. She, however, retained the adminis- 
tration of the government until her death, November 29, 1780. 

l^ersonally, Maria Theresa was a woman of majestic and winning ap- 
pearance, and she was animated by truly regal sentiments and an undaunted 
^irit; by this rare union of feminine tact with masculine energy and restless 
activity, she not only won the affection and even enthusiastic admiration of 
her subjects, but she raised Austria from a most wretched condition to a 
position of assured power. Although a zealous Roman Catholic, she 
maintained the rights of her own crown against the court of Rome, and 
endeavored to correct some of the worst abuses of the Church. 

Maria Theresa was the mother of sixteen children, all born within 
twenty years, ten of whom survived her. Among these, Josej)h II. suc- 
ceeded her ; Leo[K)ld. Grand Duke of Tuscany, followed his brother on the 
imperial throne as Leopold II. ; Ferdinand became Duke of Modena ; and 
Marie Antoinette was married to Louis XVI., of France. 



A. D. 1789-1796. 


aATHARINE II. was born at Stettin, in Prussian Pomerania, May 2, 
1729. Her father, the Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, was a Prussian 
field marshal, and governor of Stettin. She received the name of 
Sophia Augusta ; but the Empress Elizabeth of Russia having selected 
her for the wife of her nephew and intended successor, Peter, she passed 
from the Lutheran to the Greek Church, and took the name of Catharine 

In 1745 her marriage took place. She soon quarreled with her hus- 
band, and both of them lived a life of unrestrained vice. Among his at- 
tendants was a Count Soltikoff, with whom her intimacy soon became 
scandalous ; and Soltikoff was sent on an embassy abroad. But the young 
Polish count, Poniatowski, almost immediately supplied his place. After 
the death of the Empress Elizabeth in 1761, Peter III. ascended the Rus- 
sian throne ; but the conjugal differences became continually wider. 
Catharine was banished to a separate abode ; and the emperor seemed to 
entertain the design of divorcing her, declaring her only son, Paul, illegit- 
imate, and marrying his mistress, Fllizabeth Woronzofl. The popular 
dislike to Peter, however, rapidly increased ; and at length, he being de- 
throned by a conspiracy, Catharine was made empress. A few days after- 
ward Peter was murdered. What participation his wife had in his murder 
has never been well ascertained. 

Catharine now exerted herself to please the people, and among other 
things, made a great show of regard for the outward forms of the Greek 
Church, although her principles were, in reality, those prevalent among 
the French philosophers of the eighteenth century. The government of 
the country was carried on with great energy, a'nd her reign was .re- 
markable for the rapid increase of the dominions and power of Russia. 
Not long after her accession to the throne, her influence secured the 
election of her former favorite, Stanislaus Poniatowski, to the throne of 


Rcpr^iduced from a i)«»rtrait b\ K<.^>cl>n; envcravtil !•> Cir.-lim \V.ll"^ 


In her own empire, however, discontentment was seriously manifested, 
the hopes of the disaffected being centered in the young prince Ivan, right- 
. iul heir to the throne of Russia, who was forthwith murdered in the castle 
of Schliisselburg. 

From that time the internal politics of Russia consisted chiefly of court 
intrigues for the humiliation of one favorite and the exaltation of another. 
The revolt of the Cossacks in 1773, though serious, only ser\'ed to fortify 
her throne. The first partition of Poland in 1772, and the Turkish war 
»hich terminated in 1774, vastly increased the empire. In 1787 she made 
a journey in her southern provinces through flourishing towns, villages, and 
fetive scenes ; but the whole was a sham, having been gotten up for the 
w^ion by Potemkin to impress Catharine with the prosperity of her em- 
P^t. Resuming the policy of expelling the Turks from Kurope, and reign- 
^"gat Constantinople, Catharine, in 1783, seized the Crimea, and annexed 
rt to her empire. In 1787 the Porte declared war against her and hostili- 
^werc continued till 1792. She indemnified herself by sharing in the 
^lismemberment of Poland, which kingdom became extinct in 1795 ; and 
*as on the i)oint of turning her arms against republican France, when she 
rfi«l of apoplexy, November 9, 1796. 

To :ill her lovers Catharine was munificent, not only during their season 

of favor, but after their dismissal, loading them with presents and pensions 

to such an extent, that altogether they arc estimated to have cost Russia 

about /' 20.000,000. In the capital, at her court, and in her own circle, 

there reigned the most systematic immorality, which she encouraged by her 

example in utter disregard of virtuous restraint. 

Though as a woman the licentiousness of her character is inexcusable, 
yet as a sovereign Catharine II. is well entitled to the appellation of Great. 
After Peter I., she was the chief regenerator of Russia, hut with a more en- 
Iight<ne<I mind and under more favorable circumstances. She established 
sch<'Kj|>, ameliorated the condition of the serfs, promoted conmierce, founded 
t<^F«nb. arsenals, banks, and manufactories, and encouragetl art and litera- 
ture. She corresjK)nded with the learned men in all countries, and wrote 
h#-rself Instructions for a Code 0/ LmcSy besides several dramatic pieces, 
and Moral Tales for her grandchildren. 



A. n. 1731-1807. 


MARIE SOPHIE DE LA ROCHE, a talented German authoress, 
was the daughter of Herr Von Gutcrman, a very learned physician. 
She was born December 6, 1731, at Kaufbenrcn, and, as she grew 
up, was educated with great care. When she was only iiivc years old, it is 
said she had read the Bible through. Von (>utcrnian removed to Augsburg 
when his daughter was sixteen, where he was appointed town physician, 
and dean of the medical faculty. Here the daughter had new opportunities 
for mental cultivation, and received special assistance from Dr. Biancani, of 
Bologna, physician to the Prime Bishop of Augsburg. Dr. Biancani 
became very much attached to his pupil and wished to marry her, but the 
father of Sophie opj)Osed the match. 

P'rom this time she devoted herself to reading and study and shortly 
after took up her residence at Riberach in the house of a relative, Wieland 
by name. Here Soj^hie became acquainted witli young Wieland, who drew 
her attention to (ierman literature, and throughout her life inspired her to 
literary effort. A strong attachment sprang up between them, and they 
became engaged ; but chiring Wieland' s ])rolonged absence in Switzerland, 
they were estranged, and when, in 1760, he returned to Riberach, he found 
Sophie the wife of M. de la Roche, counselor of state in Maine, and super- 
intendent of the estates of Count Stadion. The friendship of Wieland, 
however, was resumed and continued uninterrupted till their death, a period 
of more than fifty years. M. de la Roche (.lied in 17S9, while his wife sur- 
vived until 1.S07. 

Madame de la Roche wrote a number of works which showed her to be 
a woman of intellect, knowledge, and experience. In writing, however, she 
succeeded best in romances, in which she exhibited uinisn;il ]K)wers of im- 
agination and knowledge <»f the human heart. Her principal works are, 
History of the iMcly of Stcniburir, to which Witland wrote a preface ; 
Pomona, My \\ntin\r Desk, L< iters on, Apparitions on Lake 
Oneida, Love Cottages ^ and J/e/usina's Summer A'ig/it. 



A. D. 173S-1802. 



MARTHA WASHINGTON was born in the county of New Kent, Vir- 
ginia, in May, 1732. Her maiden name was Martha Dandridge, and, 
at the age of seventeen, she married Col. Daniel Parke Curtis, of the 
White House, county of New Kent. By this union she had four children : 
a daughter who died in infancy, a son named Daniel, whose early death is 
supposed to have hastened his father's ; Martha, who arrived at woman- 
hood, and died in 1770 ; and John, who perished in the service of his coun- 
tr>*, at the siege of York town, aged twenty-seven. 

Mrs. Curtis was left a young and very wealthy widow, and managed the 
extensive landed and pecuniary interests of the estate with surprising ability. 
In 1759 she was married to George Washington, then a colonel in the 
colonial service, and soon after they removed permanently to Mount Ver- 
non, on the Potomac. When her husband became commander-in-chief of 
the colonial armies, Mrs. Washington, accompanied him to Boston, and 
witnessed its siege and evacuation. 

After General Washington's election to the presidency of the United 
States, in 1787, Mrs. Washington ptTformed the duties l:)clonging to the 
^•fe of a man in that high station, with dignity and case. On the retire- 
nicnt of President Washington, she still continued her unbounded hospi- 
t^'ty. The death of her venerated husband, which occurred December 
M' '799, ^^«^^ «^ shock from which she never recoxered, though she bore 
t"C heavy s« )rrow with the most exemplary resignation. She survived her 
nusliand a little over two years, dying at Mount Wrnon. 

*n person Mrs. Washington was well formed, thougli somewhat below 
•niudU' height. A portrait, made pre\ious to her marri;ige, shows that she 
^M have l>een very handsome in her youth ; whicli comeliness of counte- 
^^Ce. as well as a dignified and graceful manner, she retained during life 
*^ the home she was the presiding genius that kept action and order in 
P^ect harmony — a wife in whom the heart of her husband could safely 



A. D. 1768-1798. 


heroine, was born at St. Saturnin des Lignerets, in the department 
of Orne, July 28, 1768, and guillotined at Paris, July 17, 1793. 
Her father was a poor Norman nobleman of literary tastes, and author of 
works of a republican tendency. Charlotte's mother died during her early 
youth ; her two brothers entered the army ; one of her sisters died 
young, and she and her remaining sister were placed by their father in 
a convent at Caen. There she became a favorite with the abbess and her 
assistant, who occasionally gave parties to their intimate friends, to which 
Charlotte was admitted. Among the visitors was M. de Belzunce, a young 
cavalry officer, between whom and Charlotte a tender feeling sprang up. 

Charlotte was intellectual, vehement, and enthusiastic ; she devoured 
Rousseau's Heioise, sympathized with the heroes of antiquity, and enter- 
tained the most exalted ideas of the duties of patriotism. An event which 
made a deep impression on her mind was the assassination of the young 
officer she loved by a mob at Caen, and she vowed revenge against those 
whom she conceived to have instigated the murder. 

After the revolution had closed the doors of the convent, Charlotte re- 
moved to the house of her aunt, an old royalist lady. Many Girondists had 
fled to Caen, among others Barbaroux, and Charlotte found a pretext for 
calling upon him. The conversation chiefly turned upon the tragic fate of 
the Girondists, upon Madame Roland, and upon Marat, for whom she had 
long felt a horror. One morning her aunt found a Bible lying open upon 
her bed, and the following lines, **The Lord hath gifted Judith with a 
special beauty and fairness," were underlined. On another occasion she 
found her weeping bitterly, and, on questioning her about her tears, Char- 
lotte replied : " They flow for the misfortunes of my country." 

On the morning of July 9, 1793, she suddenly left the house of her 
aunt, on a pretext of a journey to England. On the eleventh she was in 
Paris. She took a room in the Hotel de la Providence, not far from 



Marat's dwelling. For two days her mind was undecidod as to whether 
Marat or Robespierre should fall, when Marat's journal, L ami du peuple , 
in which he said that two hundred thousand more heads must be lopped off 
in order to secure the success of the revolution, fixed her determination. 
She addressed a letter to Marat soliciting an audience, in order to acquaint 
him with the plots of the Girondists at Caen. No answer came, and on 
the morning of July 13, after having purchased a knife at the Palais Royal, 
Charlotte called upon Marat. She was refused admittance. She wrote a 
second note, and called again at half- past seven the same evening. The 
porter seeing her pass by his lodge without making any inquiry, called her 
back. But Charlotte passed on and ascended the staircase. Marat's mis- 
tress, Albertine, opened the door, and on beholding again the same young 
voman who had called during the morning, rudely refused to admit her ; 
Charlotte insisted ; the sound of their voices reached Marat, who con- 
sented to see her. Charlotte was ushered through two other rooms to a 
nanow closet, where Marat was just taking a bath. He listened to her re- 
port of the proceedings of the Girondists, and, taking down their names, re- 
Diarked with a smile that "within a week they will all go to the guillotine." 
"These words sealed his fate," said Charlotte afterward. Drawing from 
feieath the handkerchief which covered her bosom the knife she had con- 
cealed there, she plunged it to the hilt in Marat's heart. He gave a loud 
en* and sank back dead. 

The news of the murder soon spread. The room became crowded with 
people, and as they gazed upon the beautiful girl, who looked serenely and 
calmly upon the general confusion, they could hardly believe that she was 
^assassin. She was transferred to the nearest prison, the Abbaye. 

Her trial took place on the morning of July 17 ; she was sentenced to 
^eath, and guillotined the evening of the same day. During her trial and 
Juring the execution her courage did not forsake her for a moment. She 
^evlared that her project had been formeil when the Robespierre party had 
pronounced the doom of the Girondists, and that she had killed one man 
'border to save a hundred thousand. 

When Vergniaud was informed of Charlotte's death, he exclaimed : 
" She has killed us, but she teaches us how to die. 



A. D. 1766-1817. 



at Paris, April 22, 1766. She was the daughter of Jacques Necker, 
the famous finance minister of Louis XVL She was an extraor- 
dinarily precocious child, figured at receptions at eleven, and grew up in an 
atmosphere of admiration. The attention she received in her mother's 
brilliant salon developed in her the intellectual curiosity and scientific spirit 
of the men who frequented it. 

At the age of twenty, through the interposition of Marie Antoinette, a 
marriage was brought about between her and the Baron de Stael-Holstein, 
then Swedish aml^assador at the court of France. Her marriage was not 
happy, and she was later separated from her husband, and mainly lived 
apart from him. She bore him two sons and a daughter, and was present 
at his bedside when he died in 1802. 

Neither the disposition nor the situation of Madame de Stael would 
permit her to remain indifferent to the general agitation which prevailed in 
France. P^nthusiastic in her love of liberty, she gave all the weight of her 
influence to the cause. Her salon was the gathering place of ftie admirers 
of the English constitution. In 1792 she fled from the growing violence of 
riot and murder, then such a horrible attribute of the revolution in Paris, 
and took refuge with her father at Coppet, near Geneva, and later fled to 

Three years later she returned to Paris and sought to re-establish her 
salon. In the same year she fell under the suspicion of the Director}% 
and withdrew again to Coppet, but returned once more in 1797, and her 
salon attained a new brilliancy and power. 

Among its assiduous visitors were Madame Recamier, Madame de 
Beaumont, C. Jordan, Fauriel, and especially Benjamin Constant, with whom 
she fell in love, and from whose capricious and unhappy character she had 
much to suffer. 





RBprnducBd frDm the portrait "by J, Cham- 
pagna, a Flainlsh painter. Champagna was a 
pupil Df Philippe ChampagnB, whom ha assisted 
in many works in Paris. His talent attracted the 
attention of King Louis XIV./whD emplDyed 
him in decorative painting at the Palace ai Ver- 



Her salon was decidedly hostile to Napoleon, who, in October, 1803, 
sent her away from Paris. After this interdict, she traveled in Germany 
and Italy, and in 1805 established herself again in Coppet, where her old 
friends and many new ones flocked about her, and where she held a kind 
of intellectual court. She traveled again in (icrmany in 1807, and upon 
her return announced her religious conversion. 

The appearance of her book on Germany was the signal for still severer 
measures by Napoleon. The French edition was destroyed, and she was 
ordered to retire to Coppet, where she was kept under surveillance, a 
\'irtiial prisoner, and forbidden to receive her friends. She escaped in 
1812 and took refuge successively in St. Petersburg, Sweden, and Eng- 
land. On the fall of Napoleon she returned to Paris in 181 5, but she was 
disappointed at the tendencies of the restored monarchy. 

She received from the government two millions of francs, the sum which 
h«" father had left in the royal treasury : and, surrounded by a happy circle 
of congenial minds, she remained in the capital until her death in July, 1817. 
'ni8ii sfie had secretly married Albert de Rocca, an officer but twenty- 
tiree years old, to whom she bore a son. 

Though her conspicuous influence upon her contemporaries was wielded 
largely by personal contact, and the brilliancy of her improvisation in the 
excitement of conversation, yet her books are the most important of the 
pctet-revolutionary period, and furnished a great stimulus to the new cur- 
rents of French literature that were preparing romanticism. Her works are 
numerous, the most noted of which arc, Corin?u\ Dtlphine, Germany, Ten 
Years of Exile, and Considerations on the French Revolution 

The books of Madame de Stael are very little read, and occupy a singu- 
lar position in French literature. They are seen to be in large part merely 
clever reflections of other people's views, or views current at the time, and 
the famous ** ideas" turn out to be chiefly the ideas of the hooks or the 
men with whom she was from time to time in contact. Her faults are 
great ; her style is of a particular age, not for all time ; her ideas are 
ni«>stly second hand and frequently superficial. Nevertheless, nothing 
save a very great talent could have shown itself so receptive of its environ- 



A. D. 1744-1818. 



aBIGAIL ADAMS, wife of John Adams, second president of the 
United States, was the daughter of Rev. William Smith, minister of 
a Congregational church, at Weymouth, Massachusetts, and of 
Elizabeth Quincy. She was born November 22, 1744, and in October, 
1767, married John Adams, then a lawyer residing at Weymouth. 

Mr. Adams was appointed minister plenipotentiary to the court of Great 
Britain, and in 1784 Mrs. Adams sailed from Boston to join him. She 
returned in 1788, having passed one year in France and three in England. 
On the appointment of her husband to the vice-presidency in 1789, she 
resided in Philadelphia, then the seat of government, and also during his 
term as president. After the defeat of Mr. Adams in 1800 they retired to 
Quincy, Mass., where Mrs. Adams died, October 28, 181 8. 

Mrs. Adams' letters to her son, John Quincy Adams, were characteris- 
tic and much admired. She was a woman of true greatness and elevation 
of mind, and, whether in public or private life, always preserved the same 
dignified and tranquil demeanor. As the mistress of a household, she 
united the prudence of a rigid economist with the generous spirit of a lib- 
eral hospitality ; faithful and affectionate in her friendships, bountiful to the 
poor, kind and courteous to her dependents, cheerful and charitable in the 
intercourse of social life with her acquaintances, she lived in the habitual 
practice of benevolence, and sincere, unaffected piety. In her family rela- 
tions, few women have left a pattern more worthy of imitation by their sex. 

Her letters have been collected and were published some years since. 

Nladame de iStael continued. 

Take away her assiduous frequentation of society, from the later philo- 
sophical coteries to the age of Byron — take away the influence of Constant 
and Schlegel and her other literary friends — and probably little of her 
will remain. 



A. D. 1756-1793. 

C+4J - 

archduchess of Austria and queen of France, was the fifth daugh- 
ter of Maria Theresa and Francis I. She was born at Vienna, 
November 2, 1755, was carefully educated, and possessed an uncommon 
share of grace and beauty. Her hand was demanded by Louis XIV". , for 
his grandson, the dauphin, afterward Louis XVI., to whom she was mar- 
ried in 1770, before she had attained her fifteenth year. 

Her ])osition at the French court was difficult from the very first, and it 
soon became dangerous. There was a difference of character between her 
ind the people among whom she had come to live which proved fatal in 
the end. Her morals were perfectly pure and her heart full of noble and 
generous instincts. During the first years of her residence in France the 
queen was the idol of the people. Four years from this period all was 
ehanged. Circumstances remote in their origin had brought about in 
France a state of feeling fast ripening to a fearful issue. 

The queen could no longer do with inij)unity what had been done by 
her prwUcessors. The extravagance and thoughtlessness of youth, and 
a nejjlcct of the strict formality of court etiquette, injured her reputation. 
She became a mark of censure, and finally an object of hatred to the 
people, who accused her of the most imj^robable crimes. Accused of 
"^g an Austrian at heart, and an enemy to I^ ranee, e\ ery evil in the 
*taie w;is now attributed to her, and the Parisians soon exhibited their 
hatred in acts of open violence. 

In OctolKT. 1789, the populace proceeded with rancor to Versailles, 
i»roke into the castle, murdered several of the bodyguard, and forced 
themstlvt-s into the queen's apartments. When (juestioned by the officers 
'•' justice as to what she had seen on that memorable day, she replied, *' I 
^^eseen all. I have heard all, I have forgotten all." 

•%• accompanied the king in his flight to \'arcnnes, in 1791, and 
tndured with him, with unexampled fortitude and magnanimity, the in- 



suits which now followed in quick succession. In April, 1792, she accom- 
panied the king from the Tuileries, where they had been for some time 
detained close prisoners, to the Legislative Assembly, where she was ar- 
raigned. Transferred to the Temple, she endured, with the members of 
the royal family, every variety of privation and indignity. On January 21, 
1793, the king perished on the scaffold ; her son was forcibly torn from 
her, and she was removed to the Conciergerie to await her trial in a damp 
and squalid cell. On the 14th of October she appeared before the revolu- 
tionary tribunal. 

During the trial, which lasted seventy-three hours, Marie Antoinette 
preserved all her dignity and composure. Her replies to the infamous 
charges which were preferred against her were simple, noble, and laconic. 
When all the accusations had been heard, she was asked if she had any- 
thing to say. She replied, " I was a queen, and you took away my crown ; 
a wife, and you killed my husband ; a mother, and you deprived me of my 
children. My blood alone remains : take it, but do not make me suffer 

At four o'clock on the morning of the i6th she was condemned 
to death by a unanimous vote. She heard her sentence with admirable 
dignity and self-possession. At half-past twelve on the same day she 
ascended the scaffold. Scarcely any traces remained of the dazzling loveli- 
ness which had once charmed all hearts ; her hair had long since become 
blanched with grief, and her eyes were almost sightless from continued 
weeping. She knelt and prayed for a few moments in a low tone, then rose 
and calmly delivered herself to the executioner. Thus perished, in her 
thirty-seventh year, the daughter of the heroic Maria Theresa, a victim to 
the circumstances of birth and position. 

No fouler crime ever stained the annals of savage life than the murder 
of this unfortunate queen, by a people calling themselves the most civilized 
nation in the world. 

Marie Antoinette had four children : a daughter, who died in infancy : 
the dauphin, who died in 1789 ; the young Louis, who perished in the 
Temple in 1795 ; and Marie Theresa Charlotte, who became the wife of th« 
eldest son of Charles X. 




A. D. 1754-1703. 


MARIE JEANNE ROLAND, one of the most conspicuous martyrs 
of the French revolution, was born at Paris, March i8, 1754, the 
daughter of an engraver, who had ruined himself by unlucky 
speculation. From the first an eager and imaginative child, she read 
ivcr>'thing, even heraldry, and Plutarch made the young idealist a repub- 
lican for life. At eleven she went, for a year, into a convent to prei)are for 
her first communion, next passed a year with her grandmother, and re- 
turned to her father's house, where she read Buffon, Bossuet, and Helve- 
tius, and at length found her gospel in the writings of Rousseau. 

After the death of her admirable mother, in 1775, the girl, solitary and 
poor, untouched in heart by her many admirers, and cold toward the father 
through his misconduct, at length, in February, 1780, married M. Roland, 
a manufacturer of Lyons. He was r)ver forty, thin, yellowish, careless in 
dress, abrupt and austere in manners, and unyielding in his virtues, a man 
whom few would have thought likely to fascinate a young and beautiful 
woman. InherenthusLism she overrated his (lualities : he j>roved a selfish. 
t-xacting husband ; but she buried the latent passions of her heart, and for 
itn years made herself an admirable wife and mother, with perfect domestic 
Mmplicity. Her only child, a daughter, Kudora, was born at Amiens. 

The opening of the French revolution drew Ma(Uune Roland from the 
Mirement of private life. She accompanied her husband, in 1791, to 
^»ris, whither he had been sent by the city of Lyons to rrprtsent it in the 
^tates-GcneraL Her beauty, enthusiasm, and elo(iuence soon exercised a 
^^•nderful fascination over her husband's friends, and addrd a charm to 
l*^triotism that was irresistible. All the famous and ill-fated lca(Ur>, 
^•"issot, Petion, Buzot, and at first e\en Robespierre and Danton, met con- 
^*^{\y at her house, and she was a deeply interested observer of all that 
1^5^. She had little faith in constitutional monarchy ; her aspirations 
^trefor a republic, pure, free, and glorious as her ideal. 
In March, 1792, Roland became minister of the interior, and in her new 



and elevated position Madame Roland influenced not only her husband but 
the entire Girondist party. Dismissed from his post in consequence of his 
celebrated letter of remonstrance to the king — which letter was, in fact, 
written by his wife — Roland, upon the downfall of the monarchy, was re- 
called to the ministry. 

This triumph was but short lived. The power which had been set in 
motion could not be arrested in its fearful course, and the Girondist party 
fell before the influence of their bloodthirsty opponents. Protesting against 
the reign of terror, they fell its victims. Both she and her husband 
drew down upon themselves the hatred of Marat and Danton, and their 
lives were soon openly threatened. Roland escaped ; but Madame Ro- 
land was arrested, and thrown into prison. Here, during a confinement 
of several months, she prepared her memoirs, which have been given to 
the world. 

On November i, 1793, she was removed to the Conciergerie, and her 
trial, as a Girondist, commenced. She was condemned to death, and 
November 8, dressed all in white, her long, black hair hanging down to 
the girdle, she ascended the fatal cart. Carried with her to the guillotine 
was a trembling printer of assignats whom she asked Samson to take first 
to save him the horror of seeing her head fall. ** You cannot,** said she, 
* * refuse the last request of a woman. ' ' 

It is usually told how, on the point of entering the awful shadows of 
eternity, she asked for pen and paper to write down the strange thoughts 
that were rising within her, but Sainte-Beuve thinks it impossible, puerile, 
untrue to the nature of the heroine, as well as unauthenticated by good 
contemporary evidence. As she looked up at the statue of Liberty, she 
exclaimed, " Oh Liberty, how many crimes are committed in thy name!" 
She died at the age of thirty-nine. 

She had often said her husband would not long survive her. Her 
prediction was fulfilled. A week later, the body of Roland was found 
seated beneath a tree, on the road to Rouen, stabbed to the heart. A 
paper affixed to his breast bore these words : * * From the moment when I 
learned that they had murdered my wife I would no longer remain in a 
world stained with her enemies." 




A. D. 1776-1810. 


T pOUISE, Queen of Prussia, was born March lo, 1776, in Hanover, 
J^^ where her father, Duke Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was com- 
mandant. During the period of the revolutionary wars, she lived 
for some time with her sister Charlotte, the wife of Duke Frederick of Saxe- 
Hildburghausen. In 1793 she met at Frankfort the crown prince of 
Prussia, afterward King Frederick William IIL, who was so fascinated by 
her beauty, and by the nobleness of her character, that he asked her to 
become his wife. On April 24, of the same year, they were married. 

As queen of Prussia she commanded universal respect and affection, and 
nothing in Prussian history is more pathetic than the patience and dignity 
with which she bore the sufferings inflicted on her and her family during the 
war between Prussia and France. After the battle of Jena she went with 
her husband to Konigsberg, and when the battles of Fylau and Friedland 
had placed Prussia absolutely at the mercy of France, she made a personal 
appeal to Napoleon at his headquarters in Tilsit, but without success. 

Early in 1808 she accompanied the King from Memcl to Konigsberg, 
whence, toward the end of the year, she visited St. Petersburg, returning 
to Berlin on December 23, 1809. On July 19, 1810, she died in her hus- 
band's arms, while visiting her father in Strelitz. 

During the war Napoleon, with incredible brutality, attempted to 
<l«troy the queen's reputation, but the only effect of his charges in IVussia 
*as to make her more deeply beloved. 

The Prussian Order of I.oiiise, the Louise School for girls, and the 
^ise Governc^sses' Seminary were instituted in her honor. There is a 
'^^lutifiil monument and portrait statue of her by Ranch in the mausoleum 
't Chariot tenburg. 

yueen Louise was not only characterized by great personal beauty 
uniied with dignity and grace of manner, but with much gentleness of 
character and active benevolence. Her visits of charity were extended to 
nuny homes of poverty and suffering. 



A. D. 17R8-1816. 


ELIZABETH HAMILTON was born in Belfast in 1758, and died in 
Harrovvgate, England, July 25, 18 16. Her father was a merchant, 
of a Scc)ttish family, and died early, leaving a widow and three 
children. The latter were educated and brought up by relatives. 

A taste for literature soon appeared in Elizabeth. Wallace was the first 
hero of her studies ; but meeting with Ogilvie's translation of the Iliad, she 
idolized Achilles and dreamed of Hector. She had opportunities of visit- 
ing Edinburgh and Glasgow, after which she carried on a learned cor- 
respondence with Dr. Moyce, a philosophical lecturer. She wrote also 
many copies of verses — that ordinary outlet for the warm feelings and 
romantic sensibilities of youth. 

After the death of her brother, in 1792, the literary career of Elizabeth 
Hamilton properly commenced. Her first work was The Letters of a 
Hindoo Rajah, published in 1796. The success of this work decided her 
to pursue the vocation of authorship. She wrote successively, Memoirs 
of Modern Philosophers, Letters on Edneation, Life of Agrippina, and 
Letters to the Daughters of Noblemen. This latter was published in the 
year 1806. Soon afterwards Miss Hamilton became an active promoter of 
the '* House of Industry " at Edinburgh, an establishment for the education 
of females of the lowest class. For the benefit of these young persons she 
composed a little book, lixereises in Religions h'noicledge, which was pub- 
lished in 1809. Her other works include The Cottagers of (ilenburnie, 
Jissays on the Human Mind, and Hints to Patrons and Direetors of Sehools. 

Elizabeth Hamilton has shown in all her works great power of analysis, 
a firm grasp of philosophy, and singular adeptnt^s as an expositor of 
educational theory. But more important still is the influence of her writ- 
ings in awakening the attention of mothers, and directing their iiujuiries 
rightly in the observation of what passes in the minds of their children, 
to their duties as mothers, and to their business as preceptors of youth. 

Miss Hamilton died after a protracted illness on July 25, 18 16. 



A. D. 1763-1814. 


IVJL of the French, first wife of Napoleon L, was born at Trois Ilets, 
near St. Pierre, Martinique, June 24, 1763, and died at Malmaison, 
near Paris, May 29, 18 14. Her father, whose family had emigrated from 
the \ icinity of Blois, France, held the office of captain of the port at St. 

She received the \ery imperfect education that was then imparted to 
young ladies in the French colonies, but her native grace and kindness of 
heart endeared her to all with whom she became accjuainted. When about 
fifteen years of age she was sent to F'rance, and one year later married 
Viscount Alexandre de Beauharnais, like herself a native of Martinique, 
and then a major in an infantry regiment. By this union, which was far 
from happy, she had a son, Eugene, afterward prince, and a daughter, 
Hortense, who became queen of Holland by her marriage with Louis Bona- 
parte, and was the mother of Napoleon III. 

Viscount de Beauharnais, although he had been one of the promoters of 
the revolution in the constituent assembly, and had faithfully ser\'ed his 
country in arms, was arrested upon suspicion during the Reign of Terror, 
and sent to the scafTold, leaving Josephine in distress. Her efforts to procure 
tHe release of her husband had caused her own imprisonment ; and her two 
children were reduced to such extremities that Eugene entered a carpenter's 
^hop as an apprentice. 

At a reception she met Bonaparte, then an obscure officer. He fell 
^'^perately in love with her, although he was six years her junior, and 
^^rried her March 9, 1796. Twelve days later he was apj)ointe(l to the 
^fe command of the French army in Italy. She accompanied him in his 
'^^ian campaign, and exercised a great influence in restraining him from 
^^Hasures <A violence and severity. She shared all the honors that were 
•stowed upon her husband, and was with great difficulty prevented from 
3ccomj>anying him to Eg\'pt. 



During their separation and after his return, at Malmaison, and after- 
ward at the Luxembourg and the Tuileries, she attracted round her the 
most brilliant society of France, and contributed not a little to the establish- 
ment of her husband's power. She was solemnly crowned in Paris, Decem- 
ber 2, 1804, but her happiness was soon marred by sad forebodings ; she 
had no children by her imperial husband, and in the eyes of this great poli- 
tician a direct heir was essential to the preservation of his power. After 
many struggles between his love and his ambition, Napoleon, partly by 
entreaties, partly by using his sovereign authority, prevailed upon his wife 
to consent to a divorce. The marriage relation was accordingly dissolved 
by law on December 16, 1809. 

Subsequent evidences of national sympathy for the fallen empress 
showed that she was far from having lost anything of her power over the 
French people. Her enthusiastic attachment for Napoleon remained unim- 
paired ; and she would have been ready to follow him in his exile, after his 
fall, but their respective situations did not allow such a step. The esteem 
in which she was held by the allied sovereigns protected her during the 
disasters of 18 14, and she was several times visited at Malmaison by the 
Emperor Alexander of Russia, and the King of Prussia. She lived near 
Evreux, and died at Malmaison, May 29, 18 14. Her body was interred in 
the church of Rucl, where, seven years after, a monument was erected in 
her honor. 

Josephine was handsome ; her figure was majestic and elegant ; but her 
charms were her grace and goodness of heart. She has been called Napo- 
leon's "star." His fortunes, it is said, arose with her, and waned when 
their connection ceased. The English, when they paint the Empress 
Josephine, in their hatred of Napoleon, always depict her in the most glow- 
ing colors. To exalt Napoleon's repudiated wife is to censure him. But 
we, who are less liable to prejudice, are able to estimate her character more 
impartially and to bestow praise where it belongs. 

If Josephine had been as eminent for high, womanly virtues as Napo- 
leon was for exalted genius ; if she had been in truth Napoleon's **star," 
her fate might have been a different one. 



Etched and repraducBd from a painting by 
Henry Holiday, an English painter, sculptor, and 
contributor to the Royal JLcademy. This cbIb- 
bratad picture mjbs painted in IBBS and exhibited 
in the GrDSveiiDr G-allery, LcndDii. 













f |\ HE revolutions which took place during the sixteenth century in the 

-L condition of woman were not less important than those produced 

in Church and State, in religion, in the arts and sciences, in 

aculemical institutions, in commerce and manufactures, in the sentiments 

and manners of the most celebrated nations, in the mutual 

* * **" relations of the countries of Europe, and in the situation of 

the latter with regard to the other divisions of the globe. 
These changes must be contemplated with due regard to the conditions 
already referred to as characteristic of the preceding centuries. 

Among nations of different origin, the condition of woman depends, 
principally, on the natural qualities of the heart and mind, l)y which each 
of them is distinguished. On the contrary, among nations of the same 
origin, such as the Germans, and all those that were either descended from, 
or conquered by, the Germans, that state of the women is determined by the 
particular constitutions, customs, manners, and refinement of each nation, 
and also by the situation, power, and disposition of their sovereigns. As a 
great change took place in all these points, among the European nations, 
during the period under discussion, so the condition of the sex underwent 
an equal revolution with the causes l)y which it is governed. 

It was a rough world in which women found themselves at liberty to 
ome and go, to taste new pleasures, enjoy fresh luxuries, hear new 
opinions, and think new thoughts. Hut at least it was a world of action, 
of striving, of pushing forward. Despotic as was the throne, as opposed 
to feudal rule, oppressi\ e as was the new land-owning class, a freer spirit 
])revailed. Social changes worked gradually and the germs of later 
ni«)<lem intellectual activity began their growth. 

The fact is am[)ly borne out in history, that in no Euro- 

*"* pean nation, in which the arts and sciences flourished, were 

thev wholly monopolized by the stronger sex. But during the era of the 

Rf-naissance they took a larger share in both ; the greater number, in 



order to cultivate the qualities of the heart and understanding, and to fit 
themselves for the performance of new social duties ; but many with a view 
to exalt themselves above the level of their sex, and to vie with the most 
industrious and the most celebrated men in the career of genius and reputa- 

The lively enthusiasm for the ancient languages and monuments, and 
for the restoration of all the arts and sciences, which was excited in the 
fourteenth and continued during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, was 
caught up by certain happily organized persons, and became a part of the 
spirit of the times. Women applied themselves to the study of the Greek 
and Latin and even of the Oriental languages, and acquired, or at least 
endeavored to acquire, glory by the fruits of their industry and genius ; 
several distinguished themselves as public orators, or as teachers of the 
languages and sciences. 

It may be regarded as a peculiar characteristic of the fifteenth and still 
more of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth centuries, that the 

enthusiasm for the sciences and the learned languages among 
Sill y o ^omen of the higher ranks was strongest and most general ; 

that at the very time when the majority of princes and nobles 
despised men of learning as clerks, and regarded the sciences as degrading 
to their dignity, women of the highest distinction patronized literature and 
the arts with the most lively interest ; that queens and princesses so far 
from being ashamed, thought it an honor to be poetesses and writers ; and 
that those of the female sex who had received no instruction in the learned 
languages and the scholastic sciences, at least made themselves mistresses 
of the best works of modern nations, studied with the utmost assiduity to 
speak and write their mother tongue with elegance and precision, and to 
form correct opinions on the productions of wit and taste, as well as on 
men and things. 

The country in which the classic languages were first revived was the 

portion of the European continent in which ladies of distinc- 

Spread of ^j^^^ ^^.^^ aspired to the newly discovered treasures of ancient 

wisdom. The examples of the Italian women soon excited 

the emulation of their fair and enlightened sisters in France, England, Spain, 



and Germany. To the honor of the P'rench women, it must be said, that. 

in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, they distinguished 

themselves above all the olliers by their accomplishments in general, and 

their literary talents in particular, and in consequence they justly lK»came 

the patterns of their sex throughout all Kurope. 

Next to the French women, those of England applied themselves with 

the greatest zeal to the study of the ancient languages and of the sciences. 

The latter, however, possessed an undeniable superiority over 

ev va ti^eir continental neiehlx)rs in one important particular, that 
In Bnffland ^ . . 

is to say, they conferred much greater honor on their erudi- 
tion l)y irreproachable manners than the women of Francr. 

There was activity in all departments of thought. The study of poetry, 
of theology, of the classics, went on apace. The printing press was letting 
loose fi(K)ds of knowledge. The tide swept the women of the nobility along 
in its course, as it did those of France. They stand out prominently among 
the ranks of scholars. In place of the domestic arts, they are found im- 
mersed in classics, divinity, and philosophy. 

Education was not conducted on the easy, pleasant lines of our own 
day. Knowledge was hard to obtain. It was locked up out of reach of 
the indolent, in languages to which there were none of the modern keys. 
Literature was the great study, and familiarity with (ireek and Latin essen- 
tial. The tree of science had only just begun to grow, and was sorely iK-set 
by the brambles of superstition and mysticism. The arts in England cT>uld 
scarcely Ik' said to exist. History was in the form »>f chronicles and 

And yet, says a competent authority, "No age was so productive of 
learned women as the sixteenth century. Learning was so very mo<lish 
that the fair sex seemed to belie\e that dreek and Latin added to their 
charms, and that Plato and Aristotle untranslated were frequent ornaments 
of their closets. " Certainly Enj^lantl can show a roll during that periiHJ, 
which is in striking contrast to the records of the prece<ling and succeeil- 
ing centuries. 

Queen Catharine, tht- last wife (»t Henry VI 11., was the translator 
ot a notable literary work. She was excelled by the <jueens Nhiry and 

317 • 


Elizabeth, both of whom were likewise authors. The former wrote 
Latin epistles with elegance, and the latter was in the habit 

Bioiaiiie ^j returning extemporary answers in the same languajje to 
Polish ambassadors. 

The beautiful, virtuous, heroic, and unfortunate Lady Jane Cirey, who 
was in ever>' respect worthy the first throne in the world, is justly styled by 
Hume, a prodigy in literature. Never was a woman, and ver}' seldom a 
person of the other sex, attached to learning for its own sake, or on account 
of the pleasure and advantage which it afforded to her understanding and 
her heart, as Lady Jane (irey, who ascended the scaffold with greater reso- 
lution than the throne, and who consoled her sister in the same language in 
which Plato wrote on the immortality of the soul. Not only the queens, 
but, as Hume informs us, "even the ladies of the court valued themselves 
on their knowledge. Lady Burleigh, Lady Bacon, and their two sisters, 
were mistresst=^ of the ancient as well as modern languages ; and placed 
more pride in their i-rudition, than in their rank and (juality." 

The house of Sir Thomas More was truly the habitatic^n o^ the Musi s. 
His three daughters, but especially Margaret, who afterward married Mr. 
Roper, wrote, even in their childhood, Latin letters of which veterans in 
literature would have no occasion to feel ashamed. It was perhaps these 
three daughters who honored the memory of (Jueen Margaret <»f Navarre in 
Latin poems of their own composition. 

After the sixteenth century, the lamp of learning in Kngland flickered a 

good The air was very unsteady, and winds came blowing from all 

quarters. The civil war, the austerity of the Puritans, the 

••^•■****"*'* license of the Rovalists, were not favorable to the arts of 

peace, and when political passions were dividing the country 
it was no time for ])oring over books and holding commune with phiIoM>- 
phers and poets. The fault of the seventeenth century was its lack «»f 
earnestness alM)Ut intellectual matters. It combined all the faults of all tlur 
ages — laxity of morals, indifference to high aims, combined with religious 
fanaticism and a lack of appreciation of knt)wle(lj4e and learning. Ac- 
complishments were sought after rather than solid acquirements. There 
was a leaning to the lighter pursuits, — music, dancing, needlework, and art. 



It is in this century that the history of the fine arts, as far as women are 
concerned, really begins. About the middle of the century, too, women 
first began to appear upon the stage. It was an unfortunate moment for 
the introduction of actresses, and their presence gave rise to many scandals ; 
and this opprobrium has never left it. 

The eighteenth century' stands out with a curious distinct individuality. 
The contest between the moralist and the sensualist had spent itself, and 

England ^or the first time in English history we come upon a period 
Elsmeentii ^^^^^ distinctive characteristic was conventionality . Wo- 

centnry ^len in everyday life felt the spell of this goddess less than 
did the great ladies. Over the fashionable world she reigned supreme ; 
but common women, while they admired, and, as far as possible, imitated 
the ways of their social superiors, showed themselves mere children of 
nature. There was more material than intellectual improvement. The 
literary movement hardly touched women in everyday life ; the philan- 
thropic movement had not made any headway, and as for politics, it was 
only the great ladies, with relatives and friends among statesmen, who con- 
cerned themselves with public affairs. Morals were at a low ebb, and 
female education was anything but inspiring. 

Returning to the sixteenth century we further ol)serve that no country 
of Europe contained so many teachers, professors, and patrons of literature 

and real science in general, as (ierniany ; accord inglv a por- 
€3ciui mny 

tion of the universal enthusiasm for the ancient languages. 

and for the restoration of religion and letters, could not fail to be com- 
municated to the wives and daughters of the friends of these upliftinj.»^ 

It is, nevertheless, a matter of surprise, that in thc^se times of the 
greatest fermentation and enthusiasm, a greater number of German women 
did not obtain celebrity by their erudition and their writings. Excepting 
the princesses of the house of Austria, very few (ierman women of the 
sixteenth century and following distinguished themselves by their literary 
attainments, or their patronage of the learned. Charitas, an abbess of the 
convent of St. Clara, at Nurnberg, read Oreek works and wrote Latin 
letters, a small collection of which is still preserved. Constantia, a 




daughter of the learned Peutinger of Augsburg, has received worthy men- 
tion by Ulrich von Hutten ; but other examples of participation in learning 
and letters by women of Germany are rare. 

Spain remained very far behind all the other civilized countries of 
Europe in regard to the number and zeal of the friends of learning. That 
kingdom, nevertheless, produced more women than Ger- 
many, who were acquainted not only with the Greek and 
Latin, but also with the Hebrew and other Oriental languages, or stepped 
forward as public orators, to fill the pope and the cardinals with astonish- 
ment, or to convert the ol^stinate Jews. 

In the next century, on the continent, as in England, the partiality of 
the sex to ancient literature and the study of the sciences, properly so 
called, was considerably diminished. At the same time, however, the 
desire of acquiring a knowledge of the modern languages and their best 
works, and the ambition of speaking and writing the mother tongue with 
elegance and precision, gradually became more general, especially in 

The state of female society in America bore a general resemblance to the 
English, though considerably modified by the peculiar circumstances of the 
country. Great value was placed upon education from the 
beginning ; and marked privation for the sake of placing the 
children in good schools was not uncommon. There were, during this 
period, not many instances of the thorough and elegant female education, 
which the higher classes of the French and English received, but women 
were generally intelligent and well informed ; a good knowledge of history, 
the popular sciences, Latin, French, and Italian, were common acquisitions. 

And now, having passed in rapid review the intellectual conditions sur- 
rounding women during thc^se three centuries, what, we must inquire, were 
csenerai some of the social and moral conditions? If the learning and 
conduiotis attainments acquired by the fair sex in the sixteenth century 
In Europe had been more general than they were, still they would 
scarcely have proved sufficient to protect female virtue against the new 
dangers and charms of a Rfe at court and all that it entailed. 

During the reign of Louis XH. the life and character of that ruler and 



his wife kept the ladies and gentlemen of the court witliin proper bounds. 
Under Francis I., on the contrary', the virtue of few of the women attend- 
ant on the court was proof against its incessant dissipations and amuse- 
ments, the continual artifices of bold and cunning seducers, and the influence 
of illustrious examples. It even became a prevailing opinion, that the loss 
of female honor was a thing of no kind of consequence, but that it was 
creditable when it was compensated by wealth, honors, and the favor of 
the great. 

Unfortunately, it was not the ladies of the court alone in whom the sense 
of virtue and decency was extinguished. The court infected the capital, 
and the capital communicated the contagion to the other cities of the 

Aca)rding to the unanimous testimonies of historians and obser\'ers, 

"^ostofthe courts and nations of Europe copied with increasing avidity 

^UtiA r ^^^ pomp, the diversions, and the fashions of France. This 

I'reiicli mania for imitating the French overcame, among many peo- 

anera ^^^ ^j^^, most violent and dee[)-rooted national antipathy. It 

. 'irstH-ized the courts and the superior ranks, and gradually descended to 

^^^' middle and lower classes. 

In this state of things the character of woman was warped by the 

temptations and impulses of the tinus. In tin* court of I^Vance, as has been 

''hser\cd, in the houses of the nobility generally, cuul indt-ed almost every- 

*h*Te. womankind was not respected, nor did woman res[)ect herself. The 

•Nate wiLS governed by vanity, by the love of luxury and extravagance, by 

the eagerness for self-indulgence, and i)y the absence of any respec t for true 

di^nitv. France entered upon the sixteenth (cntury with all the social 

:'\iU «»f the fifteenth, and with new dangers before her. I 'or in the midst 

•»f the ruin of the old society, religion as well as social order ]ia<l become 

♦ mhrnilcfl, and the Church had run herself into a> much danger as the 

Sute. Fa<ls like the following ^how u>. how far the sex had been taught 

ro throw aside all those (|ualiti<s which natnrall\ lulong to it. 

After the (Conspiracy of Amboise in I5(><>, when the prisoners were taken 
«Mit ciaiiy by dozens to be executed, we are assured that the (luises reserved 
the principal prifwners for the purpose, bv th<*ir torments, (»f affording amuse- 



ment to the ladies of the court after dinner, who then, with the king and 

his brothers, placed themselves in the windows of the castle 

Example o ^^ Amboise, in which the court was residine, while the vic- 
Perverslon ° 

tims were brought into the courtyard of the palace, a few every 

day, and put to death in the most barbarous manner, in view of the ladies. 

We are told further, that the chancellor, Olivier, a man of more gentle- 
ness in his character, was so horrified by the atrocities committed on this 
occasion, that he took to his bed, and died before the end of the month. 

Such were some of the qualities which seem to have prevailed more or 
less among womankind in France at the commencement of the great 
troubles of the latter half of the century of which we are speaking. 

Among the aristocratic classes, especially among those which were 
naturally taken for imitation, virtue had long been at a discount, and vice 
reigned without any control. The pages of Brant6me and Pierre de 
I'E^toile depict scenes of profligacy and sensuality among women which 
cannot here be transcribed. We see them there displaying their immorali- 
ties almost to the open day. 

The civil war of 1580 was ascribed almost entirely to the maids of 
honor of Queen Marguerite of Navarre and the young beauties of the 
court, who, in their feeling of hostilities against the king of France, Henry 
III., distributed their last favors almost indiscriminately to all who would 
join in the insurrection against him, to such a degree that it was popularly- 
called " the war of the lovers." This character of license had become so 
strongly imprinted on the French character, that it remained more or less 
attached to it until comparatively recent times. 

The courts of Turin and Milan were those that first and most nearly 

resembled the court of France. During the whole first half of the 

eighteenth centurv the court of Turin had the reputation of 
Courts of ^ ' 

Xnrln and being one of the first schools of politeness and politics not 
Milan Qi^iy in Italy, but in all Europe. Young men of rank, who 
were destined to figure in the great world, were more frequently sent to 
Turin than to any other center of elegance. 

In the latter years of King X'ictor Amadeus the court of Turin was soli- 
tary and gloomy, rather than animated and agreeable. The jealoas king 



was displeased if his servants and courtiers formed an intimacy with foreign 
ambassadors and other strangers. So much the more free and uncon- 
troDedwere the ladies of Turin. Each lady had not only a professed lover, 
but also an agent or intermediate person to negotiate her love affairs. 

At Milan also the alternate presence of Spanish, French, and German, 
armies, and of other foreigners, had produced such a revolution in the 
genius of the inhabitants towards the middle of the century under discus- 
sion, that they allowed their women as great liberty as the fair sex enjoyed 
ij France. 

Women of the highest rank gave and went to masquerade balls in the 

house of a certain iraiteiir, who had formctl such an establishment as to 

Forms of enable him to Entertain the most respectable and the most 

andCm^ numerous companies in a manner suitable to their condition. 

piojmiciit Husbands had no objection to suffer their wives to go on a 

party of pleasure, accompanietl by as many of the opposite sex ; to take 

with them silver plate, costly wines, and other necessaries and conveniences, 

and to bear all the expenses of such an excursion. It was not ladies of 

quality alone that had shaken off the former restraints. 

Women were seen, as at Paris, behind iht: counter of almost every shop. 
Milliners and si-amstresses worked in public siiops. in whicli large com- 
panies very often assembled. The nuns received \isit«>rs in their parlors 
like other women ; they laughed, they jested, they diverted themselves 
*ith music like the ladies of the court, and had assemblies a> frecjuently as 

In no other city of Italy were the nuns under so little discipline and 
r<^traint as at X'enice ; especially in those convents which were provided 
'•■r the reception of the daughters of the nobles. Nuns of noble birth 
^f>t only received their friends and acquaintances in the private parlor, 
"Ut paid visits out of their convents, and kept their hntrs almost in 

In the public promenades, at the tiieater. and at balls, the women never 
appeared othi-rwise than masked ; and this ( untinual disguise embarrassed 
•heoperali<»ns r)f jealousy in the same [)roportion as it f.uilitated the plans 
^>rt}u' gratification of private wishes. 



Of all the great courts of the continent, the German imperial court dur- 
ing the reign of Charles VL relinquished the least of its ancient etiquette, 
and was least inclined to adopt the French manners and fash- 
Gcnnati -^^^^ jj^^ emperor commonly ate with the empress and the 
archduchesses ; and both their majesties were always waited 
upon at table by the first officers of their court. The only difference 
between the common and the gala tables of the imperial family was, that, at 
the latter, the dinner was attended with music. The imperial palaces, 
pleasure-houses, gardens, and furniture were so mean as to produce a disa- 
greeable impression on all foreigners. The court appeared in its greatest 
brilliancy on the name-days of the emperor and empress. The emperor 
was more devout than gallant, and had a great partiality for religious festi- 
vals. He obliged not only all the ladies and gentlemen of his court but 
likewise the foreign ambassadors to attend all his exercises of devotion. 

The inhabitants of Vienna took part with great zeal in all the religious 

festivals, and multiplied those of the court and of private families as much as 

possible. The Baron von Pollnitz gives a rather complete 
Vienna . , r i • 

picture of the women of the time. 

• ' They are, ' ' says he, ' ' rather more handsome than pleasing. They 
are tall, well shaped, and walk well ; but when they courtesy, they do it in 
such an awkward manner, that you would think their backs in danger of 
breaking. In dress they are gaudy rather than elegant. Excepting few, 
none of them use rouge and much less white paint. In a word, they have 
nothing about them that denotes coquetry. They do not easily become 
familiar, and, notwithstanding their vanity, tliey are cold like all our Ger- 
man women. 

"They are not so fond of gallantry as of gaming, luxury, and magnif- 
icence. They know no books but their prayer books, are consequently 
very credulous, and regard exercises of devotion as the essentials of reli- 
gion. This ignorance renders their conversation rather insipid, unless it be 
animated by love. They have at least as high a notion of Vienna, as the 
women of Paris have of that metropolis. All these little defects, however, 
are compensated by a certain greatness of soul and uncommon generosity. 
They are warm friends of those whose interests they once espouse.*' 


ReprDducBd frnni a painting by W, Camp- 
hausen, a Dusssldarf painter, and ana of the fora- 
mnst painters of battles of any schnnl nr time, 
Camphausen was a mernbar of the Berlin and 
Vlanna Academies, and receivEU numEraus 
medals from, the leadintJ Falons. 



Maria Theresa was the first German regent to relax the rigid etiquette 

b'ith which her forefathers had fettered themselves. She admitted high 

and low to her presence, listened to the complaints and peti- 

***'** tions of her servants and sul)jccts with sympathy and 

I)atience, and returned them such answers as a mother gives 
to her children. She honored persons of merit of both sexes with 
invitations to her table, which had never been done before at the Austrian 
court. She gave the court of Vienna more liberty, more animation, and 
more brillianc>' than it had ever before exhibited. The French manners 
supplemented or at least gained ascendency over the Spanish and Italian 
habits and languages, which had heretofore been predominant. 

It is cestainly a remarkable characteristic of the eighteenth century, 
that it produced a greater number of female sovereigns of talent than of 
cOstinguished princes ; that the most important events during that period 
were brought about by these princesses ; and that for nearly three fourths 
of it, one of the most powerful nations of Kurope was go\erne(l by females. 
Amoi^ these Maria Theresa and Catharine II. indisputably deserve the 
foremost rank, not only for the greatness of their minds, but also for the 
goodness of their hearts, and the ardent zeal with which they endeavored 
to promote the welfare of their subjt-cts. Xeillier of these sovereigns was 
without fanks, any more than the j^n.-atest and the l)est princes. 

If Catharine II. had fewer female virtues than Maria Theresa, on the 
other hand she possessed a more masculine mind and attaiiunents, and 
conferred greater benefits on her em[)ir(r tlian tlur latter, by means of 
establishments and institutions of general utility. 

The court of X'ienna itself ditTere<l less from that of 1*' ranee, than the 

Pnissian court under King I-Vederick William. This monarch suppressed 

Canrt Jtf ''^^ ^^^^' P^^"M^ '^"^^ '^^^ ^'^^' diversion in which hi> father had 

Pnctfcrlck emulated the l*Ven(*h court. The muses and graces tlrd fn>m 

'" the orgies r)f this Milu*r\vi>e threat kin;; U> tin- roidente of his 

still greater son, who ke[)t a court mr)re distini^uishcd for elegance than 

splendor, at the Rheinsburg. 

'/ntil the middle of the eighteenth century, tiie drink in;^ of toasts was 
d common jiractice at the court of Berlin, and at most of the other < ier- 


man courts. Drinking matches were thought creditable ; and though 
drunkenness was not deemed honorable, yet it incurred no disgrace. 
Moderate intoxication was not taken amiss even in ladies. The wildest 
orgies were held in their presence ; and the participants in them were not 
ashamed to reel from the bottle into associations with the gentler sex. 

This public practice of drinking toasts, and this habit of intoxication, 
were wholly inconsistent with the manners of the French. Only in private 
festivals, which were inaccessible to all but their most intimate confidants, 
did the French court surrender to such immoderate practices. 

As early as the reign of Frederick Augustus, the Saxons were regarded 
as the French of Germany, and the Saxon women were thought to ap- 
proach nearest to those of France. It would, ^however, ap- 
saxon ^^j. ^1^^^ ^j^^ women of Saxony copied the French in their 
attire and ornaments, rather than in their sentiments and 
manners. When the former gave way to love, their passion was of the 
heroic cast ; and this elevated sentiment they were taught by the romances 
of chivalry, which were their favorite amusement. They were not so much 
occupied with gallantry as to be prevented from attending to their domestic 
concerns, or to polite female employments. 

During tlie first half of tlie period, French fashions had but few, and 
the French way of living scarcely any, adherents in the great commercial 
Prencii In- ^^^^^^ ^^ Germany. The court cities alone had been the 
fluencein mimics. The women of Hamburg were almost as closely 
cermany confined as the women of the East. They went scarcely any- 
where but to church ; or, if they walked or drove, they were always ac- 
companied by their husbands. The patricians of Augsburg, Niirnberg, 
and Ulm were almost utter strangers to conviviality and hospitality. In 
these imperial cities, both sexes rigidly adhered to the ancient fashions in 
dress. Even natives of the other sex were not admitted into the female 
circles, unless they were near relatives or intimate friends. 

Not until the Se\'en Years' War did the new epoch in the social and 

CiTects of ^^"^^'stic life of Germany begin. From this time forward, 

tiie Seven the eighteenth century was characterized by a wonderful al- 

Years' 'War f^^ation. The numerous garrisons of foreign troops, and the 



ennui of gay and young officers in winter quarters, produced a multitude 
of societies and social amusements which were afterwards continued, and 
proved the fruitful parents of a still more numerous progeny. 

From this time arose the mixed societies, under the names of concerts, 
picnics, clubs ; the practice of having separate apartments for husbands, 
wives, and children ; the unobstructed visits of men to persons of the 
other sex ; the more liberal education of females, their admission into large 
mixed societies, their increasing consequence, and their improved modes of 
dress ; and, finally, genuine hospitality to strangers, true conviviality 
among friends, games- of hazard, taste and elegance in furniture and 
equipages, the desire for fashion and luxuries, fondness for reading and 
amusement, and the habit of travel, — all of which brought to womankind 
of the following century a priceless heritage. 

No period in history has probably been more remarkable in its influence 
upon women than the so-called period of the French revolution, embracing 
the regal decades, also, leading uj) to this remarkable subver- 
■tion ^J^f^- Under the immediate successor of Louis XV. , the 
most ancient and to all appearances the most firmly estab- 
lished throne in Europe was subverted, and the most brilliant court sud- 
denly dissolved. 

A nation which had hitherto considered its inviolable attachment and 
loyalty to its monarchs as one of its principal virtues, which had viewed 
even the vices and foibles of its rulers and of those who enjoyed their favor 
^'ith reverential awe, first incarcrratrs the best of sovrreij^^ns. the most 
liable of kings, in a dungeon of misery, tluMi draj^s him to the fatal scaf- 
Wd, and both under circumstances the most rcpiij^nant to ivery ft-ding 
*^Qrt The same nation renounccrs the religion of its ancestors, for which 
'^had fought for centuries ; annihilates its ancient constitution, and with it 
^"^two higher orders of society, which it had been acxustomed to consider 
^ the strength or flower of the community : abrogates its laws, its institu- 
tions for instruction and education ; relincjuislies its former way of thinking 
*^d modes of life, and even no small part of its peculiar char;ict( ristics ; in 
^ing the first steps toward f)romised freedom, is invohetl in the most 
l^minious slaver)' ; endures and perpetrates the most atrocious crimes. 



and, at the very time when it is bleeding under the axes of its tyrants, 
achieves the most brilliant victories, which excite not less admiration than 
the enormities committed and tolerated, inspire detestation and contempt. 

The French revolution is one of those phenomena, the causes of which 
no finite intellect can fully enumerate, and still less can it accurately appre- 
ciate the effects of each of these causes. Upon the whole it 
may be asserted, that whatever tended to establish the arbi- 
trary power of the French monarchs, and encouraged the abuse of that 
power with its attendant vices, corruption, oppression, and financial em- 
barrassment, must be reckoned among its concurrent causes. 

During the reign of Louis XIV., the disorders of the court and the 
distractions of the kingdom increased with a rapid progress. In the first 
twenty years of the reign of Louis XV. , Cardinal Fleury retarded the fall 
of the tottering kingdom by his frugality and solicitude for the preserva- 
tion of peace. But after his death it advanced with accelerated velocity 
towards its dissolution, which could not even be checked by the accession 
of so promising a monarch as Louis XVI. 

Under Louis XVI., as under his predecessors, the women were very 
important factors in governing the men who enjoyed the confidence of the 
monarch. The deficiency of virtue and talent, however, proved more 
detrimental than did in other times the greatest criminality. This defi- 
ciency both of great vices and crimes, and of great virtues and abilities, is 
perhaps one of the most certain symptoms of decline or degeneracy. 

The principal vices of the nobles under the reign of Louis XVI. were 
their inordinate love of gaming, of horse-racing, of mistresses, and the 

soclet destructive profusion into which these passions led them. 

micler Tlic reigning vices of the men became also the vices of the 
i^oa s XVI. ^yQi^^^p Ladies of rank, or those who wished to be consid- 
ered as such, gamed, squandered their fortunes and involved themselves in 
debt, like the men. They had lovers and expensive gewgaws, as the men 
had their mistresses and horses. They also murdered their time with the 
same frivolous amusements and dissipations as the men. 

Happy marriages and conjugal fidelity became more rare than ever. 
Public illicit connections with other men than those whose name they bore, 



were the prevailing fashion, and therefore ceased to give any offense. Peo- 
ple married in compliance with the will of their parents, or for other motives 
of convenience, that, after the nuptial knot was tied, they might enter into 
a still closer private union with the objects of their hearts. 

These connections assumed the exact character of matrimonial unions, 
and the perpetual change of lovers and mistresses, which was formerly so 
much in vogue, disappeared almost entirely. With married women, none 
of their male acquaintances were more rarely seen than their husbands, 
and with none did they less frequently meet in society. The lover gen- 
erally defrayed the expenses of the toilet and other contingent expenses of 
his mistress. But if he was too poor, or not sufficiently liberal, to satisfy 
the continual demands of fashion and the love of display, the lady applied 
to the person whose name she bore ; and it was only when she had ac- 
counts to settle with milliners, jewelers, and other dealers in fashionable 
••ares, or when her purse recjuired to be replenished after losses at gaming, 
that she bestowed a civil look or word uj)on her nominal husband. 

One of the principal causes of the corruption of morals in the capital of 

France had long been the different theaters, and especially the grand 

opera. The ministers of Louis X\'I., in compliance with the 

**" wishes of that virtuous sovereign, endeavored to correct the 

Opera ^ 

scandalous abuses j^cMU-ratcd in this school of voluptuous- 
ness and vicf. and to restrain tin- loose conduct of the actors and actresses 
hynmickin*! of discij)lini-. Hut all tluse allcnipls at the reformation of 
the <)pt;ra were without the smallest permanent effect. The opera re- 
"^inwl, or iK-came even in a hij^her decree tiian it had been before, a 
^'hrM.1 of debauchery, which contained none but the most prolligate charac- 
^^'^^ and which received no additions but such as wtmr furnished by 
^ licentiousness of a corrupted capital. It was, and remained, the 
rtceptade of prostitution, adultery, and e\ery kind of i^^ross sensuality. 
*'^ and enormities of every description, which were safe nowhere else, 
^nd refuge in the bosom of the i^rand opera. 

The French revolution began in tin- UK^nth of June, 17S9, when a part 
^ the States-Cieneral, without the concurrence of the two higher orders, 
^In opposition to the will of the kuvj^, constituted themselves a national 



assembly, and were acknowledged by the nation as their representatives with 

unlimited powers. From the very first moment of the Revolution, an 

incredible infatuation seized the minds of almost the whole 

Beff nn tiff of ^^ ^^^ nation. Liberty was the maeic word which inflamed 
tlie carnage ^ 

every imagination ; and the love of liberty became a reign- 
ing fashion, which, under a variety of shapes, drove a fickle and volatile 
people from one extreme to another, and impelled men destitute both of 
virtue and of patriotism, to sacrifice their own real interests, nay, their 
lives themselves, not merely without murmuring, but even with a playful 

In a city so sunk in effeminacy and voluptuousness as Paris, the love of 
liberty must have seemed as great a stranger as luxury in ancient Sparta. 
And yet the people, or the mob of Paris, raised insurrection after insurrec- 
tion, till the throne and all that surrounded it was laid in the dust, and out 
of its ruins rose the monster of anarchy, to which nowhere so many victims 
were sacrificed as in Paris itself. The fashion of liberty was just as 
capricious and changeable in Paris as any other fashion ; but finally, after 
the most dramatic oscillation between monarchy and democracy, the 
national convention decreed the abolition of monarchy. 

Neither the nobility nor the dignified clergy lost more by a change of 

the established constitution than the female sex, which for nearly three 

centuries past had reigned at the French court, and from the 

A vital court had extended its swav over every town and province of 
Question ' ^ ^ 

the kingdom. If there were to be no more despotic kings, 

no ruling ministers or favorites of monarchs, no more festivities, levees, and 
brilliant assemblies at the court, how could the all-influencing mistresses of 
kings and ministers, how could the arbitresses of taste and fashion, of 
literary and every other kind of merit, continue to exist? Yet even the- 
womei) sacrificed all the advantages which had formerly been the most dear 
to them, with enthusiastic ardor. They took the most active part in a// 
the festivals of liberty, particularly in the memorable festival of confedera- 
tion, held at Paris on July 14, 1790. 

The women in the provinces, who were not able themselves to attend 
this festival, expressed their attachment to the cause of liberty by going in 


procession, in their l)est attire, to meet tlie sons of the countr}' going to 
swear the sacred oath of liberty and ecjuality, or h\i attending them on their 
return, and presenting them witli refreshments. In some places the wo- 
men waited for hours and days upon tlie high roads, in orthr to receive the 
deputies to the festival of confederation, and to invite tiiem to civic enter- 
tainments and dances. If tlu* patriots accepted these invitation^, the ladies 
took of! their martial accoutrements with their own fair hands, and the depu- 
ties imagined tliemselves transported l)ack into tlie romantic ages of chivalry. 
When dangers e.xternal and internal Ix-^an to threaten the newborn 
liberty of France, the women not (»nly encouraged their husbands, brothers, 
and lovers bra\cly to defend their couiUry. but they e\- 

oman • ^.^.^^.^j themselves to the utmr)st to contribntr toward its de- 

fense. After the e.\ampl<* of the women «»f our t)wn country 

during the war (►f American independenre. many thon^and^ of zealous 
female patriots laid tluir trinkets, their pin-money, or the irnit> of their 
ec(momy upon the altar <»f the <'ounlry. Many wi»men. in-^pired with 
enthusiastic patriotism and l(»\e of libert\ , renounced the eharaeter (»f their 
se.x. and taking their posts among the eomb.itant^ for freidom. L:aine<l the 
laurels of victory, or died the d«Mth of heroines in th<- !i<ld «»f bl.»od. 

Hut the heads of ruling parlies forgot the proofs of patriot i-^m and anw- 
age which the I*Veneh women had ilisplayed from the beniinnini^ <»f the 
Revoluti<ui. as readily as tin y did the voluntary >airihre> of the king, the 
nobles, and the eleri^y. The fair se\ was ne\ir treated iu so cruel and 
shameful a manner, nor did it e\ ir display such ^reat antl at tin- ^ame time 
such oilious qualities as during the Reii^n of Terror, which be^an August 
io, 1790. an<l in the course of the succ^eedin^ \t'ar its luiex.impled 
horrors over all I-Vancc. Purine th<>e days of l)h)od. iiuited by party 
leaders, the rabble learned to trainj)le upon justice, inuoci nee, hum.uiity. 
decency : to pay resj)ect neither to rank, nor s<.\, nor ai^e. 

One of the rir>t an.l n]o>t shocking atrocities of tlnse days was the 
massacre of the Princess L.imballe. with the hoi rid indiiiniiie> tliai were 
aftenvards offered to lit r body, and the e.iirxiML: of her head o!i .« jiike 
through the streets, and even to the r«inj«le. for the express purp<ise ti\ 
exhibiting it to the view of the (pieen and family. 



The wife of the bloodthirsty Le Bon even secured lists of the persons 

arrested, brought to her ever}- evening by the officers, and with her own 

hand placed the letter G against the names of those that were 

Bia ame ^^ ^^ guillotined the next morning. 
Ij^ Bon ^ ^ 

One day an extraordinary spectacle was to be exhibited, 

in the execution of twenty-eight persons at once, among whom were thir- 
teen young girls. Le Bon issued orders that the people shculd attend this 
spectacle, and these orders no one dared disobey, except at the hazard of 
his life. A widow, who on account of indisposition, was no\ able to be 
present at the execution herself, sent her daughter in her strad, having pre- 
viously given her a strict charge not to show the least sign of sympathy for 
the persons whose execution she was about to witness. 

The daughter promised to keep command over herself, and actually did 
suppress her emotions till the sixteenth victim was brought on the scaffold. 
In her she beheld one of the most intimate friends of her youthful years, of 
whose sentence she had not had the least j)rrvious intimation. At this 
afflicting sight, tears burst from her eyes in spite of all her endeavors to 
restrain them. Unfortunately the stroke of the guillotine (hd n<^t completely 
sever the head from the body, so that the executioner was obliged to tinish 
his work with a knife. At this horrid sj)eclacle the young lady fainted, 
which being observed !)y the wife of Le Bon, who constantly sat upon the 
scaffold, the sanguinary tiend exclaimed, " Look at that monster of an 
aristocrat I Secure her ! " 

Both the mother and the daughter were innnediately taken into cus- 
tody ; and the latter, two days after, atoned for her tears .md fainting with 
her life. Many similar atrocities. e(|ually inconsistent and revolting, are 
met with during the Reign of Ternjr. 

Long before the Revolution, the I'Vench women had been reproached for 
attending public executions, regardless of tin- delicacy and nindcsty natural 

to their sex. This pecuii.irity in their character was displayed 

Public , . , ,, I • • 1 1 • 'iM 

— , ^. (hirmirthe Kevohition \\\ tlie nin>t ^trikniv- manner. 1 lie ex- 

Kxecniionit '^ 

ecution^ daily and hourly in<'r<a>in^ in nnni!)er. >«» far fn»m 
fatiguing and satiating either the women or men. seein«(l only to in* rease 
their thirst for blood, and their desire of witnessing the^e horrible sights. 




ReprDducBd frnm a painting by Paul LlBla- 
rache, ana of the graatsst history and portrait 
painters. EelarachB was a niamher of the lusti- 
tutB of FrancB, and also of tha AcadBmias at 
AmstBrdam and St. PBtersburg. " Esath of 
GuBBn Elizabath," " Joan of Rvc in Prison/' 
" Massacra of St. F^BrthnlomBw," and " Childrsn 
Caught in Storni" arn among his niastBrpiacEs. 




The spectators went from these scenes of carnage to the theaters, which 
even in the days of the execution of the kinj^ and of the queen were not 
less numerously attended than at other times, there, possibly, to forget their 
crimes of contemplation amid other diversions. 

Such arrests, such imprisonments, such tribunals, and such executions as 
France exhibited during the Reign of Terror, had never been witnessed in 
any civilized nation of modern times : neither, also, the undaunted fortitude 
and the cheerful alacrity with which thousands of every age, rank, and sex 
met death. It does not appt^ar surprising tiiat military men. magistrates, 
and courtiers should meet death with fortitude ; but it justly excites aston- 
ishment, that mere striplings, and even frmak-s, some of them quite young 
girls, some of them newly married women, who had but just l>egun to enjoy 
the pleasures of life, should ascend tlie scaffold with the s;une tranquil 

Among the persons who j)rincipally contributed to this spirit of heroism 
were the fair fanatic Charlotte Corday and the unfortunate, Marie Antoin- 
Citarloite ^^^^' Charlotte Corday, who had stabl>ed to his death, 
antf^Marle «'^^'^*"^^^'^l ^^^^" scaffold biMUtiful as an angel, and adorned like 
Antoinette ji bridt-. The exam pk- of this amiable hcroini- firrd the imag- 
ination of all young men and womt-n of enthusiastic minds throughout 

As the sufferings of the (jucen exceeded beyond comparison those of 

any other victim lA the Revoluii(»n. so her fortitude during tlie latter period 

of her life and at her death surpassed every other example «)f hert)ism. 

Divorced from the affections of the people, inhumanly separated from her 

husband and children, subjected t«) iniuitneral)le insults and indignities, 

confined in a dreary and noisome prison. Marie Antoinette maintained the 

same dignity of dep<irtmenl as in the splendi<l apartments of Trianon : and 

she never afforde<l her lormenters the gratitiration of seeing her sink pusil- 

lanimously under her sufferings. 

On the dav of her death there were onlv two moments 
Scenes at ; 

Bxecntlon in which >he yielded to her emoti«)ns. She had i-xpected that 

she should Ih' conveyed to the place i»f execution as the king 

had been, in a coach. When, therefore, she s;iw the cart in which she 


was to be conveyed, she blushed and wiped her eyes. When she 
ascended the guillotine, her aspect struck such awe into the executioner, 
that he involuntarily uncovered himself and made a profound obeisance. 

By the same commanding aspect she caused the invectives and execra- 
tions which till then had continued without intermission, to cease for a 
short time. To atone for the crime of his involuntary respect, the execu- 
tioner tore off the queen's neck handkerchief with brutal violence. The 
miscreant rabble raised a shout of exultation. Neither the brutality of the 
executioner nor the ferocity of the sanguinary mob produced the slightest 
alteration in the queen's features. But when the ruflfian proceeded to pull 
off her cap, and cut off her hair, turned gray with affliction, which he 
trampled under his feet, her anguish became too strong for nature to 
endure, and the queen began to weep. The tears of the illustrious sufferer 
produced a solemn silence, which continued till the sufferings of the im- 
perial victim were ended. 

The total overthrow of the ancient and the establishment of a new 
system of government, the disappearance of the court and everything con- 
nected with it ; the emigration, execution, or impoverishment of the princi- 
pal landed proprietors and other persons of rank or wealth ; the important 
events of the Revolution, and particularly the great calamities and crimes to 
which it gave occasion, produced many changes in the way of thinking 
and the mutual relations of the sexes which became very conspicuous in 
the next century. 

French manners and customs, French fashions and way of living, were 

as extensively diffused in the other courts and among the other people of 

Diffuaioii of ^"^^^P^ during the reign of Louis XVl. as under any pre- 

Krencli ceding sovereign of I'Vance. Among the European coun- 

BlannerH ^^.j^^^ which were called polished, Portugal was the only one 

that, during the latter years of the monarchy, ado])t(xl neither the manners 

nor the fashions of the French. In Spain and Italy, on the other hand, 

both made a greater progress during the last (juarltr of the eighteenth 

century than they had done in the foregoing two cintnries and a half. 

In Germany and the north of Furope, the j)artialily for l^Vench manners, 
fashions, and language still maintained the ascendency ; though in many 



parts the inhabitants began to imitate the English. The latter renounced 
everything that they had borrowed from the French, at the very time when 
the French were seized with the Anglomania. 

It was a well known proverb throughout all Europe, even at this time, 
that England is the paradise of women. The customs of the people of all 
xiie classes in England, however, were more favorable to the sex 
Bnsriisii than the laws. The English women superintended the edu- 
otnan ^.^tion of their children and the domestic economy, with a 
fidelity that did them honor. They attended to the kitchen, to the cleanli- 
ness of the houses and apartments, to the furniture and linen, with a care 
and assiduity that were equaled in few countries and surpassed in none. 

In return, the men relieved them from all the drudger}', not only of 
rural but also of domestic irconomy. Persons of the weaker sex were 
seldom or never obliged to assist in agricultural labors, as on the continent, 
nor in brewing and baking. Even the milking of cows was performed by 
men. Hence it is very easy to conceive why the English country girls 
were upon the whole more beautiful and more blooming than those of the 
other nations of the north of Europe : and why female servants were able 
to appear neater and cleaner than in other countries. 

In no nation of Europe did woman yet enjoy equal civil rights with 
man, either in respect of inheritance or succession, or the management 
ineaaaiit *^"^^ disposal of property ; and still less in regard to the 
of ^nrofnaii*H administration of justice or the particif)ation in the legislative 
RiflTtitH power. The rights of women have not only varied in all 
ages among the different nations, but even in the same nation at different 
periods ; so that attention can only be directed, in this connection, to the 
most remarkal)le revolutions, singularities, and contradictions in the rights 
of women. 

It was a j)rineipal and fundamental law of the ancient (iermanic nations, 

that women could not possess any family estate, and in the setjuel any fief, 

^:»^— ^«» ■ «». ''^ riulil of propertv, because thev were unable to defend 

Xonctiinir eitlu r the one or the other against the enemies of their coun- 

^nroman ^^^, -y^^^^ same weakness of the sex likewise incapacitated 

them for ihe princely dignity. 



The females of the ancient Germans received no dowry on their mar- 
riage, from their fathers or brothers ; and, after the death of the father, the 
sons divided the paternal estate to the exclusion of their sisters. Husbands 
settled on their wives a portion, and jointure, both consisting of estates 
more or less valuable, of which, however, the wives or widows enjoyed only 
the use during their lives. After t^eir death the property reverted to the 
families of the husbands. 

This ancient law respecting women was abolished^ among all the Ger- 
manic nations, when they settled in the Roman provinces, and became 

i^ter acquainted with the Roman laws. They began with giving 
Property females a dowry, which at first consisted only of slaves, 
* * horses and other cattle. Not long afterwards they made 
their daughters co-heiresses, first in unequal and afterwards in equal parts 
with the sons. Bridegrooms and husbands soon imitated the liberality of 
fathers. In many countries a community of property between husband 
and wife was introduced, and with it the anti-Germanic practice, that the 
survivor should inherit the joint estate. 

Females became heiresses and ^proprietors, not only of family posses- 
sions but likewise of tiefs. The beneficial effects of the adoption of the 
Roman law by the Germanic nittions has been much discussed ; but the one 
circumstance which argues most in its favor is, that all the German nations 
not only adopted it, but likewise retained it during the periods of their 
highest civilization. 

According to the English laws, married women were not only regarded 
as the property of their husbands, but as children who have no will of their 
own, or as slaves whose will must be subservient to their masters. An 
Englishman who was tired of his wife might publicly sell her like any 
domestic animal, provided, however, he had her tacit consent to the 

So far were the English laws from allowing that a married woman had 
any will of her own, that when husband and wife were jointly concerned 
in the commission qf any crime, the husband alone was liable to punish- 
ment. He was likewise subjt'ct to arrests and prosecutions for the debts 
and misdemeanors of his wife. All these laws encouraged baneful licenses. 












A. D. 1800 TO A. D. i900 





A. I>. 1745-1S33. 


J+ +J 

^^ANNAH MORK, distinguished for her talents and the noble manner 
K^/ in which she exerted them, was the fourth daughter of Jacob More, 
a schoolmaster. She was born in Stapleton, (}loucestershire, Feb- 
ruary' 2, 1745, and died in Clifton, September 7, 1833. She received her 
education at a seminary kept by her sisters in Bristol, in the direction of 
which she afterward became associated. 

At the age of sixteen she composed a pastoral drama, The Search After 
Happiness. In 1774 appeared her tragedy of The Inflexible Captive, and 
in 1775 two legendary poems. .SV;- Jildrcd of the Bower, and The Bleeding 
Rock. Ciarrick, the great actor, brought out her tragedy of Percy in 1777. 

Abcnit 1779, religious imj)ressions induced Miss More to cease writing 
for the stage. A volume of Sacred Dramas, Florio, a satirical tale, 
and Relii^ion of the Fashionable World were among her next productions. 
She began at Bath, in 1795, a nionthly peri(xlical called the Cheap Reposi- 
tory, consisting of short moral tales written by herself, among which was the 
Shepherd of Salisbmy Plain. The work attained an enormous circulation. 

Miss More removed to Cheddant, founded there several schools, and 
so(^n extended her eliarilal)le etTorts for the education of the poor into all 
the surrounding country. After the appearance of her Strictures on the 
Modern .System of Female Fducation, in 1799, she was invit(*d to draw up a 
plan of instru( ti(»n for the Princess Charlotte of Waks, and prcKluced Hints 
Toicard Form in i^ the Character of a Youni^ Princess. Cielebs in Search 
of a Wife, lu r most popular work, went through ten editions in one year. 
It was followed i>y /Practical Piety, Christian Morals, and Modern Sketches. 

In 1S2S slie r«niove(i from Barleywood in (iloucestershire, where she 
had lived tor scxcial years with her sisters, to Clifton. She accumulated 
by her writings about 5150,000, one third of which she be(|uealhed for 
charitai)le j)in])<)ses. In her latter days the severity of her relij^ious views 
intnxhiced a SMUnwhat unner(.*ssary gloom into her life, though all the 
powers <.t her mind were devoted to the solid imj)rovement of s«>ciety. 



A. I>. 17ff0-1848. 


eAROLINE LUCRETIA HERSCHEL, sister of Sir William Her- 
schel, was born in Hanover, Germany, March i6, 1750, "and died 
there, January 9, 1848. She lived in Hanover till her twenty-sec- 
ond year, when she went to England to join her brother William at Bath. 
Here she turned her attention to astronomy, giving great assistance to her 
brother, not only taking the part of an amanuensis, but frequently perform- 
ing alone the long and complicated calculations involved in the observa- 
tions. For her valuable assistance to the great astronomer she received a 
pension from George III. 

Miss Herschel took many separate observations of the heavens with a 
small Newtonian telescope which her brother had made for her. With this 
she devoted herself particularly to a search after comets, and between 
1786 and 1805 discovered, alone, eight of these bodies, of fiv^e of which 
she was the first observer. Her contributions to science, most of them in 
her brother's works and under his name, are very valuable. She took the 
original obser\ations of several remarkable nebulae in her brother's cata- 
logue, and computed the places of his twenty-five thousand nebulae. Hum- 
boldt speaks of a still unresolved nebula as discovered by his friend. Miss 
Herschel. In 1798 she published her Catalogue of Stars, taken from Mr. 
Flamsteed's observations. 

After her brother's death she returned to her native city and passed the 
rest of her days. In 1828 she completed a catalogue of the nebulae and 
stars observed by her brother, for which she received a gold medal from 
the Astronomical Society of London, and was elected an honorary member 
of it. 

In 1847 she celebrated the ninety-seventh anniversary of her birth, 
when the King of Hanover sent to compliment her ; the Prince and Princess 
Royal visited her ; and the latter presented her with a magnificent armchair 
embroidered by herself ; and the King of Prussia sent her the gold medal 
awarded for the * * extension of the sciences. ' ' 



A. ]>. 1756-1832. 


aANNAH ADAMS, one of the earliest female writers in America, the 
aiithorc^ss of a \le7c of Religious Opiniojis, a History of Neiv Eng- 
land, and a History of the Jncs, was born at Medfield, near Boston, 
in 1756, and died at Brookline, Mass., November 15, 1832. Her father, 
who kept a country store, was a man of literary tastes, and rather better 
educated than persons of his class usually were at that time. She 
showed at an early age a fondness for study, and acquired a knowledge 
of Greek and Latin from some tlivinity students l:x:)arding with her father. 
So great was her love for reading, that when very young she had committed 
to memory much of Milton, Pope, Thomson, Young, and several other 

Her father failed in busint»ss when she was but seventeen, thus obliging 
his family to pro\'ide for themselves. During the Revolutionary war she 
supported herself by making lace, and afterwards by teaching. Her first 
work was published in 17S4, and met a ready sale. Her History of Neu^ 
England next appeared, in 1799, and was .likewise successful, but the labor 
that it cost seriously inij)aired her health. Her writings, though ex- 
tensively read, brought her very little pecuniary profit : yet they secured 
her many friends, some of them persons in high staticm, among whom 
President Adams and the Ablx* Gregoire may be enumerated. 

The latter part of her life she passed in Boston, in the midst of a large 
circle of friends, by whom she was warmly esteemed and cherished for the 
singular excellency, j^urity, and simplicity of her character. During the 
closing years <»f her life she enjoyed an annuity provided by the liberality 
of some admirers. She was the first person whose remains were interred in 
Mt. Auburn ( cnutery. 

Her literary work showed great candor and liberality of mind and ex- 
tensive research : and. although they were popular, yet they brought her 
deserved fame which, linked with her gentleness of manners, made her a 
loved figure in our early literary life. 



A. D. 176«-18ffl. 


JOANNA BAILLIE was born in Bothwell Manse, in Lanarkshire, Sep- 
tember II, 1762. Her father, a Presbyterian minister, in 1776 became 
professor of Divinity in Glasgow ; her mother was the sister of William 
and John Hunter. She received a superior education, and soon began to 
manifest those talents which subsequently excited the admiration of the 
public. Her career was a singularly happy one, but devoid of all striking 

In 1784 she went to reside in London, where her brother, Matthew Bail- 
lie, had established himself as a physician. In 1806 she and her sister took 
a house for themselves at Hampstead, and here she remained until her 
death, which occurred on February 23, 1851. Agnes, her sister, survived 
till 1 86 1, being then a hundred years old. 

No authoress ever enjoyed a larger share than Joanna Baillie of the 
esteem and affection of her literary contemporaries. All vied in showing 
her a courteous respect, and even America sent its votaries to her little 
shrine at Hampstead. Her greatest achievement is undoubtedly the nine 
Plays on the Passio7is, which, though erroneous in conception, are full of 
noble and impressive poetry, and often characterized by intense dramatic 
power. The principle upon which Miss Baillie proceeded in the construc- 
tion of these plays, was, like Marlowe and George Meredith, to take a 
single passion as the subject of a work, and to exhibit its influence on an 
individual supposed to be actuated by nothing else. 

The most popular as well as the most powerful of her works is the 
tragedy of De Monfort, Her Family Legend, produced at Edinburgh 
under Scott's auspices in 18 10, was a great success. 

Many of Miss Baillie' s minor pieces are very sweet, simple, and beauti- 
ful ; and are marked by a spriglitly grace of versification, and a playful 
serenity of spirit, which pleasantly remind one of the author's personal 
character. She was under the middle size but not diminutive ; her form 
was slender, and her countenance showed high talent, worth, and decision. 



A. I>. 175S.1840. 


- ■ » » '<» - 

nrVRANCES BURNEY was born at Lynn Regis, in Norfolk, England, 
-L 1752. Her mother was of distant F*rench descent and died when 
she was but nine years old ; her father was a professor of music. 
Her sisters were sent to school, but she, as she tells it herself, ** never was 
placed in any seminary, and never was put under any governess or in- 
structor whatever. " At ten years of age she had taught hei*self to read 
and write, and became an incessant scribbler both of prose and verse, and 
ardently fond of reading. 

Six years after his wife's death her father married again ; and from her 
fifteenth year onward, I-^anny lived in the midst of an exceptionally brilliant 
social circle, which included the chief musicians, actors, and literary men of 
the day, and not a few of her father's aristocratic patrons. Her father's 
drawing room was in fact Fanny's only school, and not a bad one. 

Her first published novel, Evtlina, was published clandestinely, and had 
been received and praised everywhere before her father knew of the event. 
Her fame sj)rea(l. Johnson had declared that there were passages in 
Evelina which might tlo honor to Richardst>n : Sir Joshua Reynolds could 
not be ])ersuaded to eat until he had finished the story ; and Burke had sat 
up all night to read it. The second story, Cecilia, greatly increased her 

In i7Sr> Miss Hurney obtained a post in the service of Queen Charlotte, 
consort of ( ieoij^e ill., and seven years later became the wife of NL D'Ar- 
blay. a IVeiuh ofiuer of artillery, who with Madame de Stael, Talleyrand, 
and other refugees, lived at *' Juniper Hall," Dorking. Her only child, 
afterward the Rev. A. D'Arblay, was born in 1794. 

Madame D'Arblay died at Bath, 1S40, and her celebrated ^wrwa/ rtwfl^ 
Letters wtre editt-d by her niece and published in 1842-6. Her memoirs, 
the rambling recollections of an old lady, are full of imperfections: but de- 
spite the>e and her extraordinary affections of style, the book gained con- 
siderable ])opularitv. 



A. D. 1753-1891. 


^ LIZABETH INCHBALD was the daughter of John Simpson, a 
^^ farmer of Stanningfield, near Bury St. Kdmunds in Suffolk, Eng- 
land, where she was born October 15, 1753. When sixteen she 
secretly left her family, prompted by an irrepressible desire to visit London ; 
and when eighteen she accepted a theatrical engagement. After escaping 
many dangers in a series of strange adventures, she betook herself to her 
relatives. During this period she met Joseph Inchbald, an obscure actor, 
whom she married on June 9, 1772. 

Having now adopted the stage as a career, she went to Bristol, where 
she made her debut as Cordelia on September 4, 1772; and for some years 
she played in provincial theaters. Her husband died suddenly in 1779, 
and in 1780 she appeared in London, playing Bellario in Philaster, at 
Co vent Garden. Here she remained for nine years, but never rose beyond 
mediocrity, an impediment in her speech, which was, however, supposed 
to be cured, being certainly a bar to her progress. 

After 1789 she devoted herself solely to literary labors, in which she 
found her true vocation. Her earliest efforts were plays, her first being The 
Mogul Tale, a farce, produced in 1784. She wrote or adapted nineteen 
plays, her best being the comedies, Such Things Are, The Midnight Hour, 
and The Wedding T>ar ; the hwccs, A/>/>eara?iee is Against Them, a.nd The 
U'idou'\9 Vo7c ; and her adaptation from Kotzebue, Lore's Vows. But 
her fame rests not upon her dramatic work so much as upon her novels. 
A Simple Story and Nature and Art rank among English standard novels. 

Mrs. Inchbald, who was a Catholic, became very devout in her later 
years, and died at Kensington House, August i, 1821. One who knew 
her well thus describes her personal appearance : " ' The fair muse,' as she 
was often termed, was above the middle size, rather tall, of a striking figure, 
but a little too erect and stiff. She was naturally fair, slightly freckled, and 
her hair was of an auburn hue. Her face and features were beautiful, and 
her countenance was full of spirit and sweetness. ' * 



A. D. 17X5-1831. 


' ARAH SIDDONS was the daughter of Roger Kemble, a respectable 
manager of a small traveling theatrical company, whose circuit was 
in the midland and western parts of England. Sarah was the eld- 
est child, and was born at Brecon, July 5, 1755. From her earliest child- 
hood she was a member of her father's company, and in a playbill, dated 
February 12, 1767, her name appears in the production of Charles the Firsts 
assigneil to the character of the Princess Elizabeth. 

When only seventeen she formeil an attachment to Mr. Siddons, who 
was a member of her father's company, and after considerable opposition 
from her parents, she was married to him on November 26, 1773. She was 
shortly afterward recommended to (iarrick by the Earl of Ailesbur>', and 
the result was an engagement at Drury Lane, where she made her first 
appearance in the character of Portia. At the end of the season she was not 
re-engaged, and for six years she played in the provinces, making her 
greatest successes in York and Bath : but her reputation grew so fast that 
in 17S2 she was invited to return to Drury Lane. She accepted the offer 
and made her reaj)pearance as Isabella in The Fatal Marrianre, Her suc- 
cess was immediate and permanent, and from this time to her retirement 
she was the inKinestinned (jueen of the stage. After her retirement from 
the staj^e, Mrs. Siddons gave occasional public readings, from Shakespeare 
and Milton. She died on June S, 1831, and was buried in Paddington 

As an aetros Mrs. Siddons stands unapproachetl, so far as can be judged 
from recorded criticism, in every line of tragetly — her pathos, her rage, 
her despair, her >iitTering, her grief, all being i)erfect in exprt^sion and con- 
vincing in n.ilinalness. Endowed by nature with a gloriously expressivv' 
and beautiful face, a (jueenly figure, and a voice of richest power and flexi- 
bility, she worked as>iduou^ly to cultivate* her mental and physical gifts 
until she rt'ac lied a luiv^ht <»f i)erfecti(Mi which has probably never l>een sur- 
I)a>s((l l»y any i)layer «>t any age or country. 



A. D. 1767-1849. 


^TTHIS English writer was the daughter of Richard Lovell Edgeworth, 
® I fe an inventor and author. She was born in Berkshire, January i, 
1767, and died in Edgeworthtown, Ireland, June 13, 1849. She 
was fifteen years of age when her father succeeded to the family estate in 
Ireland, where under his direction she pursued her studies, formed habits 
of sharp observation, and developed that cheerfulness which made her 
always beloved in society, and that hope and confidence which are requisite 
to a full exertion of mental powers. Early indicating her taste for literary 
pursuits she seems never to have wished to be married ; and as it had been 
the delight of her father to assist in developing her talent, she in return 
loved to remain by the family hearth, gratifying his earnest but less gifted 
mind by her literary successes, and repaying in his old age those attentions 
which she received in youth. 

The series of her novels began with Castle Rackrent, and continued 
without interruption till 1817, during which period there appeared from her" 
pen, Belinda^ Popular Tales, Leonora , Tales of Fashionable Life, Patron- 
age, Harrington, and Ormond. The aim of Miss Edgeworth, like Joanna 
Baillie in her dramas, was to make each novel an elucidation of one particu- 
lar passion or vice. 

On the death of her father in 18 17 her career of authorship was for a 
time interrupted. She did not resume her works of fiction till she had 
expressed her affection for him by completing the memoirs which he had 
begun of his own life. Not until 1834 was her exquisite story of Helen 
published ; and her literary career ended with the child's story of Orlandifio, 
which appeared in 1847. With the exception of a trip to the continent and 
a short residence at Clifton, she ])asscd the latter years of her life at Edge- 
worthtown, unspoiled by literary fame, loved in the family c ircle which 
daily assembled in the library, and admired by all as a i)attern of an intel- 
lectual and amiable woman. 

Among the most ardent admirers of her novels was Sir Walter Scott 



A. D. 1775-1817. 

<^i*e-j>^->«> - 

JANE AL'STEN was born December i6, 1775, at Steventon, Hamp- 
shire, of which parish her father was the rector. Here she spent the 
first twcnty-f'ivc years of her peaceful Hfe. She was the youngest of 
seven children, among whom she had but one sister, and of her brothers 
two ultimatriy rose to the rank of admiral in th<5 navy. 

Her father, who used to augment a slender income by taking pupils, 
gave her a better education tlian was common for girls towards the close of 
the eighteenth century. Jane learned French and Italian, and had good 
acquaintance with luiglish literature, her favorite authors being Richard- 
son, Johnson, Cowper, Crabbe, and later Scott. She sang a few old ballads 
with much sweetness, and was very dexterous with her needle. In her life 
there is a hint of an affection for a lover who died suddenly. 

In iSoi she went with her family to Bath, anil after her father's death, 
in 1H05, removed to .Southampton, and finally, in 1809, to Chawton near 
Winchester. .She had written stories from her childhood, but it was here 
that she first gave anything to llie world. Four stories were published 
anonymously during her lifetime : Smsr and Sensibility, Pride and 
Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and limma. The first two were written before 
the gifted anthoix-ss was more llian twenty -two years old. 

Marly in 1S16 her health began to give way. In May of 1817 she 
resorted f«)r medical ad\ ice to Winchester, and here she died two months 
later, July iS, 1S17. She was buried there in the cathedral. Xorfhan^er 
Abbey and PerMtasion wrre published in 1S18, when the authorship of the 
whole six was fn>t acknowledged. 

Jane Auslt^ii's novels are the earliest examples of the so-called domestic 
novel in Fui^land. nor within their own limits have they been surpassed or 
even e(|ualetl since. Her worltl is the gentry of the England of her time, 
and she portrays ii^. exeryday life with marvilous truthfulness of insight. 
Her characters are perfectly distinct, and more alive to us than many of the 
persons among whom we actually live. 



A. D. 1777-1849. 


T brated French woman, was probably the most beautiful and j^raceful 
^^ woman of her day. She was born in Lyons, December 3, 1777, and 
died in Paris, May 11, 1849. ^^^e was the daughter of a post office con- 
tractor named Bernard, and in April, 1793, married a rich banker of Paris 
many years older than herself. By the brilliancy of her conversation and 
the charm of her person and manners she made her home a great place of 
resort for men of education and genius. Under the rule of the French 
directory and during the consulate and empire her house was constantly 
frequented by such distinguished personages as Lucien Bonaparte, Moreau, 
Bernadotte, La Harpe, Benjamin Constant, and David. 

The salon of Madame R^camier took on a form of opposition to the 
government, by and by, and she was obliged by Napoleon to leave Paris. 
She resided for some time at Lyons, then with the celebrated Madame de 
Stael at Coppet, then went to Italy, and did not enter France until the fall 
of Napoleon, when she returned to Paris and reopened her salon. In con- 
sequence of a reverse of fortune, she retired in 18 19 to the Abbaye-aux-Bois 
near Paris, but her house nevertheless continued to be the resort of eminent 
men, among whom was Chateaubriand, who was her de\oted admirer. 
Through her connection, which regarded Madame de Stael as its chief, she 
exercised, although herself producing nothing, a considerable influence 
upon French literature. 

For some years before her death she became blind, an affliction which 
she bore with the most gracious serenity ; never comj^laining of it except as 
it prevented her attentions to her friends. Her distinguishing traits were 
an extreme sweetness of disposition and tenderness of heart, which obtained 
her the affection of all about her. It should be noted that she was quite 
unspoiled by the homage that was paid to her extraordinary beauty ; beauty 
copied by painters, and perpetuated by Canova in marble. 



A. I). 1778-1863. 


^)mP:RICANS ha\ 
-^A- Domestic Life 

have not generally loved Mrs. Trollope. She wrote 
Jfe of the Americans after a three years' residence in 
the United States. She was a keen obser\'er, especially of faults, 
and she described what she saw in a most caustic, satirical, and sometimes 
vulgar manner. She pictured Americans as coarse, selfish, intemperate, 
affected, indelicate, and generally ridiculous. The descriptions were over- 
drawn and were a hjtter medicine to the people described, while they af- 
forded a vast fund of amusement to the English. America was then young 
(1832) and probably profited by Mrs. Trollope's satire, even though it was 

After a few years she renewed her attack on America in The Adventures 
of Jonathan Jefferson Whitlaic. This was well founded in fact, for she pic- 
tured the miseries of the colored people of the Southern States. The 
Dear of Wrexhi/i is counted her best work. Other books came at the 
rate of two or more a year. She wrote A Visit to Italy in n>uch the same 
caustic style kA Iut books concerning America, but people had too much 
revert-nce for that classical coinitry and did not relish her ridicule, as they 
did when she dealt with unclassical and upstart America. 

She at Icni^th proceeded to satirize people of her own land in Margrave^ 
Jessie Phillips, and The Lanrinirfons. The first deals with the man of 
fashion, tin- second with the new poor-laws, and the third with the ** su- 
perior peo|)le," the "bustling Hotherbys " of society. 

One e«^j)ecially interesting thing about the life of Mrs. Trollope is that" 
she intered njxm literary work to win bread when she was over fifty years 
of age. Her Inisband was a lawyer who had not been successful and was 
in poor health. Tluy had six children, non<' of whom could add to the 
scant income. Mr>. Trollope took to writing, gained tinancial success with 
the fust \<.)linne. and continued to write until far advance(l in years. She 
was the moilur of Anthony Trollope and Thomas Adolphus Trollope who 
became noted authors. 



A. D. 1776-18fiO: 1780-1882. 


^TTHEIR father was an Irish officer, who died when they were quite 
1 young. The care of the children devolved upon the mother, who 
had but limited means for their support and education. 

Mrs. Porter removed to Edinburgh for the education of her children. 
Here, Walter Scott, then a student in college, became a fast friend of the 
family, and often entertained the little girls with stories of * * witches and 
warlocks. * ' 

The family afterward removed to Ireland and later to London, chiefly 
for educational reasons. 

Miss Jane Porter became the authoress of two well known books, Thad- 
deus of Warsaw and The Scottish Chiefs, The first is considered the better 
book. The Scottish Chiefs is not a correct representation of national life 
and manners. The patriot William Wallace is represented as too much of 
a drawing-room hero. But the book has been widely read and is full of 
vivid picturesqueness. 

Thaddeus of Warsaw has been translated into several foreign languages 
and gained for Miss Porter admission as lady canoness into the ** Teutonic 
Order of St. Joachim." 

Miss Anna Porter became a writer at the age of twelve, and altogether 

• produced over fifty volumes. Among them are. The Lakes of Killamey, 

A Sailor's Friendship and a Soldier's Love, The Hungaria7i Brothers, Don 

Sebastian, Ballad Romances and other Poems, and The Knight of St. fohfi, 

the latter being the joint work of the sisters. 

Sir Robert Ker Porter was their brother, about one year older than 
Jane. He was an artist of note, whose best productions were battle pieces. 
His Storming of Seringapatam was a painting 120 feet long. He went to 
Russia in 1804 and became painter to the czar. 

His sister Jane spent some time with him in St. Petersburg. 

We here give honor to the mother for the careful training of her three 
fatherless children, who attained to eminence in artistic and literary lines. 



A. D. 1780.1872. 


HE was the daughter of Admiral Sir William Fairfax. When about 
twenty-five years of age she married Samuel Greig. Three years 
later she was left a widow with two sons, but with a considerable 

She applied herself to a thorough course of mathematics, which was the 
foundation of her careful scientific writing in later years. 

After completing her studies she married her cousin, Dr. William Som- 
erville, who was of much assistance in her further studies. Dr. Somerville 
was inspector of the army medical board and, aside from his professional 
duties, was able to give some time to special scientific pursuits. 

Mrs. Somerville was invited by Lord Brougham to rewrite in a popular 
form The Celestial Mechafiis9ri of the Heavens by Laplace. This was re- 
ceived with great enthusiasm and gave Mrs. Somerville, at once, a reputa- 
tion as a scientific writer. 

Later she wrote Connection of the Physical Sciences, Physical Geography^ 
Microscopical and Molecular Sciences, 

She was honored with membership in the Royal Astronomical Society 
and several other British and foreign scientific societies. 

She thus became one of the pioneers of this century in scientific stud- 
ic-s. There was no financial necessity for her becoming a writer. She 
possessed ample means and might have been a woman of fashionable 
leisure, but she chose to be a student and add to the world's treasure of 

She ga\ e the years of her early widowhood to studies which to most 
minds are anything but attractive. By this thorough discipline gained by 
persistent work, she made a place and a name for herself in a department 
of literature which, in the first part of our century, was ornamented with 
the names of but few women. 

Much of the popularity of her writings is due to their clear and crisp 
style, and the iniderlying enthusiasm which pervades them. 



A. D. 1786-1855. 


/JJI'NYONE who wishes to obtain a picture of English rural life should 
^^^ read the works of Miss Mitford. It is said that she obtained her 
idea of this kind of writing from Irving' s Sketch Book, but she 
showed herself a pupil to do honor to her teacher. 

She was born in Alresford, Hampshire, England. Her father was a 
physician and at one time possessed considerable wealth. On one occasion 
he won $100,000 in a lottery, which, as usual, proved a great misfortune, 
for he soon squandered that and all else that he possessed. 

When twenty years of age Miss Mitford published three volumes of 
poems, somewhat in the style of Sir Walter Scott. These met with a fair 
degree of success, but she was not satisfied with them, and for several years 
gave herself again to reading. 

The financial reverses of her father made it necessary for her to do 
something to win bread and she again took up the pen to support both her- 
self and him. As we read her charming productions, we are not sorry that 
she was obliged to resume writing. 

Her sketches, Our Viliafre^ were not ai)preciated at first and many pub- 
lishers of magazines refused them. They at length found a place in one of 
the minor periodicals and after a time the public began to relish the fresh- 
ness and exquisite finish of her sketches and they were put forth in book 
form. She loved nature and helped others to do the same. Her readers 
had looked at things before, now they saw them. 

Miss Mitford wrote several other works, Country Stories. Edinburgh 
Talcs, and several dramas, among them Ricnzi. Also Recollections of Lit- 
erary Life in three volumes. But Our Village always held the first place, 
and the obscure hamlet became a place of resort. People came to searcii 
out the nooks and corners and haunts and copses so charmingly described. 
One writer asks, "Who ever threw aside a sketch of hers half read?" 
Another, "We cannot conceive of her rural delineation ever becoming 
obsolete or uninteresting.'* 



A. D. 1787-1870. 




FRIENDS, A. D. 1895. 


So reads the inscription of the statue at " Sage Hall," Troy, N. Y. 

This pioneer educator of women was born in Berlin, Connecticut. She 
was one of seventeen of her father's children and one of ten which her own 
mother had borne him. Hers was a struggle for an education and to a 
remarkable degree she was self-taught. We see her a girl of fourteen ris- 
ing at four o'clock of a winter morning to study the stars. She taught the 
village school at an early age and was at the same time pursuing advanced 
studies, fitting herself for larger fields. 

At twenty years of age she was called to important positions in three 
different states. She went to Middlebury, V't. , where she took charge of 
the academy. Two years afterward she married Dr. John Willard. For a 
few years she gave up teaching, but owing to financial losses she again 
resumed it. Had Dr. Willard been financially prosperous the world might 
have been deprived of a noted educator. She opened a boarding school 
for girls and was at the same time planning for something more extensive. 
She determined to secure for young women the same collegiate advantages 
that young nun enjoyed. Like all pioneers she was alone and found little 
sympathy and less aid. 

In iSiS slu' sent to (iov. Clinton of New York a plan for a female 
seminary. The governor reconmiended the plan to the Legislature. The 
equal rights of women in education were then for the first time advocated 
in legislati\e halls. A female academy was incorporated and located at 
Waterford. It was afterwards removed to Troy. 

The Troy l\inalc Seminary has been the educational home of six thou- 
sand young wonun. It was also the parent institution from which sprang 
our seminaries and colleges for the education of women. 




A. D. 1789-1826. 


ISS HASSELTINE became the wife of the pioneer missionary, 

Adoniram Judson, and with him sailed for Calcutta in 1812. They 

were ordered by the East India Company to quit the country, as 

the Company was bitterly opposed to missionary effort. They finally 

settled in Rangoon, Burmah. 

In 1824, there being war between the Burmese and the British, Dr. 
Judson and some others were made prisoners at Ava, the capital of the 
Burman empire, and for two years endured untold sufferings. Mrs. Judson 
was not made a prisoner and was permitted to visit her husband and the 
others, as they were in chains, and as far as her means would allow, min- 
ister to them. Their lives were thus saved, though we marvel that they 

In addition to these horrors her children had smallpox and she was 
obliged to care for them as well as look after the prisoners. She wore out 
her precious life for the saving of others, and in 1826 died. She will ever 
be known as one of the heroines of missionary history. 

We give in part the testimony of one of the English prisoners : 
** While we were all left by the government destitute of food, she with 
unswerving perseverance, by some means or other, obtained for us a 
supply. When the unfeeling avarice of our keepers confined us inside 
or made our feet fast in the stocks, she, like a ministering angel, never 
ceased her applications to the government, until she secured some relief to 
our galling oppression.*' 

When we remember that she lived two miles from the prison, was her- 
self in poor health and without any means of conveyance, our hearts are 
moved with deep reverence for this noble and devoted woman. 

For the great work afterwards accomplished by Dr. Judson, the world 
and the church are greatly indebted to Ann Hasseltine Judson. who was the 
first American woman to leave her home and become a martyr to the mis- 
sionary cause on the foreign field. 



A. T>. 1TR0.1867. 


MISS SED(;WICK'S father. Theodore, was at the time of his death' 
one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. 

Stockbridge, Massachusetts, was the place of her birth. Her 
first book was entitled A Nnv England Life. She intended it for a 
religious tract, but it grew upon her until it became a book. The book 
was both praised and censured. As a literary production in clear, vigorous 
style, it was well-nigh perfect, but many considered it too severe a picture 
of New Kngland Puritanism. 

Her next book Redwood was a great success, being republished in Eng- 
land and translated into French and Italian, German and Swedbh. She 
now ranked among the very best of women writers of America. 

Her Red'a'ood somewhat resembled the works of Cooper and in the 
French version was attributed to him. She was a keen observer and her 
works will be of permanent value as pictures of New England in the first 
half of this century. 

She wrote also The Traveler, If ope Leslie, or Early Times in Jfassa- 
ehnsetts ( which is one of her best ), The Poor Rieh A fan and The Rieji Pour 
Man, Live and Let Live, Means or finds, or Self Training, Morals and 

Hut Miss Sedgwick was an educator as well as a writer. She took the 
management <>f a private school for young ladies soon after the death of 
her father and continued that work along with her literary pursuits for fifty 

In the inidsl of her arlivilies she spent one year in Europe and described 
her travels in Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home, which was published 
in two volnnus. To \\\v descriptions of people, places, and customs in 
Euro|)<' she brought the same masterly ability that is seen in her books 
about thinjL^s Anieri('an. 

She was horn Heeember 2.S, 17H9, and died n«ar Roxbury, Massachu- 
setts. July 31. 1X67. 



A. U. 1703-1835. 



'(T>ELICIA DOROTHEA HEMANS was born at Liverpool, September 
I^ 25, 1793. Her father, George Browne, was a Liverpool merchant 
of Irish extraction ; her mother, whose maiden name was Wagner, 
was of mixed Italian and German descent. 

Felicia was distinguished by her beauty and precocity, and at an early 
age she manifested a taste for poetry, in which she was encouraged by her 
mother. Family reverses led to the removal of the Brownes to Wales, 
where the young poetess imbibed a strong passion for nature, read books 
of chronicles and romance, and gained a working knowledge of the German, 
Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese languages. She also cultivated her excel- 
lent musical taste. 

Her first volume was published in 1808, when she was only fifteen years 
of age, and contained a few pieces written about four years earlier ; her 
second, entitled The Domestic Affections y appeared in 181 2. In the same 
year she married Captain Hemans of the 4th regiment, who settled in Italy 
in 1 8 18. After this time they never met again ; their marriage was under- 
stood not to have been happy. Mrs. Hemans, though in poor health, now 
devoted herself to the education of her children, to reading and writing, 
and spent the rest of her life in North Wales, Lancashire, and latterly at 
Dublin, where she died May 16, 1835. 

Her principal works are, The Vespers of Palernio, a tragedy which 
proved a failure when acted at Co vent Garden ; The Siege of \ aieucia. 
The Forest Sanctuary^ The Songs of the Affections, Hymns for Childhood y 
and Scenes and Hymns of Life. 

Mrs. Hemans, without great originality or force, is yet sweet, natural, 
and pleasing. But she was too fluent, and wrote much and hastily ; her 
lyrics are her best productions ; her more ambitious poems, esj)ecially her 
tragedies, being in fact quite insipid. Still she was a woman of true genius, 
and some of her poems are perfect in pathos and sentiment, and will live as 
long as the English language. 


t^dian.STgoumey. ' "Trederika Breme"^ 


A. D. 1701-1865. 


KORWICH^nd Hartford, Connecticut, are respectively the places of her 
birth and death. As a child she was precocious in acquiring knowl- 
edge, and studied at Hartford and Norwich schools. In both cities 
she established and conducted select schools for young ladies as early as 1814. 

In 18 1 5 she published a volume, Moral Pieces in Prose and Verse ^ and 
from that time she became one of the most popular American poets. 

She wrote extensively in many departments of thought, but all her 
works had a distinctly moral and religious tone. In her Letters of Life 
which was published after her death, she mentioned forty-six separate works 
which she had produced, besides two thousand articles contributed to three 
hundred periodicals. 

In charitable and philanthropic work she was always active, giving not 
only largely of her means, but also devoting much of her time and energy 
to the cause of humanity. Her interest in education, also, continued un- 
abated throughout her entire life. So the world is interested to know that 
she was not a mere poetic dreamer, sitting apart from a suffering world. 

We mention a few of her works : Trails of the Aborigines of America ^ 
Sketch of Connecticut Forty Years Since, Letters to Young Ladies (which 
had a run of twenty American and h\Q English editions). Letters to Mothers, 
Past Meridian. 

In 1840, Mrs. Sigourney visited Europe, and two volumes of her verses 
were issued in London. 

She married a Hartford merchant, Charles Sigourney, in her twenty- 
eighth year and with him led a life of ideal domesticity. 

Mrs. Sigourney was sometimes accused of being an imitator of Mrs. 
Hemans, but we doubt whether the imitation was deliberate or conscious. 
With similarity of taste and sym{)athy it is not surprising that tliere should 
be a similarity of tliought and expression ; the feeling of religious devotion 
and moral elevation is a common heritage, and often finds expression 
through different persons in like symbolism. 



A. I>. 1 793-1 8S8. 


>o;H-W-^r8«- - - ■ 

T pUCRETIA COFFIN was born in the island of Naptucket of noble 
^V Quaker stock. She taught school at fifteen. At eighteen she 
married James Mott, and this married life has been spoken of as 
one of the most perfect the world has ever seen. 

In 1818 she became a minister of the Hicksite Quakers. Her marked 
intellectual ability, sweetness of face and disposition, and great heartedness 
won for her marked success. But she was first and always a frugal, pains- 
taking wife, mother, and homemaker, "one of the rarest examples of 
womanhood America has yet produced." 

We quote from Mrs. Mott's words concerning herself. " My sympathy 
was early enlisted for the poor slaves. The ministry of Elias Hicks and 
others on the subject of the unrequited labor of slaves, and their example 
in refusing the products of slave labor, all had the effect of awaking a 
strong feeling in their behalf." 

' ' The oppression of the working classes by existing monopolies and the 
lowness of wages, often engaged my attention and I had a great desire for 
a radical change in the system, which made the rich richer, and the poor 

'* The temperance reform early engaged my attention .... and 
the cause of peace had a share of my efforts. ' ' 

In 1833 she helped form the Anti-slavery Society of Philadelphia. In 
1840 she was sent with other women as a delegate to the World's Anti- 
slavery Convention in London. Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was one of 
the number. The women delegates were rejected because they were wo- 
men. This greatly exasperated them and Mrs. Mott and Mrs. Stanton 
determined on calling a woman's rights convention upon their return to 
America, which they did. 

Lucretia Mott, the sweet Quakeress, reformer, philanthropist, a woman 
of modesty and courage, gentleness and force, with a clear brain and a 
great heart, wrought quietly but mightily for God and humanity. 



A. I>. 1796-1874. 


MISS STRICKLAND occupied a field almost all her own ; viz,y the 
writing of tlie lives of royalty and especially the female rulers. 

She began writing historical romances in verse form, something 
after the manner of Sir Walter Scott. Worcester Field is one of them. 

She next turned to the writing of prose histories, especially adapting 
them to the young. Here she gained the quality of being, first of all, inter- 
estiug. Pilgrims of liaising ham and Tales and Stories from History belong 
to this period. 

The next step was out into her own field. Her reputation was estab- 
lished by the first book in the line of royal biography, The Lives of the 
Queens of England, the list extending from Matilda of Flanders to Queen 
Anne. In this work as in some others she was assisted by her sister 

Agnes was a strong partisan for royalty and the Church, and yet she 
does not seem to have allowed her sympathies to warp her judgment. 

Her pictures of manners and customs are a valual)le contribution to our 
literature. She edited the Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots, and as she was 
a firm believer in the innocence of the cjueen, she ardently championed her 
cause. Later she wrote Lizes of the Queens of Scotland, /.ires of the Bach- 
elor Kiui^s of Lngland, Lizes of S^zrn /^isho/>s, and /.ires of the Last Lour 
Stuart /^rincesscs. Part of this period was employed in producing an 
abridged version of her Queens of /uigland. 

Toward the dose «)f her life she received a civil list pension of one hun- 
dred ])onnds in recot^nition of her merits. 

In this book about women, Agnes Strickland certainly deserves a place 
for having so industriously written about royal women, placing it in a read- 
able form f»»r coniiiiiLi generations. 

It is interestini; to observe that the first two stages of her literary 
work were <»t almost unconscious preparation for her distinguishing 



A. D. 1797-1840. 


lyi T. HOLYOKE COLLEGE is her monument. 

J[^^ She was born at Buckland, Mass. Her parents were of sturdy 
New England stock. The death of the father when Mary was 
quite young left the family in straitened circumstances. She had a nat- 
ural thirst for knowledge, but there seemed little prospect of gratifying that 
thirst. However, she toiled and studied so diligently that at the age of 
eighteen she obtained a position as teacher at Shelburne Falls — salary' 
seventy-five cents per week. 

She was, after a time, enabled to attend the Ashfield Academy, where 
she is said to have studied twenty hours a day, and soon stood at the head 
of her class. Subsequently Miss Lyon attended the school of Rev. Joseph 
Emerson of By field, and was afterwards, for three years, assistant principal 
of the Ashfield Academy, the first time the position had been held by a 

For ten years she was an instructor in the academy for girls at Derry, 
N. H. Here, in 1824, six young women were given diplomas on the com- 
pletion of a three years course ; the first instance in the history of edu- 

But she had higher aims, namely, the founding of an institution where 
young women might be trained for highest usefulness. Her aims were con- 
sidered visionary, her motives were misunderstood, and she was subjected 
to ridicule. Knowing she was right, she persevered and in 1836 the 
governor signed the charter incorporating Mt. Holyoke Seminary. Then 
came the securing of funds, a most discouraging task, but she was 
victorious. Nearly two hundred students were refused the first year and 
four hundred the second year, for want of room. 

On the marble above her grave is this sentence, which she uttered 
shortly before her death in a talk to her students : ' ' There is nothing in 
the universe that I fear, but that I shall not know my duty, or shall fail 
to do it." 



A. D. 1T97-I8e0. 



^T S a writer on matters of <irt aiul taste Mrs. Jameson probably sur- 
t^K passed all other woman writers and on the literature of art she is* 
conceded by many to stand next to Ruskin. She possessed an in- 
tense love of the beautiful, a cultivated and discriminating taste, and her 
breadth of* knowledj^e was almost phenomenal. Added to these were her 
natural and cultivated powers of eloquent description. 

In quantity her writings were as surpassing as in quality, and the former 
does not seem to have impaired the latter. 

Here again, i)irth and early training had a marked influence. Her 
father, Mr. Murphy, was painter to the Princess Charlotte (daughter of 
Cieorge I\'., who married Prince Leopold, afterward King of Belgium) and 
by him her inborn artistic tastes were trained with great care. 

She became the wife of Mr. Jameson, who received a government ap- 
pointment to Canada. The marriage was not a happy one and they lived 
apart. After traveling extensi\ely in Kurope, she devoted herself to 
literary work, at first chiefly in biographical lines and relating specially to 
women, /.oirs of the Pods is a series of sketches showing the influence of 
women on poetic minds. Lizrs of Celebrated Female Smrreij^fis needs no 
explanation. Chafaefen'sties of /(c^;;/<7/ deals with the female characters of 
.Shakespeare's plays. She also prepared a work on Beauties of the Court 
of Charles //. 

In artistic lines her work began with translating a (icrman work on the 
life and genius of Rul)ens. She was now discovering her special forte. 
Next came A Ifandhook to the London Art (lallcrics, and a Companion to 
the Private Calleries of Art in London. 

This (l(\(l<»pnient is interesting. Having begun with writing bio- 
graphical sketth<s and then having taken up descri[)tions of great works 
of art, she combined the two and wrote Memoirs of the Early Italian 
Painters and of the Proj^ress of Paint ini^ in Italy. Then came Memoirs 
and Essays. an<l Sacred and Legendary Art. 



A. D. 1901-1865. 


(TTVREDRIKA was born in Finland, but when that country was annexed 
-L to Russia, her father, a wealthy merchant, removed to Sweden with 
his family. The daughter's education received careful attention. 
After enjoying th6 best advantages Sweden could afford she was sent to 
Paris and on her return became a teacher in an academy for girls in 
Stockholm. She was a person of great mental vigor and her intense nature 
began to express itself in writing — merely as an outlet for her pent-up 
feelings — before she entered her teens. 

Her first novel, The Neighbors, was translated into German, French, 
Dutch, Russian, and English. This gives us an idea of the popularity of 
the work. Some of her other books are. The Home, Life in Dalecarlia, 
The Midnight Sun, The Homes of the Neuf World (an account of her 
observations in America), England in i8^r (giving views of the coun- 
try and people as she saw them during a residence there). Most of her 
novels present pictures of home life in her own Scandinavia. 

As a woman and a writer she was greatly beloved in many lands. 

" She has brought the dim old Scandinavian world, that seemed com- 
pletely hidden by the cloud of fable and curtain of time from the western 
hemisphere, before us, with an enchanter's wand. Her little white hand 
has gently led us up among primeval mountains covered witli eternal forests 
of pine, and along the banks of deep lakes, where the blue waters have 
slept since the creation. She has done more, she has led us 'over the 
threshold of the Swede,' introduced us into the sanctuary of their cheerful 
homes and made us friends with her friends." 

After the death of her father, in 1830, she lived for some years in 
Norway with a friend, after whose death she resolved to gratify a long- 
repressed desire to travel. In autumn of 1849 she set out for America, and 
after spending nearly two years here returned through England. The 
admirable translations of her works by Mary Howitt secured for her a warm 
and kindly reception in both America and England. 



A. D. 1802-1876. 


'py'ER ancestors were French and moved to England upon the revocation of 
j^M the Edict of Nantes. Her education was as thorough as the times 

® afforded for women. Hers was a strong character. While she had 
earnestness, courage, and sincerity, she was self-willed, self-opinionated, and 
self-conscious. She says of herself in her autobiography, that she was pos- 
sessed of a temper '* downright devilish *' and had a '* capacity for jealousy 
which was something frightful," at the age of four years. 

She was the sixth child in a household of eight. It was a busy, hard- 
working family. She was early afflicted with deafness, which increased with 
years and her mind was much shut in. 

She found it necessary to do something which could be performed apart 
from others, and turned to study, which became a passion. Her father lost 
his property and all were obliged to do something, not merely for an occu- 
pation but for a livelihood. 

1825-26 was a time of speculations, collapses, and crashes. The bitter 
experiences of her family influenced her literary career. In this school of 
experience she learned to write on the burning questions of State, and 
especially political economy. Her experiences and vehement disposition 
made these works mightily trenchant. 

Eminent statesmen asked her to write on almost ever\' conceivable topic 
connected witli legislation. Lord Brougham offered to collect evidence for 
her Scn'rs on the Poor Laics and place it at her disposal. The Series was 
successful beyond her dreams. She tells her experience of a visit into the 
outer air for the t'lrst thorough holiday taken for nearly three years. 

She came to the I'nited States on her completion of her Rji owlish Politi- 
cal Talcs. ICverywhere she was graciously received, though her strong 
anti-slavery utterances detracted from her pc^pularity in some places. But 
this is to her honor. 

She was impatient of applause and cared only to speak the truth with 
the greatest possible force. 



A. D. 1802-1887. 


ONE of the most wonderful women of this or any other century. A 
frail and overworked body, a gentle, loving disposition, butwitKa 
will like steel, such was Dorothea Dix. She worked against apathy 
and other fearful odds and she never failed but once. 

She had no childhood, for the support and education of two younger 
brothers devolved upon her. She opened a school for girls in Boston to 
support herself and family. While burdened with the care of the school 
she became interested in ameliorating the condition of the state convicts. 

In 1833 she was prostrated by hemorrhages of the lungs, due to over- 
work. She visited Europe and returned after a few years much improved 
and ready for new undertakings in behalf of paupers, prisoners, and luna- 

She taught a Sunday School class in the East Cambridge House of 
Correction. She then visited the jail and found some insane persons con- 
fined in unheated rooms. In order to correct the abuse she was obliged to 
bring the matter into court. 

Her soul was so stirred at the abuses she discovered elsewhere that she 
visited every jail and almshouse in the state, giving careful study to the 
condition of the insane. 

Armed with a terrible array of facts, she petitioned the legislature " in 
behalf of the insane paupers confined within the Commonwealth in cages, 
closets, cellars, stalls, pens ; chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed 
into obedience." 

She was successful in Massachusetts, the abuses were to a large extent 
corrected. This encouraged her to undertake reform in otlier states. New 
Jersey was her next field, where by careful investigation and wise presenta- 
tion she won victories for the insane and criminals. 

Her record of less than four years' work was that of eighteen states 
prisons, three hundred county jails and houses of correction, and more 
than five hundred almshouses visited and investigated. Everywhere she 



A. U. 1806-1804. 


^ HIS gifted singer appeared on the stage at Frankfort when but five 
Vi ^ years of age. She received the most careful training and appeared 
T in both Cierman and Italian music. At the age of twenty-five she 
easily outshone all other operatic stars of her own land. 

When at the height of her career she married Count Rossi, an Italian 
noble, and retired to private life. Her husband was Ambassador of Sardinia 
at the Hague at the time of her marriage. 

During her retirement she was noted for her princely charities and was 
a great favorite at court. 

Pecuniary re\erses and embarrassments came and she returned to her 

Jenny Lind had achieved great success in America and Henriette decided 
to visit these shores. She was enthusiastically received, and made a tour 
of the United States and Mexico. In the midst of her triumphs in Mexico 
she was attacked by the cholera and died. 

Uorotliti'M I-. IJix continued. 

met sights which were sickening and horrible, but, though weak in body 
and at times sick, she bravely toiled on. 

Miss Dix visited Halifax and Toronto, wrought reform in Scotland, 
visited hospitals in Norway, Holland, Italy, Russia, and (irecce. She 
awakened the slumbering moral sense of the people, and the treatment of 
tlie inmates of asylums and |)risons was revolutionized. 

At the outbreak of iht- civil war in America she gave herself to the 
work of nursing in th<- army and was made chief of army nurses. It was 
she who warn<(l President-elect Lincoln of his danger on the way to Wash- 
ington. Slu (lied at Trenton Asylum after five years of suffering. The asylum 
was offered lur as a rttreat and she lovingly called it her " firstborn child." 
*' On no oth< r |)aj4c of tin- annals of purely merciful reform can be read such 
a series of moral triumphs over apathy, ignorance, and cruel neglect." 



A. D. 1802-1880. 


KV ER father, David Francis, was a baker in Medford, Mass. Miss Fran- 

(q\ ^^^ showed a marked craving for books when quite young. 

Her first novel, Hobomok, was occasioned by an article in the 
North American Review in which the writer enthusiastically set forth the 
adaptation of early New England history to the purposes of fiction. She 
had never written for the press, but the thought seized her and she wrote 
the first chapter of her novel the same day. In six weeks the story was 
finished and upon being published was so well received that she wrote next 
year The Rebels ; oi\ Boston Before the Revolution. 

She next opened a private school in Watertown, Mass. , and about the 
same time %X.7\x\^A Juvenile Miscellany, a children's magazine. 

When twenty-six years of age she married David Lee Child, a Boston 
lawyer. She wrote The Mother s Book, The GirV s Own Book, The His- 
tory of Women, and Biographies of Good Wives. 

She was now happily married, enjoyed a generous income, and was sur- 
rounded by friends of high social standing. But a change came because of 
herself and husband becoming identified with the anti-slavery movement. 
The sale of her books fell off, subscriptions to her magazine were withdrawn, 
and the homes of many former friends were no longer open to her. 

But she had taken her position as a matter of conscience and no loss of 
friends, fame, or fortune could cause her to turn back. She wrote and pub- 
lished Ayi Appeal on Behalf of that Class of Americans Called Africaris. 
From a quiet and remunerative literary life she was thus thrust into the 
midst of a fierce fight. 

In 1844 Mr. and Mrs., Child removed to New York and became joint 
editors of The Anti-Slavery Standard. Mr. Child's health was poor and 
much of the time the wife worked on bravely and ahiiost alone. One of 
her biographers has said, "No man or woman of that period rendered 
more substantial service to the cause of freedom or made such a great 
renunciation to do it.' 



A. D. 1804-1876. 


rHIS woman became the most celebrated French writer of her age in 
the department of fiction. But her genius and celebrity cannot 
hHnd our eyes to this, that she lived in the most pronounced con- 
tempt for morality and purity, was mother of two illegitimate children, and 
denounced the whole system of marriage. 

Her father, Maurice Dupin, died when she was but four years of age and 
she was left to the care of hrr grandmother, the Countess de Hover, who 
was the illegitimate daughter of the famous Marshal Saxe, who in turn was 
the illegitimate son of Augustus II., king of Poland ; so, while there was 
royal blood in her veins, there was little occasion to boast of it. 

After spending her early years with her grandmother, she piissed three 
years in a convent, where she became so zealous that her teacher even 
remonstrated with her. There then came a reaction with great despondency. 

At eighteen she married M. Dudevant, an officer in the French army, a 
man of modest fortune and good character but not brilliant. They lived 
together lor nine years in matrimonial misery, when she fled to the society 
of a lover. While li\ iiii^ with him, she wrote her first novel, hidiana. 

Having h tl her h)\ cr, she went to Paris and wrote for a livelihocKi. 
.She threw oft all woni.nily restraints and assumed the dress of a man. 

Her novels, uhieli appeared in the Rcvm dts Ihux Mondts, proved 
popular. Her Lvlia (it aled a sensation by its advocacy of infidelity and 
social (lis<»r<ler. 

.She wrote in all about >i.\ly novels and twenty plays, h'or more than 
a (juarter of a ctnlury slie continued year by year to gladden the world by 
some n«\v rreatiMii. 

'• She has stayed in many camps, and lent her |)en to many causes, she 
has had many friends anrl many loxers, but to one cause only has she 
remained < on>taiU -the cause of human progress; and the only master in 
whose service she has ne\er wearie<l is Art." 



A. D. 1809-1861. 


yj^HE highest place among modern poetesses belongs to Mrs. Browning, 
V ^ and she far outranks most of our modern poets. Her pure and lofty 
T sentiment and intellectual power are inferior only to Tennyson. 

She was born in London and was from infancy a delicate child. She was 
naturally retiring and loved solitude. At fifteen she sustained an injury of 
the spine which further weakened her physical powers. Being deprived of 
the usual pursuits and pleasures of young people she gave herself to study 
and began to write. She could see little of the world and so she found or 
made a world of her own. 

In 1839 she burst a blood vessel of the lungs and was removed to a 
milder climate. Soon afterwards her favorite brother, with two other young 
men, was drowned while sailing. These physical and mental shocks so 
weakened her that for years she lived in a darkened room, visited only by 
her family and a few intimate friends. Vet from that fairy hand came works 
of power which made the world marvel. She settled down to her lot with 
sweet resignation, in no wise questioning her Master's goodness and love. 

Then came a change. Robert Browning had already won for himself a 
name. He had learned to love the invalid poetess through her works and 
sought her in marriage, to the amazement of her family and friends. He 
believed that she need not be an invalid all her days. Love could win her 
to health she had never known. 

They were married and spent four years in Trance and Italy. When 
they returned to England Mrs. Browning was a new creature. Hope, 
Love, and Italy had wrought marvels. Theirs was as perfect a union as 
the world often sees. Each had poetic brilliancy and power. Each had a 
marked individuality. Each was the complement of the other. 

Mrs. Browning possessed the unusual combination of a masculine under- 
standing and a thoroughly feminine heart. She could treat social problems 
in a masterly way and at the same time she could set forth the tenderest, 
deepest sentiments of woman's heart. 



A. D. 1810-1850. 


§ER father, Timothy Fuller, gave much personal attention to her edu- 
cation. She proved a remarkable scholar, for at six years of age 
she could read Latin and at eight read extensively in Shakespeare, 
Cervantes, and Moliere. Being much by herself she became melancholy 
and reserved and was given to freaks of passion. 

She studied at Ciroton, Mass. , where her eccentricities were a trial to 
her teachers and friends. I'pon her return home she began an extensive 
course of studies, mastering the German and the chief authors in that 

In 1840 she became editor of the Dial, a quarterly journal. Ralph 
Waldo Elmerson was one of her associates in the work. Woman in the 
Nincteerith Century, written by Miss Fuller for this journal, was afterward 
issued in lx)ok form. 

In 1S44 she became connected with the New York Tribune. Her time 
was chiefly given to reviews which were subsetiuently issued as a volume 
entitled Papers on Art and Literature. 

In 1847, having taken up her residence in Rome, she became the wife of 
a Roman nobleman, the Marcjnis Giovanni Angelo Ossoli. During the two 
following years she saw stirring times in the "eternal city." In 1848 
occurred the revolution and in 1849 the city was besieged by the F*rench. 
She rendered good service as directress of one of the hospitals. 

In 1850 hhe set her face toward her native land, accompanied by her 
husband and little son. The voyage had a tragic ending. The barque was 
driven ashore on Fire Inland beach. While the vessel was going to pieces, 
Margaret sang little Angelo to sleep and her husband calmed the passen- 
gers by |)rayer. .After twelv<- hours of suspense, some of the passengers 
were sa\ed, but ()ssoli, wife, and child perished. 

Hers was a strong character, a marked indi\ iduality. Her struggle and 
solitary habits made her less winsome than some other writers, but her 
works form a substantial contribution to American literature. 



A. D. 1810-1865. 


'^ ER great work was Mary Barton ; a Tale of Manchester Life, The 
^J book was to the factory people of England what Uncle Toni s CcU>in 
became to the colored race in America. She was among the first to 
get at the heart of the great multitude of factory operatives. Her portrayal 
is pathetic and even painful, but she had to deal with a painful subject, 
and she was true to life in her descriptions. Hard times, political agitation, 
and strikes — all the great questions as between labor and capital are 
brought out in this book, which appeared in 1848. The labor question is 
not a new one. Mrs. Gaskell was a pioneer novelist in this line. We can- 
not do better than to allow her to speak for herself. Note the sympathetic 
heart and the keen observation in the following : — 

** I had always felt a deep sympathy with the careworn men who looked 
as if doomed to struggle through their lives in strange alternations between 
work and want. A little manifestation of this sympathy, and a little atten- 
tion to the expression of feelings on the part of some of the work people, 
had laid open to me the hearts of the more thoughtful among them. I saw 
that they were sore and irritable against the rich. Whether the bitter com- 
plaints made were well founded or no, it is not for me to judge. It is 
enough to say that this belief of the injustice and unkindness which they 
endure from iheir fellow creatures, taints what might he resignation to 
God's will and turns it to revenge in too many <»f the poor uneducated 
factory workers of Manchester." 

Mrs. Gaskell's husband was a I'nitarian clergyman of Mancliester. 

Her other works were, in j)art, Moorland Cottaj^c, Xort/i and South, 
Right at Last, Wives and Damrhters. Tlic tme that attracted greatest at- 
tention was The Life of Charlotte Bronte. This was charmingly written 
and furnishes many interesting incidents and details of the private life of 
Miss Bronte, as the two women were close pers(^)nal friends. 

In her novels she occasionally introduces the Lancashire dialect with 
great effectiveness. As a portray er of the lights and shades of artisan life, 
Mrs. Gaskell has few equals. 



A. D. 1811 -ISTS. 


'ARA PAYSON WILLIS was born in Portland, Me. In 1817 the 
family removed to Boston, where her father, Nathaniel Willis, be- 
came editor of the Boston Recorder and founder of The Youth's 
Companion. Mrs. Willis, the mother, was a superior woman, and of her 
the daughter said, '* All my brother's poetry, all the capacity for writing, 
be it little or much, which I possess, came from her." 

Miss Willis was educated at the school of Miss Catherine Beecher in 
Hartford. Miss Harriet Beecher, afterwards Mrs. Stowe, was one of the 
teachers. During this time, her brother, Nathaniel P. W^illis, a student 
in Yale, began to attract attention as an author. 

She married Charles H. Eldredge, cashier of the Merchants' National 
Bank of Boston, and lived in ease and comfort. Three daughters were 
born to them. But sorrow came. xMr. Eldredge and the eldest daughter 
died and Mrs. Eldredge was obliged to gain a livelihood for herself and her 
two remaining girls. 

She wrote an essay for publication, but several publishers refused it% 
At last one accepted it and gave her, as remuneration, fifty cents. Though 
the outlook was dark she persisted and after a few months journals were 
glad to get her writings at her own price. 

A collection of her sketches was published in 1853 under the title of 
Feni Leaves, the sale of which reached seventy thousand in a short time. 

In 1856 she married James Parton' the author. 

Mr. Bonner of the New 'S'ork Ledirer, recognizing the popularity of her 
writings, engaged her to write an article each week for his journal. This 
she continuid to do without interruption for fourteen years. 

Mrs. Parton was always a sympathetic interpreter of childhood and 
girlhood. .She was bright, witty, original, and frank. She hated cant, 
pomp, aflectation, and snobbery. She was a stout champion of the poor, 
the distressed, and toil-worn. 



A. D. 1812-1896. 


MRS. STOWE wrote many books, but by one book she is best known, 
her Uncle Tom s Cabin. Probably no book except the Bible has 
had so wide a sale. More than 500,000 copies were sold in this 
country in ^\^ years. It has been translated into nearly every language of 
Europe and into some Asiatic languages. The sale outside the United 
States has probably reached half a million. 

Harriet was the daughter of Rev. Lyman Beecher and was born in 
Litchfield, Conn. Scott's Ballads and Arabian Nights were her favorite 
books when but a child and no doubt these had much to do with the culti- 
vation of her imagination. 

At the age of fifteen she became assistant to her sister Catherine in the 
female seminary at Hartford and continued teaching until the time of her 
marriage to Prof. Calvin E. Stowe. 

Professor Stowe was one of the faculty of Lane Theological Seminary at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, of which Dr. Beecher had become president. 

The slavery question was at the front, and the '* underground railroad" 
was making it possible for many i)oor slaves to escape to Canada. 

Professor Stowe' s house was one of the "stations" and Mrs. Stowe' s 
acquaintance with the fugitives served as fuel for the fire which years 
afterwards blazed out in Lhicle Toin s Cabin. 

The slavery question was hotly debated by the students in the seminary, 
until the trustees forbade its discussion and scores of students left. Soon 
after the passage of " The Fugitive SIa\^ Law," Professor Stowe was called 
to Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me., and it was there that Mrs. Stowe 
wrote her famous book. 

It appeared first as a serial in The National Era, then in book form ; 
and presses were kept running day and night to meet the demand. 

Prince Albert, Earl of Shaftesbury, Macaulay, Dickens, and Kingsley 
received gift copies and each wrote a letter of deep sympathy and praise. • 

When Mrs. Stowe visited Europe the next year, people vied with each 



A. D. 1814-1873. 

- — - .^•^i^)i^-i«# — 

§ER husband, Theador Mundt, was for some years a teacher in the 
University of Berlin, and afterward became professor of general 
history and literature in Breslau, and then became director of the 
library of the Berlin University. In politics he was a liberalist and often 
gave offense. For many years he was an invalid, but the income from the 
works written by his wife enabled them to live in comfort. 

UiKler the pseudonym of " Luise Muhlbach," Mrs. Mundt produced 
more than fifty novels, and her works comprise about one hundred volumes. 
She was a pronounced advocate of woman's suffrage and other radical 
changes in the status of woman. In politics, she was, like her husband, an 
extreme liberalist and actively participated in several reform movements. 

Her fame rests chiefly upon her historical romances. In this field she 
wielded a ready pen. Most of these works are as well known in England 
and America as in (iermany. Among the best known are : Frederick the 
Ci rent and His Court, Joseph II. and His Court, The Merchant of Berlin ^ 
Louisa of Prussia and Her Times, Marie Antoinette and Her Son, 
Napoleon and the Queen of Prussia, Queen Hortense, The limpress Jose- 
phine, (ioethe and Schiller, Mohammed Ali and His House^ also The 
Thirty )'rars War, and limperor William. 

Hrr works brouj^ht her a fortune which was well earned and she was 
enabled to build a handsome residence in Berlin, which became the meeting 
place of littrary and social leaders. 

Htirriet M».'c'ol it.'r Stowe continued. 

other to do her honor, and more than half a million women signed a memo- 
rial addressed to lu-r. 

Mrs. Stowr w rotr many other books. We name a few. The Minis- 
ter s Wooiui:;, Pearl of Orr s Island, Oldto7cn P^olks, My Wife and I, We 
and Our Xeit^hbors, Footsteps of the Master, Bible Heroines, and Key to 
Uncle Tom\s Calu'fi. 



A. I>. 1816-1876. 


WHEN she was but twelve years of age her father became bankrupt 
and it was necessary for her to contribute to the family sup- 
port. She possessed a contralto voice of unusual quality and 
power. For some time she sang in church choirs, and when Mrs. Wood 
came to Boston in search for a contralto voice she selected Miss Cushman.- 
After singing in the Tremont Theater she went to New Orleans to sing in 
an opera there, but her voice failed, partly through the change of climate 
and partly through seeking to transform her voice into a soprano. 

This proved a crisis in her life. She was without funds and must earn 
her living. She had previously shown some dramatic talent and was asked 
to take the part of Lady Macbeth. This she did with great success in the 
principal New Orleans theater. 

Her next experience was in New York. She accepted a three years 
engagement at the Bowery Theater. She was without wardrobe, but the 
manager procured this, arranging to deduct five dollars a week from her 
wages. Her mother was keeping a boarding house in Boston. She in- 
duced her to come to New York, bringing the two sons. For the elder, 
Charlotte secured employment. So the household was together again. 

But another calamity came. She was prostrated for several weeks with 
rheumatic fever and soon after she recovered the theater was burned, her 
wardrobe was destroyed, and her three years engagement was at an end. 
Not discouraged she went to Albany and had excellent success. 

When she was but twenty-six she took the management of a theater 
in Philadelphia and at the same time acted leading parts. 

A few years later she went to Europe and won success in London. She 
summoned her family to her and they lived happily in a cottage at Bays- 
water. Her sister Susan studied with her. Charlotte and Susan appeared 
as *' Romeo and Juliet" at the Haymarket Theater. When she returned 
to America she had won a distinguished place in the dramatic world and was 
soon the possessor of a comfortable fortune. 



A. D. 1816-185ff. 


MLSS BRONTE is bv^st known by her novel Jane Eyre, Some of the 
sufferings depicted in the book are records of her own experiences. 
The life of Miss Bronte is of deep and pathetic interest. 

Her father was a poor Mnjjflish clergyman, eccentric and unlovely. 
Charlotte was born at Hartshead, near Leeds, but the family subsecjuently 
moved tt) Haworlh. The parsonaj^c* was " bleak and uncomfortable, alow, 
oblonj«; stone building standinj^ at the top of the stragg^ling village on a steep 
hill, without the slielter of a tree, with the churchyard pressing down on it 
on both sides, and behind, a long tract of wild moors.'' 

By the father's direction the children were fed on vegetable diet and 
clothed in coarse clothes to make them hardy and prevent their becoming 
proud. They wen* far from hardy : on the ccmtrary, they were small, fee- 
ble, antl stunted in growtii. The mother died when they were all young, 
and the children were mostly left to themselves. 

Four of the j^irls were sent away to school, Charlotte among them. 
The food wa^ poor and insufficient and they were treated with inhuman 
severity. * ' .Miss S( ratchhard ' " in Jauc I\yrc is a reprotluction of the manager 
of tin- school. .\ lexer broke out and the girls returned home, but two of 
them dietl a^ a result of the treatment and the sickness contracted at the 

When nineteen ye.irs of ai^e, C^harlotte became a teache; , but owing to 
|)oor health sju- was nbljotd to i^i\c it up. She next look a situation as a 
governes>. but the people treated her harshly and this was abandoned. 

.She <leternuue<l to establish a private scho()l with her sisters Kmily and 
Anne. Charlotte and Lmilv went to Brussels to fit themselves. At the 
end of six month-^ they wen* employed in the school they were attending, 
but at a pitilnlly small salary. 

On their return they att<in|)ted to gather pupils, but none came. They 
next tried literary work ; in fact. th<*y had written much from childhood up. 



They issued a volume of poems but it met with little success. Their next 
venture was in prose tales. The productions were, The Professor, by 
Charlotte; Wuthering Heights, by Emily; and Agnes Grey hy Anne. 
Each wrote under an assumed name. While those of Emily and Anne 
were accepted, Charlotte's was everywhere rejected and was not published 
until after her death. 

In the face of all this failure and discouragement, Charlotte proceeded 
to write y^w^ ZTv/'^. It met with immediate and immense success. Few 
works of an unknown author have been received with such sudden and 
general acclamation. It was translated into most of the languages of 
Europe, and was put on the stage in England and Germany under the 
title of The Orphan of Lowood. She next wrote Shir/eyyhuX. it was much 
inferior to Jane Eyre, Her third novel was Viiiette, which is a picture of 
life as she saw it in Brussels. This proved exceedingly popular. It pro- 
ceeded slowly to completion as the result of long interruptions from failing 

Her works became a passport to the highest literary circles of London 
and the continent, and she met most of the prominent writers of the 
time. But she was of a retiring and sensitive disposition, largely the result 
of a sad childhood, so that notoriety and attention were a source of pain 
and she returned to her home 

Rev. Arthur Nicholls, who was her father's curate, desired to marry 
her, but the father objected. She was now past thirty-four years of age, 
and Mr. Nicholls resigned. In the year following the father changed his 
mind and they were married. 

For less than one year she knew the happiness of true home life, though 
they lived in the bleak old parsonage. But her health, like that of her 
sisters, had been poor for many years and she soon followed them. Early 
hardships had left a physical blight on each of them. Her death occurred 
March 31, 1855. 

After her death her rejected tale, The Professor, was published. She 
had what Goethe calls the true secret of poetic genius. 



A. D. 1818-1893. 


.}e;/-5-w*ib<- ----- 

@N a rocky farm in West Brookfield, Mass., Lucy Stone was bom. 
She was the eighth child. The mother milked eight cows the night 
before Lucy was born. When it was known that the babe was a 
girl the mother exclaimed, "Oh dear! I am so sorry it is a girl. A 
woman's life is so hard.'* But Lucy's life was devoted to making woman's 
life easier. 

Her own lot was one of toil from childhood. She had to perform the 
usual duties of a farmer's daughter, but all the time she was thinking and 
questioning. Her soul rebelled at the unequal lot of woman in point of 
education and wages. 

Her two brothers were helped to go to college. Lucy desired to do the 
same. Her father exclaimed, **Is the child crazy?** To her he said, 
" Your mother only learned to read, write, and cipher ; if that was enough 
for her it should be enough for you.'* 

This did not discourage her, it only gave her a grim determination to 
win the way. She 7cou/d i^^o to college. She picked berries and laid by 
the money earned in the h<^t sini. She gathered chestnuts and with the 
money boujL^ht books. She was able after a time to teach school, at first 
for one dollar per week. When at last she earned sixteen dollars per 
month, it was thouji^ht remarkable f<^r a woman. When her brother was 
sick she took his school for a time. His wages were thirty dollars per 
month, but the committee gave her but sixteen because it " was enough for 
a woman." These things were bitterness to her heart but they nerved her 
for the struggle. 

At twenty- five she had earned money enough to enter Oberlin College, 
which was the only college in the land to admit women at that time. She 
earned her way in part by tutoring and doing housework. In the four 
years cour-e >he had l)nt one new dress and that was calico. 

Kven at ( )l)erlin she found women were not treated as ecpials of men. 
Her work was so excellent that she was awarded one of the commencement 



honors, but was informed that her essay would be read by one :>f the pn)- 
fessors, as it was not considered proper for a woman to read or speak in 
public. With her uncompromising spirit she declined to prepare the essay. 
She would not have, honors which were at the same time a source of 
humiliation. When Oberlin celebrated its semi-centennial forty years 
after Lucy Stone graduated, she was one of the honored speakers. 

Oberlin was a friend of the slave and Lucy became a pronounced aboli- 
tionist. In her life work for the slave and woman, she encountered opposi- 
tion and even insults. Upon one occasion she was to speak in Maiden. 
The Congregational minister gave notice that **A hen will undertake to 
crow like a cock at the town hall this afternoon. Anybody who wants to 
hear that kind of music will of course attend." 

She was sometimes compelled to meet not merely ridicule, but mob 
violence. At one time when she and Stephen Foster were holding an anti- 
slavery meeting, Mr. Foster was attacked and his coat torn from his back. 
Lucy Stone got the mastery of the mob by her power of intellect and will, 
so that before the meeting closed a collection of twenty dollars was taken 
and given to Mr. Foster to pay for a new coat. 

She worked for woman suffrage in Colorado and afterwards, in 1893, it 
bore fruit in a constitutional amendment giving woman the same rights as 
men in exercising the election franchise. 

Many sought her hand in marriage, but in vain. Mr. Henry B. Black- 
well v^s, however, at last successful. He had been a worker in the anti- 
slavery cause and devotedly loved this kindred spirit. They were married 
in 1855, when Lucy was thirty-seven years old. They were agreed that she 
should retain her maiden name and be known i^imply as Lucy Stone. 
Their wedded life was one of happy co-operation. 

** As a pioneer in the movement for the legal and political elevation of 
woman, she lived through ridicule, obloquy, and even persecution, until at 
last she was known and reverenced as the heroine of a great, beneficent, and 
actually accomplished revolution." Lucy Stone had in her nature a rare 
combination of strength and sweetness. The strength had been devel- 
oped in the struggle for an education. The sweetness was inherited from 
the toiling but always sympathetic mother. 



A. I>. 1818-1889. 


{N the field of science Miss Mitchell is the American pioneer. Hundreds 
of women have in recent years distinguished themselves in scientific 
pursuits, but we are always interested in pioneers. 

For patient, plodding, persistent work, few have surpassed Maria 
Mitchell. She was born in Nantucket, and, as the land has few attractions, 
the people are natural obserxers of sea and sky. Maria was one of them. 
Again, her father was for years engaged in scientific pursuits in connection 
with his work of teaching. He was a man of superior intellect but of 
meager income. He established a small observatory and earned one hun- 
dred dollars per year by astronomical work for the United States Coast 

Maria looked back upon her girlhood days as * * an endless washing of 
dishes," and yet she managed to study a great deal. She was for many 
years librarian of the little Nantucket Athenaeum at a salary of one hundred 
dollars per year. Of this she was able to lay aside a portion for future 

So she toiled on, studying and observing in astronomical lines. When 
she was nearly thirty years of age, fame came to her as a result of her 
work. She discovered a telescopic comet. Her father communicated the 
discovery to Professor Bond of Cambridge. Kdward Everett, president of 
Harvard College, learned that the King of Denmark had offered a gold 
medal for such a discovery and was instrumental in securing it for Miss 

She sul)se([uently visited Kurope and was well received by such leading 
scientists as Sedgwick, Challis, Adams, Herschel, and Arnott, as well as 
by many of the literary leaders. Her best years were given as professor of 
astronomy in X'assar (College, where she rendered most acceptable service. 

Her father was with her and his closing years were gladdened by seeing 
his daughter an honored teacher of the science of astronomy, the first les- 
son in which she had received from him. 



A. D. 18201871 ; 1824-1871. 



/ I \ HEIR early years were spent at Miami \'alley, near Cincinnati, Ohio. 
J- They both possessed marked literary tastes and ability, and began 
writing for the press while in their teens. 

Their mother died when Alice was but eleven, and their stepmother 
had no sympathy with their literary' aspirations. Candles were refused 
them after the day's work was done and they used a saucer of lard with a 
rag for a wick, and by this light they studied and wrote. 

Alice received no financial compensation for her work for the first ten 
years. She wrote for the love of it — we may say, from an overflowing 

Alice wrote both prose and poetry. Phoebe gave her attention almost 
entirely to poetry, having little taste for prose productions. 

The sisters lived in a house by themselves for some years, the father 
and stepmother occupying another residence. 

In 1852, having received some means of their own, the sisters removed 
to New York city, where their home became the center of a choice group 
of people interested in literature and art. Here were held receptions each 
week, which became deservedly popular. 

They died in the same year, and but a few months apart. Alice was an 
invalid during her last years and the care of the household devolved upon 
Phoebe. She was thus deprived of much time which would othenvise have 
been given to literary work and would have added to her fame. 

Alice wrote Cloirnwok, or Recollections of our Xei}rhhorhood in the West, 
Hagar, a Story of To-day^ Married, not Mated, Pictures of Country Life, 
Ballads, Lyrics, and Hymns. Her characters are realistic and her descrip- 
tions of domestic life are charming. 

Phoebe is known for her poem which begins One swert/y solemn thought 
comes to me o" er and d er. Poems of Faith, Hope, and Loir, and other pro- 
ductions which were published in a volume with those of her sister, before 
their removal to New York. 



A. D. 1820.1880. 


^^W NK comes to the consideration of this woman of j^^enius with a feeling 
\^J i»kin to sadness. There is a struggle between respect for her 
^ ability and contempt for her conduct. 

Marian K\ans was born of hmnble parents, who were, nevertheless, of 
sterling worth and who sought for their daughter educational advantages 
of which they had been deprived. They were religious people and sent 
Marian to a school kept by the Misses Franklin, who were devout Metho- 
dists. She was early engaged in Sunday school and other religious work. 

L'nder more advanced teachers she studied Latin, Greek, Italian, 
French, and German ; she also became a pianist of much skill. 

Her abilities brought her into accjuaintance with many eminent people, 
among them several of liberal, rationalistic, and even atheistic views, 
"clever thinkers," learned doubters, dreamy theorists, but arrogant, dis- 
contented, and cUfiant. 

Mr. Lewes was one <^f this number. To him she became attached and, 
although he had a wife living, Marian Kvans lived with him for twenty 
years. They were both people of genius and their tastes were congenial, 
but these things can never excuse the ilisrei»ard and defiance of (iod's laws. 

After the death of Mr. Lewes, she, being fifty-nine years old, married 
Mr. John Walter Cross, who was much younger than herself. 

We may sometimes wish we had never known the private life of Marian, but it i.-^ best that we should knf)w. No doubt she is one of the 
greatest authors of this great literary century. 

Her chief \\<»rk> are Adiun /udc, The Mill on thr hloss, Silas Marnc>\ 
Romola, lulix Holt, Middltmanh, Panicl Prronda, and Thtophrastus 

George l\li(»l i^ an artist in delineatini^ character in its development. 
Too ofien il i«. a t|«.\vn\vanl de\<-loj)ment ; illicit lo\ e i> foimd in nearly all 
her works wwA ytMuig people will hanlly l>e profited by reading them. 



A. D. 1821-1S87. 



HE was born in Stockholm and was the daughter of a teacher of 

She is said to have been able at three years of age to repeat a 
song which she had heard but once. At ten years of age she sang children 
parts on the Stockholm stage. After two years her upper notes lost their 
sweetness, and for four years she was in retirement. This time was devoted 
to the study of instrumental music and composition. 

At the end of the period her voice had recovered its power and purity 
in every note of its register of two and one half octaves. For a year and a 
half she was the star of the Stockholm opera. 

She next gave a series of concerts to obtain means to go to Paris for 
study, but the French teacher did not appreciate her powers and she re- 
turned to her native city. 

In 1844, being then twenty- three years of age, she went to Dresden and 
when Queen Victoria visited that city the following year, she sang in the 
f^tes. This opened the way to astonishing success in other German cities. 

In 1847 she went to London and was enthusiastically received. Here 
she sang for the first time in oratorio. 

Jenny Lind visited America in 1850. V. T. Barnum was instrumental 
in her coming to. the country, and by his i)ower as an advertiser he roused 
the wildest enthusiasm. Tickets sold for fabulous prices in New York. 
But she did not disappoint the wildest expectation. 

She subsequently married Mr. Otto Goldschmidt of Boston, musician 
and conductor. She appeared on the stage only at intervals after her 
marriage and usually at concerts given for charital)lc purposes. In this 
work she was deeply interested, and we may well add to her titlt! of singer 
that of philanthropist. ^ 

Her later years were spent in London, where she died in 1887. Her 
life and songs are a sweet memory. 



A. I>. 1820-1891. 


¥HIS remarkable woman was a Russian by birth, both her father and 
her grandfather having been officers in the Russian army. Her 
remarkable attainments as a linguist are seen in this, that she could 
speak forty languages and dialects. At the age of sixteen she married a 
husband of sixty but lived with him only three months. 

After some time spent at the home of her father, Col. Peter Hahn, she 
started on extensive travels which continued for ten years before she saw 
her home again. She had a great thirst for unusual and out-of-the-way 
knowledge. She even visited the Voodoos, a sect of negroes in New 
Orleans who were reputed to be possessed of magical skill. She visited 
Japan and India and sought to penetrate into Thibet. After various wan- 
derings in Asia and Europe, she returned to her home in Russia. During 
her absence she became a Buddhist. 

She at one time sustained a fracture of the spine by being thrown from 
a horse and there resulted certain mental disturbances which greatly 
puzzled the attending physicians. For a year and a half she lived a com- 
plete dual existence. 

After her recovery she spent several years in various parts of Europe, 
and had many strange experiences. Once she sailed on a ship loaded with 
gunpowder. The ship was l)l()wn up and Madam was one of the very few 
who were saved. She traveled in Africa and sought to investigate Spirit- 
ualism. .She came again to America and with Colonel Olcott established 
the *' Theosophical Society." 

Among her hooks is /s/s I ^nveilcd. She at one time edited a maga- 
zine called lAicifcr. the Liirht-hrinfrcr. Altogether, she is one of the 
strange characters of history. One writer has said, *' There was a Titanic 
display of strengtli in everything she did. The storms that raged in her 
were cyclones." Her Con/essiou rings with the mingled curses and mad 
laughter of a crazy mariner scuttling his own ship, and yet she could be as 
tender as a mother. 



A. I>. 1826-1893. 



SER birthplace was Beverly, Mass. , by the sea. She was next to the 
youngest of eight sisters. Her father died when she was quite 
young, and the mother moved to Lowell, which was fast becoming 
a great mill town. 

Here Mrs. Larcom kept a boarding house for the mill girls, her own 
daughters being among the operatives. But that was a home, and quite 
unlike the mill-town boarding house of to-day. 

When Lucy was still quite young, she entered one of the mills as a 
**dof[er," that is, taking off empty bobbins and putting on full ones. 

She had learned to love good books before coming to Lowell, and this 
taste she cultivated as there was opportunity. 

Some kind of a reading and literary club was formed among the mill 
girls and several of them wrote papers to be read at their meetings. The 
poet Whittier was then editing a paper in Lowell, and became interested in 
these young women who were seeking self-improvement. 

When about twenty years of age she accompanied a married sister to 
Illinois, and taught school in a vacated log building in a two mile neighbor- 
hood. She received forty dollars for three months' work. The commit- 
teeman remarked as he paid her, "That's a lot o' money to pay a young 
woman for three months' teachin*.*' 

She was enabled to attend the Monticello Female Seminary for three 
years and then went back to her beloved Beverly. After teaching private 
classes for a few years, she was called to a position in Wheaton Female 
Seminary, where she taught for six years with great success. 

The strain upon her health was too great and she turned to literary 
work. For some time she edited Oi^r Young Folks. She also wrote for 
many of the leading periodicals. 

She was a poetess of friendship and nature. Her girlhood days at Bev- 
erly, with its seaside and roadsides, largely influenced the substance and 
style of her writing. 



A. D. 1826-1887. 


'HE was dauji^hter of a clergyman of the Ustahlished Church and was 
born in Straffordshire. 
^ Her first novel, The Ogilvies, was an immediate success and gave 

Miss Mulock a reputation for which others are often obliged to serve a long 
apprenticeship. The subtle delineation of character and the lifelike scenes 
show a mature mind and great skill. The Head of the Family is a story of 
Scottish life of the middle class. Johyi Halifax is perhaps her greatest 
work. It is, at least, the best known. It is a noble story of English domes- 
tic life, and passed through more than a score of editions within a few years. 

Among her other works of fiction are, Mistress and Afaid^ Christian! s 
Mistake, Hannah, and The Ubmans Kingdom, We should mention as 
specimens of her miscellaneous works, A Woman' s Thoughts about Women, 
Sermons Out of Church, and her numerous children's books. 

Miss Mulock became the wife of Mr. George Lillie Craik, author and 
publisher, who wrote 'The Pursuit of h'noicledge under Difficulties, in sev- 
eral volumes. One volume of this work related exclusively to women. 
He contributed to the famous Penny Cyclopaedia and wrote several works 
on the History of the English Language and English Literature. 

Mrs. Craik, as a teacher of high moral qualities and true nobility of char- 
acter, is probably surpassed by no modern writer of fiction. It has been 
well said that her mission was to "show how the trials, perplexities, joys, 
sorrows, labors, and successes of life deepen or wither the character accord- 
ing to the inward bent — how continued insincerity gradually darkens and 
corrupts the life springs of the mind — and how every event, adverse or 
fortunate, tends to ^trcnLjthcn and expand a high mind, and to break the 
springs <»f a seltish or e\en merely weak and self-indulgent nature." 

So -Mrs. Craik wrote with a j)urp()se, and had at her command 
eloquence, patho>. and genial humor to bring to the hearts of her readers 
some of life's greatest lessons. 



A. I>. 1828-1899. 


5H0HJ — 

HE ** Horse Fair*' is, to Americans, Rosa Bonheur's best known paint- 
ing. It was produced when she was thirty-one years of age. It 
T was exhibited in the French Salon and sold for $8,000. Cornelius 
Vanderbilt paid $55,500 for it and by him it was presented to the Metro- 
politan Museum of Arts, New York. 

Her father, Raymond Bonheur, was an artist and her first teacher. 
Friends opposed her devoting her energies to painting, on the ground 
that the field offered little opportunity or reward for the talents of woman. 
Her career and the hundreds of women who to-day use brush and palette 
are a sufficient answer. 

Her first work was copying pictures in the Louvre, to win bread. But 
her father believed that more attention should be given to painting from 
life, and this led to her becoming a great painter of animals and landscapes. 

She early adopted masculine attire. There was no place for the study 
of animals except in stables and slaughter houses. Dressed as a l)oy she 
was free to <!ome and go without attracting attention. She then found the 
dress of a man so much more conxenicnt than that of a woman, that she 
continued its use. 

She was the first woman in France to be decorated witli the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. Her fame became international and all nations had a 
feeling of ownership in her. At the time of the siege of Paris Emperor 
Frederick ordered her residence to be spared. " Don't touch a cabbage 
of that garden," was his order, and her garden and studio were protected 
from Ciermans and all outsiders. 

No one but^R lover of animals and who had made animal life a study 
could interpret to us animal life as has Rosa Bonheur. ' * Weaning the Calves" 
is full of dumb brute pathos ; " Deer in the Forest Twilight " almost makes 
us hold our breath lest we break the stillness ; " Plowing in Xivernais '* is a 
rural scene of quiet vigor. In the foreground is the pKnvman and six noble 
oxen breaking up the refractory soil. But the " Horse Fair" quickens our 



A. D. 1830-1894. 


— »— il— *-• 

/ I \HIS woman, noted for her sweet spiritual poetry, was the daughter of 
-I- Gal)riele Rossetti, an Italian patriot, who took refuge in England 
from the troubles of his native land. He was made professor of 
Italian in King's College. He wrote a commentary on Dante to show that 
the In/erno was chiefly political and anti-papal and that Beatrice was a 
symbolic personage. 

Christina was born in London. When quite young her father fell ill 
and she bravely helped support the family by teaching. She was deeply 
religious and gave much time to church work when the circumstances of the 
family were easier. 

Some of her productions are, Goblin Market, Prince's Progress, 
Speaking Likcpiess, Annus Domini, a Prayer for Each Day of the Year 
Founded on a Text of Holy Scripture, Seek and Find, Called to be Saints, 
and Time Flies. 

A disappointment in love cast a shadow of melancholy over much of her 
writing. She was for many years an invalid and died of cancer. 

In artistic construction and purity of diction she surpasses Mrs. Brown- 
ing, with whom she has sometimes been compared. 

Ros» Hoiilii-^t-ir ooniinueil. 

pulse as wt' hear as well as see the tread and j)rancing of the mighty Norman 

During Iht summer study in the country at one time, the simple peas- 
ants, never having strn an artist at work, denounced her as a witch and 
even attai krd Irt with stones and other missiles. 

lunprrss luit^enir became deeply interested in this wonderful painter, 
and was instrumental in havmg the cross of the ** Legion of Honor*' con- 
ferred upon luT. In fact the empress went to tlie studio in person and 
fastened the cross upon the masculine blouse of the painter. 

** Her canvases li\e with robust, real, vivid life." They hold us with a 
power we cannot analyze, but one great element is the heart that is in them. 



A. D. 1829-1890. 


WHEN but twelve years of age, Catherine Mumford became secre- 
tary of a little temperance society, was a bright and earnest 
talker, and even wrote articles for publication. The young heart 
was always on the side of the weak and unfortunate. One day, while play- 
ing on the street, she saw a man dragged to jail by an unfeeling officer ; 
a crowd of rough boys and men was following with shouts and jeers. Lit- 
tle Catherine left her play and walked beside the prisoner to the jail. 

She showed also great sympathy for suffering dumb beasts. It often 
happened that seeing in the field a half-fed horse she would buy some grain 
and then at evening carry it to the poor animal. 

She raised money for sending the gospel to foreign lands and even 
denied herself sugar in order to contribute to missions. As a girl she was 
sickly, having a disease of the spine, and seemed likely to die of consump- 
tion, but by going to the seashore she regained her health in a measure. 

Upon her return to London she met William Booth, a young Wesleyan 
preacher, whose father had once been wealthy, but had died, leaving his 
family to struggle for a living. The young man was working as an ap- 
prentice while preaching. Though they were both poor, they joined heart 
and hand for soul saving and the uplifting of humanity. 

William became a circuit j)reachcr in a district some thirty miles in ex- 
tent. Later he became assistant pastor in a London church. He was very 
successful as an evangelist and many calls came for him to speak in different 
parts of England. 

When he was but twenty-seven he was ordered by the conference to 
give up evangelistic work and take a small charge. But while this may 
have been done partly through jealousy, it i)roved a good school for Mrs. 
Booth. Here she began to conduct classes and speak on temperance. 

The next settlement was in a place of fifty thousand people. The little 
church numbered less than a hundred members, and about that number 
met on Sunday evenings. But soon the place of worship was crowded 



with nearly two thousand people. The chapel came to be known as the 
* * Converting Shop. * ' 

The stories of Mrs. Booth's ministrations to the poor and intemperate 
are both pathetic and thrilling. She was of a sensitive, shrinking disposi- 
tion and public speaking was a source of great dread, but feeling that God 
had laid this upon hiT, she calmly responded, and there was given her a 
power o\er the s<nils of people that was manifestly supernatural. Hun- 
dreds were soon converted under her speaking. Her husband's health 
failed and she was constrained to take his place, which she did, and was 
greatly blessed. Calls canu? for her as well as for her husband to hold 
evangelistic meetings, but he was opposed by the conference to which he 
belonged. At last, husband and wife decided that it was his duty to 
resign from the conference and be free to go where (iod might call him. 

He was sunnnoned to Corinvall, where for eighteen months they worked 
among miners, fishermen, and all (lasses, with marvelous success. About 
one thousand professed con\ersion. • 

The beginnings of what became the Salvation Army work were had in 
the slums of London, where Mr. and Mrs. Hooth held tent meetings and 
marched through the streets to advertise the meetings. Those were dark 
days, they were without means of supj)ort, but (iod raised them up a friend 
in Samuel Morley, a member of Parliament. 

Mrs. Booth became a wonderfully effective preacher. A well known 
publisher offered to publish her sermons and give her the profits, and some 
wealtiiy men offered to build her a cluirch similar to Spurgeon's. All these 
ofTers she declined, and with her husband endured the abuse and violence 
of the degraded people whom th(*y were conunissioned to seek to save and 
the flights and sneers of tlu' " respectable." 

They passed through a veritable baptism f)f fire, but to-day they are 
seen to be the luroir pi(»n(ers of a great world-wide movement for evangeliz- 
ing and elevating the neji^lec^ted thousands of our great cities. 




A. D. 1831-1885. 


T"^fHE champion of the Indian, as was Mrs. Stowe of the n^ro, her 
® I fe books A Centur}' of Dishonor zxi^ Ramona should rank with Uncie 
Tom's Cabin. 

In her earlier years Mrs. Jackson wrote poetry, which was the outflow of 
deep sympathetic thought on the problem of life's trials and temptations. 
Her verses were strong and noble : she was too much in earnest to give at- 
tention to mere prettiness of versification. 

She next wrote Bits of Travel, which reveals another side of her nature. 
With genial humor and subdued pathos she paints human nature. There 
is nothing sour or cynical in her sketches. The tone is both helpful and 

As a keen and sympathetic obser\er her attention was attracted by the 
treatment our American Indians received at the hands of government 
agents. But her nature was well balanced. She first made a painstaking 
study of the situation. She kept feeling in abeyance and searched for 
facts. When at last she was fully equipped for htr work she took up the 
pen in defense of the wronged Indian. She was in pour health. A fatal 
disease had fastened itself upon her. Tlie consciousness of this led her to 
write with almost desperate haste. A CcntKry of Dishonor appeared. 
Most elocjuently and passionately did she pkad for a change from the 
base, selfish j)olicy, to a treatment characterized by humanity and justice. 

Her next step ( and she felt that the time was short ) was to cast her 
materials in the form of fiction to reach a wider circle of readers. She 
wrote Ramojia, which was her expiring and supreme effort. It was in 
every way a noble book and will give the author lasting fame. 

Ramona appeared first as a serial in the Christian I 'nion, because, as 
one writer says, " She wrote at white heat and could not wait for the longer 
delays of a monthly magazine. 

Mrs. Jackson, whose maiden name was Fiske, was horn in Amherst, 
Mass., October i8, 1831, and married Captain Hunt in 1852. She became 



A. 1>. 1830-1897. 


JEAN INGELOW was born at Boston, Lincolnshire, England, in 1820, 
aTid died in July, 1897. 
Her father was a banker and a man of superior intelligence. 
Her mother was of Scotch descent. Jean was a shy, retiring girl and at- 
tracted no attention until she was over thirty years of age. She then pub- 
lished a volume of poems which in her quiet way she had been preparing 
for some years. Their merit was at once recognized and the authoress 
became famous. 

Three poems in thisfirst volume are especially noteworthy : ** Divided,'* 
" High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire " and ** Songs of Seven." The 
last named consists of seven poems portraying seven epochs in the life of 

Having been brought to public notice and there being demand for her 
work, she wrote among others, Studies /or Stories, Poor Matt, A Sister's 
Rye- 1 (ours. The Monitions of the I'nseen, and Poems of Love and 

Within ten years aftt^ she came into public notice the sale of her poems 
in Americ.i, alone, reached 93,(:kx) and her j)rose works a sale of 35,000. 

Miss Ingelow niadr London her home after becoming a recognized 
authorc^ss and, for several years, gave three times per wt-ek a "Copyright 
DinntT " to twt'hf needy persons who had reerntly come from the hospi- 
tals. Thi> iini(iuc charity was a fitting channel for the expenditure of a 
part of lur income from her books. 

a contril^ntoi to niai^a/incs and periodicals, writing under the signature of 
" H. H. * Ibr death o( currcd in San Francisco, August 12. 1885, while 
^he wa^ examining into th<- C(»nditi(»n of the California Indians as a special 
government c< )nnnissioner. 



A.D. 1831-1892. 


JjxOR scholarship and variety of accomplishments Miss Edwards has had 
J- few equals in the centur}-. She held the degrees of L. H.D. and 
LL. D., was a member of the "Biblical Archeological Society,'* of 
the '* Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies," of the "Oriental 
Congress/' and was secretary of the *' Egypt Exploration Eund." 

Miss Edwards was born in London. Her father was an army officer and 
her mother was of famous family. Her education was received mainly at 
home under the instruction of her mother and special tutors. 

At the age of seven she wrote a })oem entitled The Knij^hts of Old^ 
which was published in a weekly journal. Eor seven years she continued 
to write for the press. She then turned to music and composed several 
acceptable pieces. Later she turned again to literature and decided to make 
it her profession. Among her numerous novels are. The Ladder of Life, 
Haifa Million of Mo7ie\\ and Lord Breckenbur^. The last named passed 
through fifteen editions. • 

.She came to be known chietiy as an Egyptologist and wrote, A Thou- 
sand Miles up the Xih\ Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers. .She translated 
Maspero's liiryptian Areheoloi>\\ and wrote for the Encydopa-dia Britannica 
on Egyptology. 

Her books of travel are scholarly and yet popular. She has digested and 
presented a vast amount of archaological information antl has rendered a 
notable service to the world (»f non-tethnical readers. Her books on 
Egvptology are illustrated by sketches made- l)y htrsi^lf, and are written in 
a style which makes them as fascinating as fiction. 

In 18S9 Miss Edwards lectured in the I'nited .St.ites. ( )ne who heard 
her savs, " Her rare and \olnniinoiis Itarning, hrr (juict gnux- and perfect 
naturalness, her dainty tonclies of humor, ( harnu-d and imj^rt^sscd one that 
she well tilled her own drscription of an anti(juariaii, — ' one possessing in- 
domitable courage and will, unswerving |)atience and energy, and an im- 
pregnable constitution, besides thehneof disco\ering unrevealed history.' " 


/jjcy h^ejbb /fsy^S' /{m€ha <B,EM*^<s r<i s • 


A. I>. 1831-1879. 


H'irat Hraotle/il Totnpor/irio*.; Keforiiior of tl»e» Wlilte Hone 


, RS. HAYKS was the dau^rhter of Dr. James Webb. Dr. Webb 
removed from North CaroHiia to Ohio, where he souj^ht to arrange 
for transportation to Liberia of shives whom he and his father had 
Hberated. The daiij^hter Lucy was born in Ohio. The mother was of 
New Enj^hmd Puritan descent. 

Miss \\'ei)b was educated at the Wesleyan Female Collc^ge in Cincin- 
nati. In 1852 she married Mr. Hayes. Her husband and all her brothers 
enlisted in the L'nion army durinj^ the civil war, and Mrs. Hayes gave 
much time to nursing sick and wounded soldiers, lx)th in her home and at 
the front. .She spent two winters in camp and served in th(? hospital at 
Frederick City, Maryland. 

She was an uiuiring worker in j)hilanthropic and religious lines, and while 
her husband was engaged as a member of Congress and then as governor of 
Ohio, Mrs. Hayes devoted mucii time and talent to state charities. .She was 
one of the organizers of the Ohio .Soldiers' and .Sailors' Orphans' Home. 

In 1877 Mr. Hayes enter(*d ui)on his duties as president of the United 
.States and Mrs. Hayes lucame mistress of the \Vhil<! House. Here she 
introduced changes which (ailed forth ihr contemptuous criticism of many 
and the well merited praise of many more. .She determined that the 
White Hoii^e sin mid l)e a religious and temperance house so long as she 
remained in it. Wine was not served evtMi at 'the state dinners. This 
was a startling inno\ation for Washington society, but Mrs. Hayes would 
not go contrary to her convictions because of the sneers of society. 

At the (los<- <»f Mr. Hayes' administration, t<-mj)erance |)eoj)le, among 
them m.iny per>oii> of eminence. j)resent<'(I Mrs. Hayes a great album of 
testimoni.ils. in rri (>|Liniti«»n of her heroic position in th<' matter of wine 

Lucy Webb Hayes, "amiable, sincere, a devout Christian, and a 
dexoted wile and motlier." She died June 25. 1S79. 



A. D. 1832-1888. 


Hj F2R father was the noted A. Bronson Alcott, the ** Sage of Concord," 
i I and intimate friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Her early surround- 
ings were of a highly intellectual and literary character, and she 
naturally took to writing while yet ver>' young. 

In her sketch Transcendental Wild Oats, she describes in an amusing 
way the experiences of a year at Fruitlands, where an attempt was made to 
establish an ideal community. 

She was obliged to he a wage earner to help out the family income and 
so taught school, served as a governess, and even did work as a seamstress. 

Wearying of this, she wrote for the papers stories of a sensational 
nature, which were remunerative from a financial point of view. Her con- 
science was not easy in this matter, and she abandoned it. For a time she 
serxed as nurse in a Washington hospital, but her health failed owing to 

Upon her recovery she secured the position as attendant to an invalid 
lady and traveled in Furope. After several more attempts in literary lines, 
she wrote IJttle Uomen, which was an immediate success. It reached a 
.sale of 87,000 copies in three years. She wrote from the heart and wove 
into the story incidents from the lives of herself and three sisters at 
Concord. .She then wrote rhi Old Fasliioned Ciirl and Little Men. For 
the latter the publishers received advance orders for 50,000 copies. Some 
of her other works are, Aunt Jo s Scrap Baj^. in six volumes, Modern 
Mephistopheles, Proverb Stories, Spinnitii*; Wheel Stories, Jo s Hoys, A Gar- 
land Jo r (rirls, and Hospital Sketches, the last a record of her own experi- 
ences in ministering to the sick and wounded. 

Miss Alcott had ambition and ability \or a high i^rade of literary work. 
She found her success as a writer of children's stories. Her receipts from 
the books .she had written amounted to S'^.ooo in six months of the year 
1888, and yet she declared that she was more proud of the first S32 she 
received for her work, than of the $8,000. 



A. D. 18S6-1874. 


FTTHIS noted singer was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, May 7, 1836. 
® I '«) Her father was a Wallachian nobleman, Baron Georgiades de 
Boyesku, of Bucharest. The baron died when Parepa was but a 
babe, leaving her mother a widow at twenty-one and in poverty. The 
mother took to singing in public and trained her daughter for the profes- 
sion. Parepa made remarkable progress in her musical studic^s and at the 
same time learned to speak with ease, English, Italian, French, German, 
and Spanish. 

At sixteen years of age she appeared in public for the first time in the 
city of Malta ; then at Naj)les, Genoa, Rome, Florence, Madrid, and Lis- 
bon, and everywhere became a great favorite. 

In 1857 she* appeared in London and was so well received and so well 
did she sustain her rej)utation as a singer, that she continued in England 
for nine years. During this j)eriod she married a British officer, Captain 
Carvell of the Fast India service, but he died within a short time of their 

In 1866 Parepa came to America and made a tour of the C(juntry with 
Levy, the noted cornetist, and Carl Rosa, violinist. She began with con- 
cert work in New York, but afterwards took up also the oratorio and the 
opera. In 1867 she became the wife of Carl Rosa. In i<S69-72 she organ- 
ized with her husband an English opera company, with which she sang in 
the principal cities nf the I'nited States. During the winter of iS72-73she 
sang at the Khtdive's court in Egypt. She died in London, January 21. 

Parepa Rosa's voice was a pure soprano of great power and compass. 
In the technical j)arts of music she was thoroughly trained and possessed a 
perfect mastery of liersdf in execution. 



A. D. 1838-1806. 


^T^ANNY FKRN " wittily writes of Gail Hamilton, "She was brought 
M up as New England girls are generally brought up in the country ; 

simply, healthfully, purely ; with plenty of fence for gymnastics ; 
plenty of berries and birds, and flowers and mosses, and clover blossoms 
and fruit in the sweet, odorous summers ; with plenty of romping compan- 
ions not subjects for early tombstones and obituary notices, but with broad 
chests, sun-kissed faces and nimble limbs and tongues." 

Her pen name is taken from the last part of ' ' Abigail ' ' and Hamilton, 
the place of her birth. 

For several years she was teacher of the physical sciences in the Hart- 
ford, Conn., High School. Later she was engaged as governess in Wash- 
ington, D. C. But all this time she was in training for her work in 
literary lines. She became a contributor to periodicals and then began to 
write books. Here are the names of some of them : Country IJviyig and 
Country Thinking, Gala Days, Wool Gathering, Summer Rest, IVoman's 
Urongs, A Counter- Irritant, A flattie of the Books, First I.oi.'e is Best, 
What Think Ye of Christ f 

She was considered rather severe in her criticism of the male sex. Her 
trenchant wit sometimes made them wince. For example : " Man is a thief 
and holds the bag, and if women do not like what they git, so much the 
better. Tht-y will be all the more willing to btconie household drudges. '* 
'* Some men dole out money to their wives as if it were a gift, a charity. 
A man has no more right to his earnings than his wife has. What ab- 
surdity, to pay him his 7i'ages and gize her money to go shopping with !" 
"She does not lock up the dinner in the cupl)oard and then stand at the 
door and dole it out to him by the pailful, but sets it <>n the table for him 
to help himself -J^ ^- -J- so looking at the matter from tlie very lowest 
standpoint, a woman who has free access to money will not he half so likely 
to lavish it, as the woman who is put off with scanty and infrequent sums." 



A. D. 1889-1898. 


-iM- «-§-•- 

^"^HERE may be some who feel that Miss Willard has been too extrava- 
\j ^ gantly loved and praised, if so, they are the people who have not 
y known the story of her life. 

In these pages we can give but a few leading facts of one of the busiest 
and most fruitful lives of this century. 

In the first place great honor should be given to her parents for what 
their daughter was and did. 

Frances' early girlhood days were spent on a farm on the frontier in 
what was then the territory of Wisconsin. She was a delicate child at first, 
but she dressed simply and lived much in the open air. Her parents were 
her teachers. After some years a highly educated young woman was en- 
gaged to instruct Frances and her brother and sister. 

At seventeen, Frances and her sister went to Milwaukee Female College, 
and thence to the Northwest Female College at Evanston, Illinois, where 
she graduated with high honors. 

Miss Willard taught in schools, seminaries, and colleges for sixteen 
years, her last position being that of dean of the Woman's College of the 
Northwestern University. She was at the same time professor of aesthetics 
and natural science. 

One of her great achievements was the introduction of the system of 
self-government among the students and bringing to pass its successful 

The next period of her life is marked by the temperance crusade in 
Ohio. Her soul was deeply stirred, she determined to join the movement. 
The making of the Woman's College an organic part of the University 
prevented her tarrying out her plans for the college : she resigned her posi- 
tion as dean and j)rofessor and joined the crusade movement. 

More than two thousand pupils had been under her instruction and her 
friends numbered many more thousands. One woman has the sole honor 



of Standing by Miss Willard in entering the crusade, that one is Mrs. 
Mary A. Livennore. 

From teaching aesthetics in a university she became an apostle of tem- 
perance to the drunkards of Chicago. She often went without her noon- 
day hinch because she had no money to pay for it, and she walked long 
and weary miles because she was unable to pay car fare. 

Upon the death of O. A. Willard, her brother, in the summer of 1878, 
she became editor of the Chicago Evening Post, and also president of the 
Women's Christian Temperance movement ; while in 1882 she became a 
member of the executive committee of the Prohibition party. 

She became president of the Chicago W^oman's Christian Temperance 
Union in * ' the day of small things. ' ' The work grew ; the National and 
then the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union were formed, 
Miss Willard becoming in turn president of each. 

She was the originator of the motto, "For God, Home, and Native 
Land." In the world-wide movement this became, " For (lod. Home, and 
Every Land." 

Her executive ability was as marvelous as her power over an audience 
was mighty, and all these years her pen was busy writing along the many 
lines of the work of the L'nion. 

As an indication of how her character and work were regarded in Eng- 
land we give the words of Lady Henry Somerset. 

** She was welcomed in this country as I suppose no philanthropist has 
been welcomed in our time. The vast meeting that was organized to greet 
her at Exeter Hall was the most representative that has ever assembled in 
that historic building. On the platform sat members of Parliament, digni- 
tiiries of the Ciunch, temperance leaders from the Roman Catholic Church, 
leaders of the Labor Movement, and of the Sahation Army, and delega- 
tions from the Methodist, Baptist, and Congregational churches, and the 
Society of Friends. The chief Jewish rabbi sent a congratulatory letter 
and signed the address of welcome." 



A. D. 1820- 


HIS woman is one* of those whose souls have burned and blazed 
because of the unjust discrimination ajjainst their sex. 

Her father was a manufacturer and Susan earned her first dollar 
in the cotton mill. She received a ^ood education and began teaching 
school at seventeen years of age. Her wages were $1.50 per week and 
board. She continued teaching for nearly fifteen years and by the most 
rijfid economy was able to save in that time but $300. 

She was filled with indignation that while the education of a girl cost the 
same as that of a boy at an academy, when she became a wage earner as a 
teacher, she received l)ut one third that of a young man doing the same 

These exjHTiences nerved her for the struggle in behalf of her sex. And 
every woman wage earner in America to-day is indirectly indebted to 
Susan B. Anthony. 

In 1S49 she became identified with the temperance movement and 
placed sjx'cial emphasis upon the use of the ballot for woman's protection. 
With a heart responsive to every righteous cause she threw her influence on 
the side of the abolition of slavery in 1.S56, .She, with Mrs. Klizal)eth Cady 
.Stanton and Parker Pilisbury, started a j)aj)er in New York called The 
Ri'i'olution in which, with burning worvls, they set forth the claims of 
women. But tiie public did not resj)ond and Miss Anthony was left with a 
del)t of Sio/xx), whicii >he proceeded to discharge In' lecturing. 

In 1S7J she insisted upon voting for president and was arrested. Her 
counsrl ad\ise(l iur to give bonds to avoid going to jail. This she did, 
much to hi r n grct afterwards, for slu» was thus depri\i»d of the right to 
carry the tasc to the Suj)rcmc Court. The judge took tlie case out of the 
hand> (»f the jury, jironounced her guilty, and fined her Sioo and costs. 
To the ju<lg<- she said, ** R<-sistance to tyranny is obedience to (^lod ; I 
shall never pay a penny of this unjust claim." Antl she kept her word. 

She \\\\> li\t(l to >re a gre;it change in sentiment if not in law concerning 



A. D. 18^2- 


MISS COBBE was born in Dublin and was a descendant of Charles 
Cobbe, Archbishop of Dublin. 

Her mother died when she was quite young and she made 
inquiry of Theodore Parker, the briUiant rationalist, concerning the future 
life. Parker's thinking was the mould in which much of her thought was 
afterwards cast. 

She wrote Studies A^euf and Old of Ethical and Social Subjects, Broken 
Lights, a statement of the doctrines of different divisions of the English 
Church, Essay on Intuitive Morals, probably her ablest production, Dar- 
winism in Morals, and Other Essays in which she treated of unconscious 
cerebration, dreams, and other questions of psychology. 

She was greatly devoted to Mr. Parker and was witli him in Italy at the 
time of his death. 

Miss Cobbe was interested in philanthropic work. Early in her career 
she assisted at the Red-house Reformatory, London. Along with her 
rationalistic writings on religious themes, she contributed to the press and 
personally worked in Ixhalf of the poor and friendless. 

Siastin Irl A^ntlioiiv continued. 

women and especially concerning herself. Once the press and the public 
counted her a rare subject for jests and jeers. She suffered persecution for 
righteousness' sake. She stood heroically. Her convictions were too deep 
and luT character too noI)le for any faltering or com|)r<)mise. Society is 
now honored by her presence and the press is glad to give a conspicuous 
place to what she may choose to say. The heroic (jualities of Susan B. 
Anthony will be profoundly admired in the coming generations. 

She has lived to see a partial triumph of her cause. In one half the 
states of the Union women vote on school (jucstions. In Kansas and 
Michigan women vote on municipal questions, and in Wyoming and Colo- 
rado they vote on all state questions on an ecjuality with men. So the 
cause is marching on. 



A. D. 1815- 


/ I (his remarkable leader of women was the daughter of Judge Cady of 
-L Johnstown, N. Y. She was reared in a community where most of 
the people were Scotch and where the idea of woman's place and 
ability was somewhat mediaeval. Judge Cady had one son upon whom he 
centered his hopes and to whom he gave an excellent education. But this 
son died when the daughter, Elizabeth, was but ten years of age. Her 
brother had but just graduated from Union College. 

The girl saw her father's grief and disappointment and determined to 
fill his place. She applied herself most diligently to her studies and won a 
prize in Greek. She hoped that her father would be pleased and admit 
that a girl could be as good a student as a boy. But the expected com- 
mendation did not come. She then took up additional studies and fitted 
herself to enter Union College, but was refused because of her sex. 

After a few years in Mrs. Willard's school at Troy, N. Y., she returned 
home and spent seven years chiefly in the study of law in her father's office. 

She became the wife of H. H. Stanton in 1840. Mr. Stanton was an 
advocate of the anti-slavery movement and the couple attended the World's 
Anti-Slavery Convention in London on their wedding tour. Here Mrs. 
Stanton met Lucretia Mott, who, with others, had been sent as delegates 
from the United States. 

Upon her return to America, Mrs. Stanton was instrumental in calling 
the first woman's rights convrntion. Her father, hearing of this, feared she 
hail become insane and visited her to dissuade her from the undertaking. 
This was in i«^47. At the convention she introduced the resolution, ** That 
it is the duty of the women of tiiis country to secure to themselves the 
sacred right of tiie chrtive franrhise. " 

Mrs. Stanton was far in advance of her age and was subjected to Ixjth 
Oj)|)osition and ridicnU- ; but she has continued to be an educator of public 
oj)inion and many of iier plans which were at first ridiculed are now treated 
with rtspect and (\vrp interest. 




A. D. 1819- 


I ISS WARD was bom of wealthy parents in the most fashionable 
part of New York. The mother died when Julia was but five 
years old. Her father was ver\- exact in observance of all social 
forms, and sought to g^ve his children the best literary and musical advan- 
tages. His home was the gathering place of many people of renown. 

After her father's death, Miss Ward removed to Boston, where, owing^ 
to her marked abilities, she was received into the society of such notables 
as Margaret Fuller, Horace Mann, Charles Sumner, and Ralph Waldo 

Here she met Dr. Samuel G. Howe. He had already become well 
known for espousing the cause of the Greeks against the Turks and carry- 
ing supplies to them in the island of Crete and ministering to them in per- 
son. He was best known, however, as the teacher of Laura Bridgman. 

Miss Ward and Dr. Howe were married and traveled in Europe. 
Charles Dickens had written about the wonderful development of Laura 
Bridgman and this was the means of the newly married couple being 
admitted to the society of Dickens, Thomas Moore, Carlyle, Sydney 
Smith, and other literary' and social lights. They were invited to visit 
Florence Nightingale, who was dreaming and planning for her great work, 
and was much helped by Dr. Howe. 

L'pon their return to America. Dr. and Mrs. Howe l>ecame identified 
with the anti-sla\ery movement. She had betn for years a bright and 
vigv^rous writer. Her pen was now wieKkd f»»r the race ot bondmen. 

During the war they were visit inv; the soMiors in camp near Washing- 
ton. During the \isit Mrs, Howe and others in the carriages sang *' John 
Brown.*' in which the soldiers joined. One of her friends told her she 
ought to write something better for the music. Next morning she was 
awake long before daun and wrote tlie famous /^./.V.V Hymn ct the Republic. 

Mrs. Howe has written extensively for our leading periodicals on a great 
\-ariety of themes, and is widely known and loved. 



A. I>. 1830- 


/ I \ HIS woman has honored both her native land and her sex by her 
JL brilliant work. She proved that Americans can be sculptors, and 
that a woman can handle a chisel as well as palette and brush. 

Her birthplace was Watertown, Mass. Her mother and older sister 
had died of consumption and her father, an eminent physician, encouraged 
her to spend much time in the open air. Studies were of secondary import- 
ance. She soon had a taste for hunting, fishing, rowing, horseback riding, 
and became an all around athlete. In the fields and forests she gained a 
thorough knowledge of animal life, and when still but a child she began to 
model dogs, horses, and other animals in a clay pit near her home. 

Her physical strength enabled her afterward to wield the four pound 
mallet for eight or ten hours per day in giving life form to marble. 

Her school days at Lenox, Mass. , were not marked by scholarship or 
attention to the routine of school life. Nature was her school and teacher. 
.She was the despair of those who were appointed to be her instructors. 
Finding that sculpture was her forte she went to St. Louis to study 
anatomy, as she could not gain admission to the conservative medical 
schools of the Kast. 

Next she went to Rome and became the pupil of the famous sculptor, 
Gibson. For her work, The Sleepin^a^ Faun, she received $5,000. 
Zcnobia in Chains was one of her masterpieces. The proud but captive 
queen of Palmyra is shown as she was forced to march in the triumphal 
procession of the Roman concjuerors. ** She is a queen in spirit, unde- 
throned by calamity." 

The bronze statue of Col. Thomas H. Benton in .St. Louis is a speci- 
men of her work. In accepting the invitation to prepare the statue, she 
said, amonj^^ otli<r things, " Rut I have also reason to be grateful to you be- 
cause I am a woman : and, knowing what barriers must in the outset oppose 
all womanly efforts, 1 am indebted to the chivalry of the West, which has 
first overleaped them." 



A. D. 1885- 

4— *— V 

^TLALAIS, Me., was the birthplace of Harriet Prescott. Her father, 
\JM Joseph N. Prescott, was a lumber merchant. He afterwards studied 
T law, and in 1849 went to the far west with the thousands of fortune 
seekers. He was one of the founders of the city of Oregon and was thrice 
elected mayor. During the last twenty years of his life he suffered from 
lingering paralysis. 

Her mother was a woman of great nobility of character and left her 
impress upon the life of her daughter. 

At fourteen Harriet went to Newbur>'port to live with an aunt, where she 
might gain an education which could not be obtained in Calais. She won 
the prize for an essay on Hamlet and gained the attention of some literary 
people who gave her encouragement. She wrote plays for the school 
exhibitions which proved acceptable. She afterward studied at Pinkerton 
Academy, her mother and the other children having removed to Derry, N. H. 

Harriet early began to write short stories to win bread for loved ones, 
and she was able to add somewhat to their scanty income. 

In 1858 there appeared in the Atlantic Monthly a story from her pen, 
In a Cellar, which created a great stir. Sir Rohari s Ghost was one of her 
great works. llie South Breaker, taken from the scenes of sea-faring life 
so familiar at Newburyport, breathes the very breath of old ocean with the 
rumble and roar of sullen storm. A Thief iii the Night is a dramatic story 
of sowing and reaping in the fields of sin. She wrote also, New England 
Legeiids, The Marquis of Ca^abas, and Hester Stanley at St. Mark' s. 

In 1865 Miss Prescott was married to Richard S. Spofford, a Newbury- 
port lawyer. They had loved each other since the days of early youth, 
and had for many years been engaged. 

Mrs. Spofford gave careful attention to domestic affairs and was a home- 
maker as well as a literary light. 

She wrote on domestic subjects as well as fiction. Among her produc- 
tions are Art Decoration Applied to Furniture and The Servant Question, 



A. D. isao- 


MRS. LOCKWOOD is one of America's most remarkable women, and 
has achieved marked success in her chosen profession, that of law. 
In this she is the pioneer of our country. Her career is the story 
of struggle and well earned victories. 

Her maiden name was Burnett and her birthplace Royalton, N. Y. 
She began teaching school when but fourteen years old and with the money 
thus earned attended the academy in her native town. She was married to 
Mr. McNall, a farmer in the town. One daughter was born to them. Her 
husband died four years after their marriage, and the following year she 
entered Genesee College and graduated in the regular course. She was at 
once called to become principal of the Lockport Union School, where she 
continued for four years. Subsequently she taught at Gainsville Seminary, 
and later was proprietor of the McNall Seminary at Oswego, N. Y. 

In 1868 she removed to W^ashington, D. C, and opened a school. 
Soon after this she married Rev. Ezekiel Lockwood. About the same time 
she began the study of law and sought admission to the law school of Co- 
lumbia College, but was refused on the ground that her presence in the 
classes " would distract the attention of the young men." 

Two years later she received the degree of A. M. from Syracuse Univer- 
sity, anci the following year was admitted to the National University Law 
School, from which she graduated, receiving the degree of B.L. 

After a long and spirited controversy she was admitted to the bar of the 
Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, where she has practiced with 
marked success. In 1875 she sought admission to the Court of Claims. 
She was rejected on the ground, first, that she was a woman, and, second, 
that she was a married woman. A year later she sought, but was refused, 
admission to the T. S. Supreme Court. She then drafted a bill admitting 
women to the bar of the V. S. Supreme Court, and after three years of 
work secured its passage through lK)th branches of Congress. She was 
then admitted and stands as the first w(jman to be granted that honor. 



A. D. 1835- 


^^\ ISS CHANDLER was born in Pomfret, Connecticut, and for years 
aTj^ after winning literar>' fame made the place of her birth her place of 
residence for a part of the year. She is a charming woman in 
the noblest sense of the word and warmly admired by her hundreds of 
friends and thousands of readers. 

When she was but eighteen a Boston firm published a collection of her 
stories and poems under the title of T/iiSy That and the Other, It was a 
pronounced success and quickly reached a sale of fifteen thousand copies. 
Louise attended school for a year at Mrs. Willard's Seminary at Troy, and 
in the year following was married to William Moulton, a Boston editor and 
publisher who knew her through her writings. 

After the publication of Jinio Clifford, a novel, she wTote for Harper' s^ 
Atlantic, Scribner' s, Yoiiyig Folks, and Youtli s Companion, 

In 1870 she began her work of Boston correspondent of the New York 
Tribune, and continued her letters, sometimes four per week, for six years. 

In 1876 she visited Europe, where she did considerable literary work 
amid the delights of travel. One of her books was published while she 
visited in London and was highly praised. 

Her Bedtime Stories were dedicated to her own little daughter, who 
seemed to have been their inspiration. Other works are : Little A/other^ 
Some lVo?nen s Hearts, Fleeing from Tah, and SwalloiC Flights (a collec- 
tion of poems). 

We quote two verses from her poem, House of Death, 

** There is rust upon locks and hinges, 
And mold and blight on the walls, 
And silence faints in the chambers, 
-And darkness waits in the halls — 

" Waits as all things have waited 

Since she went, that day of spring, 
lk)me in her pallid splendor 

To dwell in the court of the King.** 





/ I iHIS remarkable and much loved lady is the daughter of the third 
JL Earl of Somers, who was in every way a nobleman. For some years 
he was Lord-in-waiting to the Queen, spending the time at Windsor, 
Osborne, and Balmoral. Being a man of artistic and literary tastes, he 
resigned his position to devote himself to his studies. His intimate 
acquaintance with the Queen gave his daughter many advantages. He 
was for thirty years in the House of Lords. 

Lady Henry Somerset has a vast estate at Eastnor, fifteen miles in 
length and containing twenty-five thousand acres. The castle is three miles 
from the lodge gate in Eastnor Park. In London she owns a tract of land 
on which one hundred and twenty-five thousand persons live. 

To the welfare of the people on her country and city estates she has 
devoted much of her time and income. She began by studying the causes 
of poverty and crime, and found the liquor traffic at the bottom of all. 
Being a woman of deeds as well as words, she took the total abstinence 
pledge, induced some of her tenants to do the same, and so started a tem- 
perance society. She visited the homes of her tenants, gave Bible readings 
in the kitchens, and gathereci the mothers at the castle to confer with them 
as to the training of thi-ir children. 

Her philanthropic work soon spread beyond her own estates, and calls 
came for her to speak and work in behalf of temperance far and near. 
She went among the miners of South Wales and held meetings for days in 
succession in tents, halls, and in the pits during the dinner hours. Hers 
seemed to the poor miners as the form and voice of an angel. 

In 1890 she became president of the British Woman*s Temperance 

She visited AnK-rita to attend the World's Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Tnion. At that time was formed and from that time ripened the 
friendship of Lady Henry Somerset and Frances F. Willard. 

This visit gave the American people a new idea of the possibilities of 






ISS MURFREE is a Southerner, and, as portrayer of Southern life 
and scenery, she occupies a unique place. 

Her early sketches were published in the Atlantic Monthly and 
met with immediate success. She had opened up a new field and people 
read her stories, In the Tennessee J\fountains, with great relish. 

* ' The everlasting hills, calmly observant of human vicissitudes, form a 
harmonious background for her wild, pathetic, and tragic scenes. The 
mountaineers whom she portrays are a taciturn, serious, secret race, with 
few ideas, but tenacious of those they have. Her men are stern and rude ; 
her women are reserved, undemonstrative, lacking in feminine grace and 
charm, but unalterable, both in their loves and their hates. This straqge 
people, with their uncompromising speech, their peculiar dialect, their 
rugged, natural environment, form an unfamiliar and powerful picture." 

The following are the. names of some of her works : Mliere the Baiiie 
was Fought, In the Clouds, The Story of Keedon Bluffs, The Despot oj 
Broomsedge Cove, The Stranger People's Comitry, The Prophet of the Great 
Smoky Mountain, 

Even Miss Murfrce's publishers supposed that they were dealing with a 
man and were greatly surprised when she visited Boston and called upon 
them. Her writings have all the vigor of a masculine mind and at the same 
time show the keen insight of a woman. 

Lf£Ldl>r Henry Somerset continued, 

English nobility. Lady Henry took Miss Willard back to England with 
her for much needed rest. 

She is one of the busiest of women. She is obliged to give attention to 
nearly one hundred letters per day. The calls for her time or means in 
behalf of humanity are multitudinous and exacting. Hers might be a life 
of refined ease and selfish indolence, but she chooses to give herself untir- 
ingly to the betterment of her fellow beings. 



A. D. 1810- 

MERE list of the great events and progressive movements of Vic- 

toria's reign would fill many pages. In the summer of 1887 was 
celebrated the fiftieth year of her reign and ten years later, 1897, 
the nation and the world did honor to the queen by celebrating her * * dia- 
mond jubilee.** And well might the occasion be celebrated, for no similar 
period in the history of Europe has been so ** crowded with benefit to 
humanity. * ' 

This book, dealing with the progress of woman, may find its culmina- 
tion in the person and reign of Victoria. 

Her coming to the throne is of romantic interest. Her father, Edward, 
Duke of Kent, was the youngest son of George HL He was sent to 
Hanover to be educated as a soldier. A thousand pounds a year was ap- 
pointed for his education, but this did not seem sufficient. He contracted 
debts and without permission of his father returned to England. He was 
sent to Gibraltar and then to Canada, where he commanded the military 
forci's of British America. Later he was made governor of Gibraltar and 
ruled well. 

When he was fifty years of age he married Princess Louisa Victoria of 
Saxe-Cohurg, who became the noble mother of Victoria. The father desired 
that his child should be Ixjrn in England and sought financial aid from his 
brother for the journey, but this was refused. Edward believed that he 
would some day be king as his brothers had lived dissipated lives and were 
older than he ; moreover, he expected that his child would rule England. 
Funds were at last secured, though the duke lived and died heavily in debt. 

The couple returned to England and took up their residence at Ken- 
sington Palace, where the future (jueen was born. Her father lived but eight 
months after her i)irth and the training of Victoria devolved entirely upon 
the mother, one of the noblest of the world's noble women. The character 
of England's (jueen was formed by her mother. 

Her education was most thorough and liberal and in all her studies and 



amusements the mother was her constant companion. From her cradle she 
was taught to speak three languages, English, German, and French, and 
early became familiar with Latin, also Italian and Greek, as well as being 
proficient in mathematics and the sciences. 

As a child she was told of her father's debts and early began to lay aside 
money which might have been spent for toys, to help in canceling the debts. 
Almost her first act on coming to the throne was to pay these debts in full. 

After she had been proclaimed sovereign she retired to her mother's 
apartments and then followed this notable conversation : — 

*'I can scarcely believe, mamma, that I am really Queen of England. 
Can it indeed be so ? ' * 

'*You are really queen, my child," replied the Duchess of Kent, 
*' listen how your subjects still cheer your name in the streets and cry to 
God to bless you.'* 

"In time I shall perhaps become accustomed to this too great and 
splendid state. But, since I am sovereign, let me, as your queen, have to- 
day my first wish. Let me be quite alone, dear mother, for a long time." 

And Victoria spent the first hours of her reign alone on her knees pray- 
ing for herself and her people, with supplications simple and noble, which 
have been graciously answered in these decades. 

From the hour that \'ictoria became queen her mother, the duchess, 
gave her no further advice or suggestion, but treated her with the respect 
due her rank. The duchess was confident of the character which had 
been formed and wisely and graciously left all resj)onsibility upon the one 
who had been so carefully trained to bear it. Although but eighteen years 
of age, Victoria was a woman in wisdom. 

Two years after •her coronation she married Prince Albert of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha and until his death, twenty years later, they lived lives of 
ideal domestic happiness and gave to England a model of home love and 
fidelity. Nine children were born to them. 

Victoria died at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, January 22, 
1 90 1. The expressions of universal sorrow which her death called forth 
from all the civilized nations of the world show how widely she was loved 
and honored both as a woman and as a queen. 



A. D. 1842- 

. » <» o. — 

^^ ER father was a Philadelphia merchant and a devout Quaker. Her 
K^/ mother was of aristocratic family and of much refinement and 
nobility of character. The father lost his property and soon after- 
wards died. The family was reduced to poverty. Anna was a restless, 
willful, and imaginative child, who caused all about her much anxiety. 

Ambition and will power carried her over many hard places. Her more 
wealthy schoolmates made sport of her poor clothes. This stung her to 
more intense action. She read everything within her reach. For months 
she slept not more than five hours in the twenty-four. She had a passion 
for oratory, and on one occasion scrubbed a sidewalk for twenty-five cents 
that she might hear Wendell Phillips lecture on *'The Lost Arts.*' 

Her fiery character is seen in the following incident : As she was about 
to accept the position as teacher of a district school, the committeeman 
remarked in an insulting tone, * * A man taught this school and we gave 
him twenty-eight dollars a month ; but we should not give a girl more than 
sixteen dollars." In her wrathful pride she answered, "Sir, are you a fool, 
or do you take me for one? I am too poor to-day to buy a pair of cotton 
gloves, but I would rather go in rags than degrade my womanhood by 
accepting anything at your hands." She was penniless and at last accepted 
a place as saleswoman in a store, but soon gave that up because she was 
expected to niisrtpresent the goods. 

In iS6o she made her first speech on ** Woman's Rights and Wrongs" 
before the Association of Progressive Friends. 

She obtained a position in the new T. S. Mint, but after the battle of 
Ball's Bluft she declared. This battle was not lost through ignorance or 
incompetence, but through the treason of the commanding general. For 
this she was dismissed. 

From this time she turned to the lecture field and made lecturing her 
profession. She was afterwards thankful for her discharge from the mint, 
though the way seemed dark at the time. In fact there were many other 



dark days. Few women have known greater trials or more splendid 
triumphs. * 

Early in 1863 she went to G.mcord, New Hampshire, to lecture. It 
was her last appointment for the season. She had no money and the only 
prospective income was the ten dollars promised her for the lecture. She 
had sought to find employment without success and was weary and dis- 

But her lecture on ' ' Hospital Life * ' was such a success that the 
Republican leaders said, "If we can get that girl to make that speech all 
through New Hampshire, we can carry the state ticket in the coming elec- 
tion.'* On March ist she began her tour of triumph, which ended in a 
Republican victory. The governor-elect made a personal acknowledgment 
that her magnetic, eloquent speeches had secured his election. 

The tide had turned. Connecticut sought her. The cause of the party 
there seemed lost, but through her efforts victory was achieved. She was 
given one hundred dollars per night, and for her speech the night before 
election received four hundred dollars. 

Everywhere there was a perfect furore to hear this gifted girl. She 
was called * * The New Joan of Arc. * ' 

She was next invited to Pennsylvania and sent into the mining region, 
because, as some one said, " no man dared go there to speak." She was 
often assaulted with stones and rotten eggs, and received not one dollar for 
her ser\'ices. 

One of the greatest honors of her life was the invitation to speak in the 
Hall of Representatives. Here assembled to hear her one of the most 
notable audiences that ever met in Washington. It was composed of sen- 
ators, representatives, foreign diplomats, the chief justice, the president, 
and Washington society generally. The proceeds of the lecture were over 
one thousand dollars and were devoted to the National Freedmen's Relief 

One of her notable lectures, many times delivered after the close of the 
war, was '* Woman's Work and Wages." On this she could speak with 
the burning eloquence of experience. 



A. D. 1898- 


HE has written over twenty-five hundred hymns besides many secular 
songs, cantatas, and lyrical productions of various kinds. * * Rescue 
the Perishing," ** Jesus, Keep Me Near the Cross,'* and **Keep 
Thou My Way, O Lord," are among her well known productions. In con- 
nection with Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., for many years was car- 
ried on the Mayflower Mission and the last named hymn was long used as 
the Mission prayer song. 

** Qose to Thee," ** Come to the Saviour," ** Saviour, More than Life 
to Me," ** I am Thine, O Lord." ** So Near to the Kingdom," have been 
sung round the world in English and have also been translated into many 
other languages. 

She does not rank with the great poets but her songs have reached 
many hearts where more stately productions would not have gained admit- 
tance. Her mission has been a noble one and well performed. To, 

Rescue the perishing. 

Care for the dying, 
Snatch them in pity from sin and the grave ; 

Weep o'er the erring one, 

Lift up the fallen, 
Tell them of Jesus, the mighty to save. 

Her productions might wi-11 be called *' Songs of a Half-Century," for 
she has hern writing for more than that period of time. 

Her talent for writing verses showed itself when she was not more than 
eight years old and e\ ery year since has seen something from her pen. All 
these have been writttn in her blindness and many of them, so full of joy 
and hope and light, gain new beauty and a meiLsure of pathos, when we 
remember that they were written in darkness. 

She is married, lu-r husband's name In'ing Van Alstyne, but the world 
continues to know and love her as Kanny J. Crosby. 

Although she has written so much her productions have never been 
collected into a single book. 





/ I \ HE woman who has appeared before more legislative bodies than any 
JL other living person, has traveled untold thousands of miles, and has 
delivered addresses innumerable on temperance, education, and 
kindred themes. 

Her father, Ephraim Hanchett, was a courageous and enthusiastic 
worker in the anti-slavery movement, and his daughter inherited his best 

After a most thorough course of studies she became professor of natural 
science in one of the leading institutions of Baltimore. In this she was 
unconsciously training for her life work in behalf of scientific temj>erance 

When she was married and became a mother she found a further educa- 
tion and preparation for her great work. She saw in the liquor traffic and 
the drink habit the great foe of humanity and the sorrow of mothers and 

Her mind took a wide sweep. She saw that rescue work was but a 
part of what the world needed. The real nature and effects of alcoholic 
drinks upon mind and body should be known by the children. Instruction 
should not be optional but compulsory. 

She became the superintendent of the newly constituted educational 
department of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union. A 
new school literature on hygiene was needed and was created, largely under 
her direction. 

Thoroughly abreast of the times on all scientific and legislative matters, 
she has, though opposed and misrepresented, won a host of brilliant vic- 
tories for humanity and temperance. 

As a result of her work legislation for compulsory temperance educa- 
tion has been secured in most of the states of the Union and in all the terri- 
tories, also in national military and naval academies and in all schools for 
the Indian and colored races under national control. 



A. D. 18S8- 


HE is one of the most prolific authors of this age. For forty years 
she produced a book each year and has written in all over seventy 
books. She is especially happy in the delineation of Scottish 
and English life and character. Her birthplace was in Midlothian, Scot- 
land, and this, in part, accounts for her skill in depicting life in Scotland. 

Among her works are Katie Stewart, The Laird of Norlan, The 
Chronicles oj Carlinjiford (in nine volumes), The Ladies Undores, and 
Mrs. Blencarroivs' Troubles. 

Of her works on history and biography we mention, The Literary His- 
tory of England, The Makers of Florence, Makers of Venice, ferusalem, 
the Holy City, and St. Francis of Assisi. 

She edited for the Messrs. Blackwood the series of Foreign Classics for 
English Readers and prepared the volume on Dante and Cervantes. 

Mrs. Oliphant as a writer is not only prolific but versatile, more so, per- 
haps, than any other female novelist. From pure fiction she could turn to 
psychological subjects and from these to historical themes and thence to 
sketches of travel. Two volumes of Historical Sketches of the Reign of 
George //. are of grtat interest and permanent value. The volumes 
consist of short biographies, political, literary, and fashionable. Queen 
Caroline and Walpolr come first, then follow *'The Man of the 
World" (Lord Che^terhcld;, ''The Woman of Fashion" (Lady Mont- 
tagu), ''Thf Toft" (Tope), **The Reformer" (John Wesley), **The 
Sailor" (Ansnn), "The PhilosopluT " (Berkeley), **The Novelist*' 
(Richardson), ''The Skeptic" (David Hume), and **The Painter'' 
(Hogarth ). 

This is a hapj)y idea of showing the times, through the portraiture of a 
group of hading individuals in the various walks of life. One of the 
easiest ways of studying history is through the biographies of leaders. 

We wouhl e^peeially mention in this connection her vivid description 
of Gi^rge Whiiefield and the Bristol colliers. 



A. D. IMl- 


J^vittior of "Rol^ert Slamere.*' 

MRS. WARD is of the illustrious family of Arnolds, Dr. Thomas 
Arnold of Rugby being her grandfather. He had two sons, Mat- 
thew and Thomas. Mrs. Ward is daughter of the last named. 
After his studies were completed at Oxford, he became inspector of schools 
for Tasmania (the island south of Australia). There he married Miss Julia 
Lovell, and Mary Augusta was born to them. 

Mr. Arnold became a Catholic, and returning to Great Britain was 
appointed professor in the University at Dublin. 

Miss Arnold married Mr. Humphry Ward. 

Her earliest work was Milly and Oily, or a Holiday Among the Maun- 
tains. Next came Miss Drethertoji, the heroine of which is said to repre- 
sent Mary Anderson, "a study of the extent to which ignorance may 
smother even true dramatic genius, and of the power of that genius, when 
aroused, to break through the enveloping and suffocating medium." 

Other productions are, Robert Rlsmcre, The History of David Grieve, 
Marcella, Sir George Tressady, Helbeek of Baiinisdale, and Eleanor, 

Robert Elsmere produced a great stir in the reading world. Within a 
few months it passed through seven editions in England, and half a million 
copies were sold in America in less than three years. It was also translated 
into German, Dutch, and Danish. The burning questions as between the 
old faith and the new faith or no faith at all, are handled without hesitation. 
Mrs. Ward is a keen critic. She has a wealth of diction and of thought. 
The book took hold of not mere novel readers but of deep thinkers of the 
time. One English writer said of the book, " It is hard reading and requires 
toil and effort. Yet if it be difficult to persist, it is impossible to stop." 

Mrs. Ward, in 1890, became identified with a scheme known as ** Uni- 
versity Hall," London. Here are given lectures in the interest of modern 
theism and the liberal views of the Bible. Coupled with this there is 
carried on a work for the poor. 


tftcHwoo^, CJaf^TB^fon, 


A. ]>. 1830- 


WHEN one contemplates the many and varied philanthropic under- 
takings and achievements of Clara Barton he feels to bow in rev- 
erent silence to womanhood. Her work is beyond praise. 

In the hospital ser\'ice during the civil war, in the Franco-German 
war, as superintendent of the reformatory prison for women at Sherborn, 
Mass., as president of the American Red Cross Society, as a worker for the 
famine sufferers in Russia, for fire sufferers in Michigan, for sufferers from 
floods in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Johnstown, Pa., for sufferers from the 
great cyclone on the South Atlantic coast, for the Armenian sufferers 
under Turkish atrocities, and for the soldiers during the Spanish-Amefican 
war as well as for the non-combatant Cubans, Clara Barton has given her- 
self, without reserve or cessation, until relief has been afforded. 

She was born in North Oxford, Mass. During her earlier years she 
taught school until her health failed. For rest and restoration she went to 
Washington, D. C. , and after a time was appointed to a position' in the 
Patent Office. She resigned her position in the Patent Office and went to 
the front to minister to the sick and wounded soldiers, without pay. She 
well earned the title of '' Angel of the Battlefield." The hospitals of the 
army of the James were placed in her charge. 

Another invaluable siT\ ice was rendered by her in establishing a Bureau 
of Records of missing men of the Union army, compiled from prison and 
hospital rolls and lists. To this work she gave four years of her time 
and expended her small fortune of ;Sio,ooo. Congress voted to reimburse 
her, but she declined remuneration for her services. 

She was in Furope for nuu h needed rest when the Franco-German war 
broke out and was inuurdiately asked to go to the front to assist in caring 
for the wounded. In recognition of her services she received numerous 
badges of licinor from nobility .md royalty. 

Broken in health she returned to America, and became the first presi- 
dent of the American Association of the Red Cross. 



A. D. 1820- 


'Cy*ER father was William Edward Shore, a Sheffield banker. He fell 
Jyr heir to the estates of Peter Nightingale, and by the requirements of 

^ the will took the name of Nightingale. 

Florence was a thorough student from childhood and became well 
versed in modern languages, but she seemed endowed with a taste and 
talent for hospital work. When very young she often visited the hospitals 
and ministered to the sick. 

As a young woman she went to Germany and took a course of training 
in a school of deaconesses at Kaiserswerth which was conducted by Pastor 
Fleidner. Her first work upon returning to England was to superintend a 
home for sick and infirm governesses. 

The sufferings of the soldiers in the Crimea was a call to larger duties, 
and she went as superintendent of a corps of volunteer female nurses. A 
hospital was established at Scutari and in two days six hundred soldiers 
were under her care. In three weeks the number had reached three thou- 

There had been horrible neglect and mismanagement in caring for the 
men previous to this, but Miss Nightingale was a born general as well as 
nurse. By her calm but firm direction, order was brought out of chaos. 
Her endurance seemed superhuman. The correspondent and commissioner 
of the London Times wrote, ' ' When all the medical officers have retired 
for the night, and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles 
of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, 
making her solitary rounds." 

She was a ministering angel to the poor soldiers, and many would kiss 
her shadow as it fell across their poor forms. One soldier said, ** Before 
she came there was much cussin' and swearin' ; but after that it was holy 
as a church." She was not welcomed by either the military or medical 
officers and was obliged to almost fight her way. Too many of them cared 
more for their positions and red tape than for dying soldiers. But healthy 



A. D. 1891- 


QlHE was born to the stage, for her parents were members of a strolling 
/^ theatrical company and when but four years of age Adelaide took 
juvenile parts in plays. When twenty-five years of age she became 
the wife of the Marquis del Grillo and retired from the stage. But quiet 
domestic life was not congenial and in a few years she returned to her pro- 
fession. Before her marriage she played comedy. She now took up 
tragedy. Rachel was the queen of tragedy at Paris but Ristori went to 
that city and won the enthusiastic applause of the French. 

She traveled through Europe, continually adding to her fame. She 
then visited the United States and South America. 

As a tragic actress she was by many counted as the greatest in the world. 

Florence MlKl^tlriKale continued* 

English sentiment was so strong that soon all the hospitals were placed 
under her superintendence. 

Miss Nightingale contracted hospital fever, and after two years of toil 
was obliged to return to England. Queen Victoria sent her a jewel and a 
letter of thanks. The soldiers of the Crimea desired to erect a statue in 
her honor, but this she declined. 

The grateful people of England subscribed ;^50,ooo as a testimonial, 
and this was devoted to the erection of "Nightingale Home,'* which is 
the great institution of England for the training of nurses. 

The pionter work of Florence Nightingale as an army nurse was the 
inspiration and model for American women in the civil war. 

The Ouetn's gift to Miss Nightingale was a cross blazing with diamonds 
and bearing this inscription : — 





From Victoria R., 1855. •* 



A. 1>. 1821- 


MISS BLACKWELL was of English birth ; her parents, however, 
removed to this country when she was ten years of age. Her 
father failed in business in New York and a few years afterwards 
died, leaving a wife and nine children in very straitened circumstances. 
Elizabeth was then seventeen years of age. For seven years, she, with two 
sisters, taught a young ladies' seminary and nearly supported the family. 

When about twenty-two years of age she determined to study medicine 
and set resolutely to work along with her teaching. After a few years of 
study by herself, she removed to Charleston, S. C, where she taught 
music and studied medicine with Dr. Samuel H. Dickson. Later she 
removed to Philadelphia and studied under Dr. J. M. Allen. 

She made application to the medical schools of Philadelphia, New 
York, and Boston, but in each case was refused admission on the ground 
that there was no precedent and that it was improper to break away from 
established custom. She was, however, admitted to the college at Geneva, 
N. Y. , pursued her studies with marked success and took her degree in 
1849. *' There is some place in the world for me and I'll find it," was her 
repeated declaration. 

She pursued clinical studies in Blockley hospital, Philadelphia, and then 
went to Paris to study in the Matcrnite hospital. Her next experience was 
in the hospital of St. Bartholomew in London, where she spent a year. 
She then returned to New York and began the practice of medicine. 

It was found almost im{)ossible to secure a respectable boarding house 
upon which to display her sign. These things were unspeakably hard to 
bear, but she could work and wait and win her way. Difficulties made her 
more determined. The victory was at hist won for herself and the way 
prepared for others to win success and lionor. 

Emily Blackwell began the study of niedicir.e about the time that her 
sister Elizabeth became established in New York. She graduated at the 
Cleveland College in 1854 having also studied in the Rush Medical College, 


charlotte: m. yonoe. 

A. D. 1893- 


s> g!aj3K ' Z3 ^ 

MISS YONGE has been a most prolific writer, having published 
about one hundred and twenty-five volumes of fiction and a large 
number of national histories for younger readers. She is an ardent 
supporter of high church views and this appears in nearly all her works. 

She gained a large circle of readers by The Heir of Redclyffe, which 
appeared in 1853. A large part of the early profits from this book were 
used to fit out the missionary schooner, *' Southern Cross,** for Bishop 

From the profits of her book Daisy Chain she gave ;^2,ooo to build 
a missionary college in New Zealand. 

Her historical works include Greece, Rome, France, Germany, Eng- 
land, and the United States. 

She has also written History of Christian Names and their DeritHdion and 
Story of English Missionary Workers, Several of her histories for young 
people were rewritten so that they could be read and enjoyed by the small 
children, as, for example, Aiuit Charlotte s Rofnan History for the Little 

Among her many works of fiction are the following: Lances of Lyn- 
7cood, Scenes from the Life of a Spinster, Clever Woman of the Family, 
Prince and Page, . / Story of the Last Crusade, The Dove in the Pagle's Nest. 

In (luantity her productions are a marvel ; the quality is well sustained. 

lCll>:fil>otU DlfioUwoll continued, 

Chicago. She spent a year each in Edinburgh, Paris, and London. Upon 
Ikt return to America she became closely identified with her sister 
Klizaheth in New York. *'The New York Infirmary for Women and 
Children" was established through their edorts. The object was first, a 
charity for the poor ; second, a resort for respectable patients desiring 
special treatment ; and, third, a place to which female students might come 
for practical clinical study. 



A. D. 1826- 


-» > 3K €♦ 

RAPOLEON III. was a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and was bom 
in 1808. He lived in exile from 181 5 to 1830, joined in a revolt 
against the pope, attempted to organize a revolution among the 
French soldiers at Strasburg, invaded Prance and made an attack, was 
captured and held as a prisoner for six years, when he escaped, was made 
a member of the National Assembly of France, became president of the 
republic, was chosen president for ten years, was elected emperor, married 
Eug6nie, took part in Crimean war, fought against Austria, interfered in 
affairs of Mexico, declared war with Germany and was taken prisoner at 
Sedan. The following year he removed to England, where he died in 1873. 

Eug6nie was the daughter of a Spanish officer ; her mother was de- 
scended from Scotch Roman Catholic parentage. 

She visited Paris the year before Louis Napoleon became emperor and 
was married to him the year after he gained the throne. The municipality 
of Paris bestowed upon the bride a wedding gift of six hundred thousand 
francs, but at her request it was expended in founding a female college. 
With her husband she visited Queen Victoria and from that time Queen 
and Empress were close friends. 

She served as regent three times, — first, when Napoleon was absent in 
Italy, again when he was making his Algerian tour, and lastly, upon his 
departure for the seat of war, when his arms were directed against Germany. 

After the battle of Sedan, in which her husband was captured, she was 
urged to flee from Paris, as the streets were full of excited people and the 
palace was beset by an infuriated mob. 

By the aid of friends she managed to get through the German lines 
which guarded Paris and so escaped to England, where the Emperor joined 
her upon his release. They had one son to whom the mother was de- 
votedly attached. He joined the English troops and was slain by the sav- 
ages in South Africa. This great grief, coupled with other reverses and 
losses, for a time threatened the life of Eugenie. 



A. D. 1814- 


VJ'TER father was Sir Francis Burdett, Baronet, but her great wealth 
-L-L came from her grandfather, Thomas Coutts, the noted banker. She 
thus joins the name of her grandfather, to that of her father and is 
known as Burdett-Coutts. 

In 1 88 1 she was married to William Lehman Ashmead Bartlett, who by 
royal license took the name of Burdett-Coutts. 

In 1 87 1 the prime minister surprised her with the offer of a peerage 
from her majesty, Queen Victoria, and the honor was accepted. 

The baroness has always been remarkable for her executive ability. 
She p>ossessed discernment and upon finding out needs of individuals or 
classes took the initiative in ameliorating conditions. One of her first great 
works was to establish a home for young women who had turned aside 
from the path of virtue. Nearly one half of those who came to the home 
were permanendy reclaimed. 

Spitalfields in London was a mass of destitution ; the baroness estab- 
lished a sewing school for women where they could be taught, fed, and 
provided with work. From this place nurses were sent out to the sick of 
that section. 

In 1859 several hundred destitute boys were fitted out for the Royal 
Navy or placed in industrial homes. 

Nova Scotia Gardens was one of the moral plague spots of London. 
Miss Coutts i)urchased this section and upon what was figuratively and 
literally the dumping ground of the city she erected model dwellings for 
abi^ut two hundred familit-s, to be let at a moderate price. The place was 
named Columbia Square. 

When the cry came from suffering humanity in Ireland, Scotland, 
Turkey, and different parts of England, Baroness Coutts was among the 
first to respond. For destitute fishermen she afforded both temporary and 
permanent relief by means of food, clothing, tackle, and boats. 

We are justified in calling her a princess of philanthropy and charity. 



A. I>. 1821- 


SER father was Timothy Rice, of Welsh descent, who possessed many 
of the sturdy Welsh qualities, even to not sparing the rod in the 
training of his daughter. 

She graduated from the Boston public schools at fourteen and then 
attended the Female Seminary in Charlestown, Mass. The four years 
work she accomplished in half that time and then became a njember of the 
faculty, teaching Latin and French. 

Removing to southern Virginia, she saw slavery as it was and, when she 
returned to the North, was a confirmed and outspoken Abolitionist 

In 1845 she became the wife of Rev. D. P. Livermore, a Universalist 
clergyman. Her husband was called to Chicago to become manager and 
editor of The New Covenatit. Mrs. Livermore became his associate on the 
paper and rendered most valuable service. 

When the civil war broke out she went to the front as a nurse, and 
was often under the fire of the enemy's guns. There was strong prejudice 
against women as army nurses, and much opposition was experienced. 

The Sanitar\' Conunission was largely indebted to her for its organized 
efforts. When money came slowly, she inaugurated the great Chicago 
Soldiers' Fair, which netted $100,000. She was, in fact, the mother of this 

Her book, My Story of the War, has reached a sale of more than fifty 
thousand volumes. At the close of the war she turned her energies in 
the direction of the advancement of women. She established in Boston 
The Agitator, for the advocacy of temperance reform and woman suffrage. 
In 1870 The ][ oma?i' s Journal w^'s started and she became the editor, her 
own paper becoming absorbed in the new journal. 

For thirteen years she delivered on an average one hundred and fifty 
lectures per year. She has spoken on a wide range of themes, — biography, 
history, politics, religion, temperance, and other reforms, and various de- 
partments of sociology in their special bearing upon woman. 



A. D. 1828- 


§ER pen name," Greenwood," fits her tastes and talents. As a child 
the fields and forests were her delight. In daring deeds she outdid 
the boys of the little village of Ponipey, N. Y., where she was 
born. One of her delights was to ride young horses bareback. 

At school in Rochester she cared nothing for and learned little about 
mathematics and science, but she could write verses and sketches with so 
much skill that publishers sought her productions before she was fourteen 
years old. Her writings were as fresh and racy as a mountain brook. In 
later years as well, her productions were full of joyous health. No one 
could be like her, nor could she be like anyone else. She was simply and 
intensely herself. The following are some of her writings : — 

Circcmcood Leaves, History of My Pets^ Poems, RceoUedions of My 
Childhood, Haps and Mishaps of, a Tour in liurope, Forest Tragedy and 
Other Tales, Stories of Many Lands, History for Children, and Victoria^ 
Queen of Eni>;land. The latter was brought out simultaneously in London 
md New York. .Slie wrote for many periodicals either as editor or con- 
tributor and delivered several notable lectures and addresses. 

In 1S53 Miss Clarke married I-eander K. Lippincott of Philadelphia. 
A sinj^le \ (Tse from one of her poems gives a glimpse of her both as a 
horsewoman and poetess. 

" As I spring to his back, as I seize the strong rein, 
The strength to my spirit returneth again, 
The Ixinds are all broken that fettered my mind, 
And my cares lx)rne away on the wings of the wind; 
My pridf lifts its head, for a season Ixjwed down, 
An<l the (jueen in my nature now puts on her crown." 

Durinj^ the war she nndcnd excellent service to the cause of the sick 
soldiers by lerluring tor thr fairs of the .Sanitary Commission. .She also 
read ami kclurcd to the soldiers in camp, and President Lincoln called her 
**Cirace (ireenwood, the patriot." 



A. D. 1842- 


_ .se;H-{-wrBc« 

HE first American singer to win recognition in Europe. Her father, 
George Kellogg, was an inventor of considerable note. Her mother 
T was an excellent musician. Her birthplace was at Sumpterville, 
S. C. , but her childhood was spent in the North. 

Clara was evidentiy a born singer, for at nine months old she could hum 
a tune correctly. 

When she was fourteen years old she began a thorough course of mus- 
ical studies, and the family removed to New York for that purpose. A 
professional career was in the minds of the parents from the start, and all 
her training was with that end in view. 

She studied both the French and Italian methods of singing. She 
made a special study of Marguerite in Gounod's " Faust," and in that no 
one has ever equaled her. Berlioz was in the United States at the time 
and heard her with astonishment at the skill with which she interpreted the 
subtier shadings of the poet, which he believed were beyond the reach of 
lyric art. 

Upon appearing in Her Majesty's Theatre, London, as Marguerite, she 
won a brilliant triumph. She also sang in the Handel Festival held in 
the great Crystal Palace, a great honor for an American 

When she returned to America the public was ready to receive her, 
and everywhere she was met by crowded houses. In one winter she sang 
one hundred and twenty-five nights. 

After some years she accepted an engagement in Austria, where she 
sang in Italian with a German opera company. She even journeyed into 
Russia and sang in St. Petersburg. 

She has always been a helpful friend to struggling artists. She accu- 
mulated a considerable fortune and is generous in distributing to philan- 
thropic and charitable enterprises. 

Her voice in youth was a high soprano with a range from C to E flat 
With age it lost some of the highest notes but gained in power and richness. 



Clara Louis^^^^^<^S9> Afrs.Jan^ ^^^ 


A. D. 1849- 


MISS HODGSON was bom in England. In 1865 her father died and 
the family removed to America, settling in Newmarket, Tennessee. 
The mother with two sons and three daughters sought to earn a 
living on the little farm. There were many dark days but all worked 

Frances felt that she had abilities in other lines and that she could earn 
money with the pen as well, or better, than with farm tools. 

She began with short stories which were published in PetersarC s 
Magazine and Godey s Lady s Book, But she did not win marked suc- 
cess or recognition until 1872, when she contributed to Scribner^s Magazine 
a dialect story. Surly Tim' s Trouble, Her girlhood days in Manchester 
had made her familiar with the Lancashire dialect and she now turned it to 
account in the above story. Her writings were now accepted and sought 
by publishers. 

In 1875 she became the wife of Dr. Swan M. Burnett. They traveled 
extensively in Kurope and then took up their residence in Washington. 

That Lass W Loicrie' s was published in Scribner^s and afterwards had 
a large sale in book form. - Through One Administration, Louisiana, A 
Fair Barbarian, and Hditha s Burglar are among her works. She is 
probably most wicUly and popularly known through her Little Lord Faunt- 
leroy. This, like many of her stories, has been dramatized, thereby adding 
to her fame. 

The dramatization of novels without any compensation to the author 
had lonj^ been a sore trial to English writers. Reade and Dickens among 
others had attempted to stop it hut in vain. Mrs. Burnett undertook to 
defend herself against the unauthorized use of Little Lord Fauntleroy, and 
the court, for the first time, gave to authors the control of the dramatic 
right in their stories. 

When the triumph was won the authors of England showed their grati- 
tude by pi'esenting to Mrs. Burnett a costly diamond bracelet. 



A. D. 1851- 


TRUTH is stranger than fiction.'* Mrs. Leslie's life contains 
abundant material for a most fascinating novel. Miriam Flor- 
ence Folline is a native of New Orleans, La. , and is a French 
Creole by birth. Her girlhood home was one of luxury and her educa- 
tional advantages and attainments were of the highest order. 

Mr. " Frank Leslie,'* to whom she was married, was by birth an 
Englishman and his real name was Henry Carter. He had gained some 
reputation as an author using the pen name '* Frank Leslie.** Coming to 
this country he took his pen name as his legal name by legislative permis- 
sion, and became a publisher in New York city. 

Miss Folline chanced to be in New York. One of the editors of ** Les- 
lie's Lady* s Magazine'* was ill and without money. Miss Folline offered 
to take the place and give the sick woman the salary, which was done. 
The invalid died and the benefactress was asked to retain the editorial 
position. Mr. Leslie came to admire and love this talented woman and 
they were married. 

She was of great assistance to him in his business and they were greatly 
prospered for some years. But reverses came in the panic of 1877 and Mr. 
Leslie was obliged to make an assignment. He was about this time afflicted 
with a tumor, which he knew would terminate fatally. To his beautiful 
and brave wife he said, " Go to my office, sit in my place and do my work, 
until my debts are paid." When he died, there were debts amounting to 

By act of legislature she took the name of Frank Leslie and carried on 
the business with pronounced success. That a woman of such business 
ability, and with heavy responsibilities, should be at the same time a 
society leader, is a marvel of versatility. She has shone in European 
society, where she was most cordially received. Her command of the 
French, Spanish, and Italian languages opened the way, and her personal 
beauty and culture made her a center of attraction. 



A. D. 1831- 


§ER pen name is a household word in our land. Intimate friends tell 
us how charmingly she has combined "home making** with literary 
work. She possesses a masterful way of making duties fit each 
other without fuss or jostle. 

Who can say bow many hundred homes have been brightened and 
sweetened and made more wholesome in everything from food to atmo- 
sphere by her wise and happy writings? 

Miss Mary V^irginia Hawes was born in Virginia, though her parents 
were natives of New England. 

Her education was of the best ; and while pursuing her studies she 
showed marked literary ability. At fourteen years of age she began to con- 
tribute to a weekly paper in Richmond. At sixteen she wrote Marrying 
Through Prudential Motives, which was so popular as to be published in 
England and translated into F"rench and finally retranslated into English 
and again published. F*inally, it reappeared in the United States in its 
altered form. 

She became the wife of Rev. Edward Payson Terhune, who has for 
many years been pastor of the Puritan Congregational Church of Brook- 
lyn, N. V. 

Mrs. Terhune' s writing has not all been along home lines, but she has 
written several novels ; among them, Alone, a taie of Southern life and 
manners, 7 he Hidden Path, True as Steel. 

Husbands a fid Homes ; Common Se?ise in the Household ; Breakfast^ 
Luncheon, and Tea; 'The Dinner Year Book ; Eve's Daughters, or Com-' 
mon Sense for Maid, ITi/e, and Mother, are books whose titles speak for 

.Slie is widely known as a lecturer before Woman*s Councils on **The 
Kitchen as a .Moral Agtiicy," "Our Sons and Our Daughters," and "How 
to Grow Ok! Cracefully.'* 



A. D. 1846- 


/ I \HIS woman enjoys the distinction of being the first woman to receive 
JL an order from the United States government for a statue. 

Her birthplace was in Wisconsin but the greater part of her life has 
been spent in Washington, D. C. Her father for some years held an im- 
portant government ix)sition at the capital city and Miss Ream was in the 
employ of the post office department for some time. She at length dis- 
covered her own taste and talent for art and devoted her energies to that 
end with special reference to sculpture. 

Her skill was such that she made busts of several prominent men, 
among them General Grant, John Sherman, and Thaddeus Stevens. She 
produced also "The Indian Girl,'* a full length figure cast in bronze. 
** Miriam '* in marble was one of her noted productions. 

But the statue of Abraham Lincoln which she executed in bronze to be 
placed in the Capitol was one of the crowning honors of her life. After 
having finished the model she took it to Italy to be transferred to marble. 
Her parents accompanied her and together they lived in Rome for three 
years. For this statue of Lincoln she received fifteen thousand dollars. 

While in Europe Gustave Dor6 gave Miss Ream a painting by his own 
hand with the inscription, " Offered to \'innie Ream on the part of her af- 
fectionate colleague, Gustave Dor6." Spurgeon, Kaulbach, the painter, 
and Cardinal Antonelli sat to her for likenesses. 

The statue of Admiral Farragut on the square in Washington, named 
for the naval hero, is her work. When Miss Ream received the order for 
the statue she worked on the model in the ordnance building of the navy 
yard and the statue was cast from the metal of tlie propeller of Admiral 
Farragut's flagship, the "Hartford." While at work on the model she 
married Lieutenant Hoxie. 

Facing Farragut square is the residence which Ciptain Hoxie built for 
himself and wife. After her marriage she continued to model but for love 
rather than money. 



A. D. 1838- 


MRS. Sangster has been connected editorially with five different publi- 

Her early educational advantages, so far as school life was con- 
cerned, are few. She was chiefly educated at home. No doubt she had 
inborn talent for literary work, but whatever she possessed she also carefully 
cultivated. Very early in life she became a contributor to the leading 
periodicals, and her first work was produced when she was but seventeen. 

Her first editorial engagement was with the Hearth^ and Home, which 
continued for two years. Then came six years of service with the Christian 
at Work, The next nine years was spent as assistant editor of the Chris- 
tian Intclliirenccr. For a part of this time she was also editor of Harper' s 
Y'ounj^ People, which was new in the field of periodical literature. 

In 1890 she was called to the editorship of Harper' s Bazar, with which 
she is still connected. 

Mrs. Sangster has found time for considerable miscellaneous work, and 
for many years has been ranked as one of our popular American poets. 

She has published a Manual of Missions of the Reformed Church in 
America, Home Fairies and Heart IHourrs, and a series of Sunday school 

Mrs. SangstcT is a prominent member of the Dutch Reformed Church 
and devotes nuich time to the work of that body. She is especi.illy f(md 
of children. Years ago two of her j)roductions, Elizabeth , A a; ed Nine, and 
Are the Children at Home.* were household words, and were in many of 
the school readers. .Slie has written in all some half dozen popular books 
for children. 

She has Inlped a great host <»f friends who have never met her 
but throngli her writings have learned to love her. And, further, another 
widely scattered company have been given better views of life, and new 
courage for di^c barging life's duti(*s, though they scarcely know the name 
of Mrs. Sangster. 



A. D. IMS- 


SER father and mother were both operatic singers. At the birth of 
Adelina the mother lost her voice and the family in distress re- 
moved to America. At four years of age the child showed remark- 
able musical talent and received piano instruction from her sister Carlotta 
and vocal lessons from her stepbrother Barili, and her brother-in-law 
Strakosch, who possessed splendid talents as a singer and had won a con- 
siderable reputation. 

Thus having the advantage of musical taste and ability inherited from 
both parents, she grew up amid musical influences from birth and then re- 
ceived most careful and long continued training. 

When nine years old she appeared in a concert with Strakosch and won 
splendid success. A series of concerts followed and Adelina received as 
her share of the profits $10,000. In this series Strakosch and Ole Bull were 
the instrumentalists. She was the infantile prima donna. 

After several years of success in America she went to Europe with her 
brother-in-law, but the London manager would not even give her an op- 
portunity to sing. When about to return to the L'nited States the manager 
of the Covent Ciarden Theater gave her permission to sing three times, but 
without pay. She made her first appearance in Bellini's Sonnambula, 
Her triumj^h was immediate, her career was to the people of London like 
the blazing of a meteor. The way was then opened for her in France, Ger- 
many, Italy, Spain, and Russia. 

In 1868 she was married to the Marquis de Caux in London and ten 
years later was divorced. In 1886 she was married to Signor Nicolini, an 
opera singer. 

Besides a voice of* exceptional beauty, range, and flexibility, she pos- 
sessed rare powers as an actress. Though too small of stature to person- 
ate the great characters of the highest style of tragic opera, she did excel 
in parts requiring archness or coquetry, also in pathos and sentiment, notably 
in Donizetti's Lucia or Gounod's Marguerite. 



A. D. 1835- 



MRS. MEAD is the daughter of Col. Chas. E. Billings of Conway, 
Mass. Her mother was sister of Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D.D. 
She is thus of the best New England stock. After receiving her 
education, chiefly at Ipswich, Mass. , she entered upon the work of teaching. 

For six years she was engaged with her sister in conducting a private 
school for young ladies at Andover, Mass. 

In 1858 she became the wife of Rev. Hiram Mead, D.D., and removed 
to South Hadley, the seat 9I Mount Holyoke Seminary. 

Dr. Mead was subsequently called to Oberlin College, where he died 
after some years of service. Mrs. Mead turned again to teaching, spending 
two years at Oberlin and six at Abbot Academy, Andover, Mass. She 
became widely known as an instructor of marked ability. 

While spending some time in Europe she was called to the presidency 
of Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. 

Mrs. Mead entered upon her duties as president in 1890. The recent 
remarkable growth of the college is largely due to her noble personality 
and wise leadership. 

One of tlie college trustees had this to say of Mrs. Mead before she 
entered up«>n her duties: "The friends of Holyoke are to be congratulated 
on the prospect of soon seeing at the head a president who unites so much 
of modern learning antl culture with so much of the spirit of Mary Lyon ; 
and whoM- anil)ition it will be to realize the ideal of a Christian college, 
which shall give the broadest and best education in literature, science, and 
art, and all consecrated to tlie highest and best ends.'* Mrs. Mead has 
more th.ui m<t the highest expectations. 

Tlie institution lias had an honorable history, filling a unicjue place in 
our American educational life. A j)ioneer in an almost untried field, it has 
had many followers. It has a present strength which gladdens the hearts 
of alumn;e and friends, and a future most promising. 



A. D. 1844- 


' HE was first of all fortunate in her parentage. Her father was Pro- 
fessor of Sacred Rhetoric in Andover Theological Seminary. Many 
who never knew him otherwise, have been helped by his little book, 
The Still Hour, Her mother was also an author of note. 

Elizabeth was given another name at birth, but upon the death of Mrs. 
Phelps, the daughter took her mother's name in full and by her writings 
has perpetuated the work and name of her noble mother. 

When the child was four years of age the family moved from Boston to 
Andover. Here she grew up in the midst of strong intellectual and spiritual 
influences. She received a thorough and liberal education which admirably 
fitted her for the life of an author. 

But hers was not a cold and formal intellectuality. Her imagination 
was vivid and her heart warm. She kept in close touch with the great 
movements of the times and engaged in them. Her activity in lines of 
charity, temperance, and reform kept her heart warmly in sympathy with 
struggling humanity. The life of factory girls attracted her attention. 
She studied the conditions at first hand and sought to be of help in 
improving their lot. Her book A Silenl Partner was written as a result 
of her observation and efforts. 

After slavery was abolished she saw that the next great national and 
world-wide movement was to be for the betterment of woman's condition. 
She believed in a larger, sweeter, purer womanhood and so wrote with a 

Of her many books we mention a few : Up Hill, Avis, Gates Ajar 
(this book passed through twenty editions in one year), Hedged In, The 
Trotty Book, Old Maid' s Paradise, Beyond the Gates, Jack the Fisherman^ 
Songs of the Silent World, A Singular Life. 

Possessing thus a happy and well-balanced combination of thinking and 
working, her productions have had a healthy tone. 

In 1888 Miss Phelps became the wife of Rev. Herbert D. Ward 






MISS BERTHA HONORE was born and educated in Louisville, 
Kentucky. She also studied in the convent school at George- 
town, D. C. 

She became the wife of Potter Palmer, the Chicago millionaire, in 1871, 
and soon became, and has since continued to be, the recognized social leader 
of fashionable society in Chicago. 

But Mrs. Palmer has marked intellectual as well as social qualities. She 
is a skilled musician, a proficient linguist, a brilliant writer, a skilled parlia- 
mentarian, and a woman of marked executive ability. She was chosen 
president of the Board of Lady Managers of the Columbian Exposition at 
Chicago, and in the interests of the exposition visited Europe in 1891 and 
enlisted the interest and co-operation of many leading women of Europe. 

Mrs. Palmer is noted not only as a social leader but her gifts for state 
and local charities as well as private gifts are in generous proportion to her 

The Board of Lady Managers of the Columbian Exposition ordered a 
portrait of Mrs. Palmer to have a place in the Assembly Hall of the Wo- 
man's Building. Mr. Anders L. Zorn was chosen as the artist. 

At the unveiling of the portrait addresses were made by several of the 
prominent women. Among other things this was said : '* In after times, 
when our names have been forgotten, those who come after us will look upon 
this j)ortrait and see not only the likeness of our president but the attributes 
which surrounded her, that helped us to help the women of this centur)'. 
Her genius has for three years led us over mountains of difficulty, through 
valleys of humiliation, to the crowning peaks of victory, never listening to 
such word as ' fail.' 

" We court not the titles of rank in this land of ours, where every wo- 
man may he a (jueen, and when the women of America choose a leader and 
representative she is not only a queen but queenly. If we cannot crown 
our Queen we will present you our Queen already crowned." 




R AM ABA I was fortunate in having a father who, contrary to all Hindu 
customs, believed in the education of woman. Ramabai's mother 
was educated by her father and so she inherited from both parents 
a love for learning. But so unpopular were the views of Ramabai's father 
that, though himself a pundit, he was obliged to. withdraw to the jungles 
and take up his abode there. Here Ramabai was instructed by her father. 
She showed great aptitude and could repeat from memory 23,000 verses of 
the Hindu Shastras. 

When she was sixteen years old famine came and for eleven days they 
lived on water and leaves. They left their jungle home and for some years 
the father was a wandering teacher. Father and mother died and she had 
only a brother to care for her. Ramabai became herself a lecturer, advo- 
cating the education of women and the abandonment of the custom of child 
marriages. Her learning attracted great attention. At Calcutta the pun- 
diti, or learned men, summoned her to appear before them. A long and 
searching examination followed. She passed with high honors and received 
the title of Sarasvati. 

When she seemed to have attained great success her brother died. To 
be left without a male relative in India is more than a personal bereavement. 
Some six months after this, however, she was happily married to an edu- 
cated Bengali gentleman, though ef lower caste than herself. But they had 
both thrown off the old Hindu beliefs. 

After nineteen months of married life the husband died, and Ramabai 
was again alone with her little baby girl. She was now a widow, and 
worst of all in India, a sonless widow, and despised and shunned by all 
relatives because she had broken caste by her marriage. She faced the 
world and again began lecturing. 

After a time she turned her eyes toward England, and embarked for 
that far-off land. She had for some time contemplated accepting Chris- 
tianity. While living in Calcutta she received from the leader of the sect 
of the Brahmo-somaj a copy of one of his books, which consisted of moral 



precepts drawn from the sacred books of many religions. The larger num- 
ber of these extracts were from the New Testament, and their lofty moral 
tone attracted Ramabai's attention. She studied the Bible for herself, first 
in Sanskrit and then in English, and by degrees became convinced of the 
truth of the Gospel, and after four years of anxious thought was baptized. 

In England she worked diligently to perfect herself in English, and after 
a time became professor of Sanskrit in the Ladies' College at Cheltenham. 
But all this time her heart was with the poor little child-widows of India. 
She was invited to come to America to attend the graduation of her cousin 
Joshee from a medical college in Philadelphia. Here Ramabai began a 
careful study of our public school system and especially of the kindergar- 
tens. She was a most devoted admirer of Froebel and his child studies, 
believing that the principles could be applied in India. 

Her training and plans were at last completed. She determined to de- 
vote herself to the task of educating and enlightening the high-caste Hindu 
widows. She traveled westward to the Pacific coast, arousing public inter- 
est in her beloved cause. A society with Edward E. Hale and Phillips 
Brooks at its head was formed. Christians of all names, and even Jeu^s, 
responded to the appeals. Six years after leaving home Ramabai was 
again in I^ombay, and within six weeks had opened her school. In 1898 
350 child-widows had passed through the school. Fourteen had been 
trained as teachers, eight as nurses, seven as missionary assistants ; ten had 
homes c)f their own. 

In times of famine, when these child-widows are turned out to die or be 
picked lip l)y iuiiiian (1< vils that they may rear them for lives of shame, 
Ramabai has gone far inland and rescued great numbers of these poor little 
creatures from dtiUh or a worse fate. In her school-home they have 
hccomt' healthy, happy children living in a new world of Christian sym- 
pathy, and have grown into noble womanhood. 




SER full name is Tszehi Toanyu Kangi Chaoyu Chuangcheng Shokung 
Chinhein Chungsih. She is the shrewdest woman in Asia, **The 
only man in China,*' and probably exercises the most power of any 
woman in the world, to-day. Victoria has influence ; Tsze Hsi An has 
power and it is of her own getting. 

To begin with she is not a Chinese, but a Manchu, though born in 

It may be noted in passing that the Manchu Tartars seized the throne 
of the Chinese Empire in 1644 ^^^ have kept it to the present time. 

We must not overlook another woman, Tsze Hi, who became the princi- 
pal wife of Prince Chun, the emperor's brother, and Tsze An became the 
secondary wife of Emperor Hienfung. The emperor had no child but his 
brother's wife gave birth to a son and she was raised to the rank of empress 
though still obliged to yield precedence to Tsze An. 

Troublous times came and the royal family was obliged to flee into Tar- 
tary. Here in exile the emperor died leaving his tottering throne to the 
son of Tsze Hi. 

Tsze An, the liubject of our sketch, now made herself felt in the game 
of royalty. By an unwritten law of China she should have terminated her 
life as a mark of respect, being childless. But she conveniently followed 
another law which requires the children of inferior wives to regard the chief 
wife as their mother. Tsze An thus concluded not to die and the young 
prince came under the joint control of the two dowagers. 

In due time he was proclaimed emperor and the two mothers as regents. 
When he arrived at the proper age he assumed the reins of government and 
the ladies retired to the background. Soon after he died of smallpox, 
1874, and the two dowagers again came forward. 

Being women they could not reign in their own right, but reign they 
would somehow, so they looked about for a child to adopt. 

They found a nephew of Tsze Hi, three years of age. That child is 
now Emperor Kuangsii, about thirty years of age, and childless. When 



Kuangsii was about eight years of age his aunt died and Tsze An was left ■ 
sole dowager, master of the child and of the empire. 

The young prince became of age in 1889 and was crowned emperor, 
but he was little more than a puppet in the hands of the dowager. 

At the beginning of the war with Japan the dowager stepped in and sent 
her old favorite Li Hung Chang to Japan to make peace. 

More recently again, when the emperor was starting out on a series of 
reforms by the adoption of Western ideas, she assumed control of afifairs. 
All the sweeping decrees of the emperor were annulled, six of the leaders 
of the reform party were executed. Among them was Chang Yin Yuan, 
president of the Board of Revenue and former minister to the United 

It was announced that the young emperor had committed suicide — 
which is a Chinese form of execution. This proved to be untrue. For 
some reason best known to herself the despotic dowager proposed to keep 
the puppet alive. 

The true inwardness of the recent war with China cannot yet be written. 
The astute and masterful dowager has been- put to a severe test, but her 
iron hand does not seem to have lost its hold on the scepter. 



A.D. 1868- 



HE gives not only her money but herself to the work of relieving dis- 
tress and making the world better. 
Helen Gould earns the friendship of those she helps by giving her 
personal sympathy and intelligent interest with her benefactions. 

She is the daughter of Jay Gould, the famous financier. Her education 
was obtained under carefully chosen private instructors. This was supple- 
mented by a course in the New York Law University, that she might have 
a knowledge of business for the management of her own affairs. 

We mention some of her noble gifts : For the Library of the University 
of the City of New York, $250,000, with $60,000 added later ; for the St. 
Louis cyclone sufferers in 1896, $100,000 ; to the United States Govern- 
ment at the outbreak of the war with Spain, $100,000, for relief of the 
soldiers at Camp Wycoff, Long Island. Rutgers, Vassar, and Mount Hol- 
yoke Colleges have received generous gifts ; also the Engineering School of 
the University of the City of New York ; the Naval Branch of the Young 
Men's Christian Association near the Brooklyn Navy Yard, $50,000 ; 
** Woody Crest,'* a home for crippled children, $150,000. 

When the Windsor Hotel, opposite her home in New York, was burned, 
she distinguished herself by ministering to the firemen and others in their 
work of rescue. The firemen showed their deep gratitude by preparing an 
address and sending it by the hands of a committee of ten, representing a 
constituency of more than eighteen hundred. 

Perhaps her greatest work was her patriotic efforts during the Spanish- 
American war. 

On December 5, 1898, General Joseph Wheeler, through Congressman 
Stallings, introduced in the House a bill providing that, in recognition of 
the patriotic devotion and bounteous benevolence of Miss Gould to the 
soldiers of the United States during the recent war, the thanks of Congress 
be tendered and an appropriate medal be prepared, the same to be pre- 
sented by the President. 





HE is of mingled Italian and Scotch parentage. In infancy she 
was adopted by Charles Mackay, the song writer and litterateur. 
Her early years were spent in England, but her education was 
received in a convent in France. In music she was especially proficient 
and received careful training. When scarcely thirteen she began writing 
an elaborate opera, ' ' Ginevra da Siena. ' ' Two songs, * * My Sweet Sweet- 
ing*' and ** Romeo's Good Night," belong to this period. 

She then made attempts in literary lines by writing sonnets on Shakes- 
pearean themes. The titles were, "Romeo and Juliet," "Rosalind and 
Desdemona. ' ' These were produced while she was still engaged in pursu- 
ing her musical education. Mr. Mackay, her adopted father, designed for 
her a musical career. 

Her powers were turned into literary channels by a strange psychical 
experience which led her to write her first book, A Romame of Two 
Worlds. This met with such success that it was followed by Vendetta in the 
same year, 1886. Other works are Thelma, 1887; Ardath, 1889; Soul oj 
IMith, 1 89 2 ; Barahhas, 1893 ; The Sorroivs of Satan, 1895 ; Mighty 
Atom, 1896 ; The Minds of Delicia, 1896 ; Ziska, The Problem of a 
Wicked Soul, 1897 ; fani\ 1897 ; llie Master Christian, 1899. 

" Her sorrowful Satan j^rows first melodramatic and then absurd. The 
notion that tlie adversary of goodness is settled in a London hotel with 
pri\ate cook and prixate bath becomes a vulgar burlesque of the mystery 
plays of the Middle Ages. At one time her demoniac hero is a suffering 
spirit, at another a mere Merry Andrew. 

" The unthinking portion of the public is ready to accept anybody who 
is conscious of authority. She is quite serious in the belief that she is a 
woman of genius and so speaks with an air of authority. 

" She takes occasion to abuse other female writers, but she has published 
many things as offensive morally as anything to be found in the works of 
any living woman." So says David Christie Murray. 



A. D. 18414. 


^> >mt <^ 

(T^ RANGES FOLSOM was born in Buffalo, N. Y. Her father, Oscar 
I^ Folsom, died when she was eleven years of age. The mother, with 
her daughter, removed to Medina, where they resided for a few 
years. Upon their return to Buffalo, Frances entered the Central High 
School, where she prepared for college, and so thorough was the work done 
that she was enabled to enter the sophomore class of Wells College. 

At the time of her graduation from college in 1885, she received a superb 
floral tribute from the White House conservatories. Grover Cleveland, then 
president, was the guardian- at-law of Miss Folsom, but he found himself 
lover as well as guardian. 

After graduation she went abroad in the autumn with her mother. 

No public announcement of her engagement to President Cleveland had 
been made, but the interested public felt that there was an understanding. 
When she landed in New York the following spring, she was met by the 
president's sister. Miss Cleveland, and his private secretary. The wedding 
occurred June 2, 2886, in the blue room of the White House. 

Thus for nearly three years of President Cleveland's first term of office 
she occupied the position of " First Lady of the Land," with rare grace. 
For one so young it was an arduous position, but it has been well said, 
'*at no time did she forget the dignity of her position, nor did she ever 
presume upon it." 

When Mr. Cleveland returned to the White House for his second term 
in 1893, Mrs. Cleveland was welcomed with most cordial affection. To 
her many charms was added the dignity of motherhood. Her children are 
Ruth, born in 1891, in New York ; Esther, born at the White House in 
1893 ; Marion, born at their summer home, Gray Gables, in 1895, and 
Richard Folsom, born at Princeton, N. J., in 1897. 

Princeton is the present home of the ex-president and his family. Mrs. 
Cleveland is known for her interest in charitable work, but is most admired 
for her devotion to her children. 





JN the Southern White House, during the last year of the war, was bom 
to Mr. and Mrs. Jefferson Davis the subject of this sketch. 

When the Southern cause was finally lost and the president of the 
Confederacy became a prisoner, * * Baby Winnie ' * was the only one of the 
children allowed to accompany Mrs. Davis on her visit to the prisoner. 
Soon after this she was sent to visit relatives in Canada, where she re- 
mained until Mr. Davis was settled in Memphis, Tenn. 

When twelve years of age, Miss Davis was taken to Germany, where 
she received a thorough education, chiefly at the schools of Carlsruhe. 
She afterwards spent some time in Paris. She was then admirably fitted to 
occupy a leading intellectual and social position among the people of the 
South. Her beauty of face and form and her kind heart and gracious 
manner made her a distinguished favorite. Soon after her return to 
America, while on a visit to Atlanta, she was introduced by Gen. John B. 
Gordon, as " The Daughter of the Confederacy,** and this title clung to 
her ever afterwards. 

In painting and music she showed much skill. In literary lines, how- 
ever, her al)ilities were more pronounced. She wrote many essays and 
stories, among them .hi Irish Knii!;ht of the Seventeenth Century, The Veiled 
Doctor, and Forvij^n lui mat ion for American Girls, 

At the New Orleans Carnival in 1892 Miss Davis was chosen Queen of 
Conius. She had a beautiful home at Beauvoir, Miss., but the closing, 
years of her life were largely spent in travel. She was thoroughly at home 
in the North and everywhere admired and loved. 

Her death occurred at Narragansett Pier, R. I., September 18, 1898. 
after an illness of several weeks. The funeral services were held in Rich- 
mond, \'a., and the body was laid to rest beside that of her father in Holly- 
wood Cemetery. 

Her birth was in the South, her death in the North, and her lovely 
character was a bond of union between the two sections. 





y< HIS great institution of learning, with its endowment of more than 
\]j $20,000,000, is a noble monument erected to the memory of an 
T only son, the pride and hope of his parents. Since the death of her 
husband, Mrs. Stanford has, with rare devotion, given herself to the carry- 
ing out of her husband's plans for the University. 

At the day of opening the University, Mr. Stanford said, ** I speak for 
Mrs. Stanford as well as myself, for she has been my active and sympathetic 
coadjutor, and is co-grantor with me in the endowment and establishment 
of this University." 

Their son Leland, Jr., was a boy of keen intellect and generous heart. 
He had prepared for college, but before entering upon the course he trav- 
eled with his parents abroad. He showed a marked taste for art and 
archaeology and had begun to collect for an extensive museum of his own. 

While in Rome he was stricken with fever, and died March 13, 1884, 
some two months before his sixteenth birthday. The remains were brought 
back to their great Palo Alto estate in California. 

The great purpose to live for humanity now that they had no son to liv*e 
for, found expression in plans for a university. Mr. and Mrs. Stanford 
traveled extensively and studied the institutions of higher learning in this 
country, and then proceeded to found their memorial for their son. 

Mr. Stanford died in 1893. Mrs. Stanford was given permission by the 
courts to distribute the estate, and she has actually given away all her 
wealth. At one time when the University was in special need of money 
she sent her jewels, valued at $2,000,000, to Europe to be sold, and the 
proceeds were given to the institution. 

Her San Francisco home has been turned into a school for social science. 
She has founded six kindergarten schools at a cost of $10,000 each, and 
gave $100,000 to found an orphan asylum in Albany, N. Y. , in memory of 
her father and mother. She lives at Palo Alto and now makes the Univer- 
sity her sole object in life. 




^T7HE nineteenth century has witnessed an ever- increasing rapidity 'of 
d I fe progress in the condition and deeds of woman. Other centuries, it 
is true, opened and closed with some ver>' clearly marked contrasts. 
But when the nineteenth century is, in thought, placed in line with the pre- 
ceding centuries, it seems to belong to a period of the world's 

Mlneteentli }^ig^Qj.y uniformly progressive. We are reminded of a loco- 
Century "^ ... 

motive to which a heavy train is attached. At first there is the 

slow, measured exhaust of the great machine, so slow and labored that it 
threatens to end in failure. But the inertia is gradually overcome, the 
sounds become more rapid and are less painfully explosive. Soon they so 
increase that to count them is difficult. They are at last lost in a great 
whir-r-r, as the train speeds by and away. 

The first third or half of the century was occupied with generating 
power for moving away from the prejudices and restrictions of the stereo- 
typed j)ast. It was a time of preparation and pioneering for educational, 
philanthropic, and industrial advancement. During this time great leaders 
were born and reared in the midst of an unvoiced expectancy that woman 
was yet to do and Ix- something greater than the past had seen. There 
was an intellectual awakening. Oirls began to ask that they l>e allowed 
ecjual educational advantages with their brothers. To meet this demand 
Oberlin threw open her doors in 1833, Mount Holyoke was opened in 1837, 
and then came a pause of eighteen years. Klmira was instituted in 1855 
and Vassar in i«S6i. Nine years more and Radcliffe is founded, 1 879. 
Smith and Wellcslry art- opened in 1H75 and Bryn Mawr in 1880. 

The lil)eral education of wf>man covers scarcely more than fifty years. 

The civil war was tlie occasion of woman's develoj)ment in organized phi- 

lanthroi)y. During those dark days, she l)ore burdens 

Advancement '"^^^ ^^^^^' ^^^^^^ under them, to the astonishment of even 


During at least two thirds of the century, there has been an inventive 
and industrial development, but the last twenty-five years have been the 



very flower and fruitage of all past decades. The Centennial Exposition in 
1876, and the Columbian Exposition in 1893, served as an index to woman's 
attainments industrially. 

• Out of the educational movement has come woman in the professions. 
The philanthropic impulses have crystallized into scores of organizations for 
the relief and betterment of humanity. The industrial movement has 
brought woman into the field as a wage earner and she has become an 
enormously important factor in the social-industrial problems of the world. 

The civil war constitutes the great epoch marking event of this century 

in America. We are accustomed to think of it only as giving to the 

constitution the correct interpretation, emancipating the 

slaves and preserving the Union. It was, also, the period of 

woman's awakening and, we may say, emancipation. 

When peace came woman found herself occupying a vastly larger sphere 
than in ante-bellum days. When time came for calm thought, she was 
astonished at her own audacity, or shall we say her sublime faith and 
courage. She had shown her powers, and man had come to recognize 
them. She had taken an advanced position and there was neither need 
nor possibility of retreat. 

At the very outbreak of the war woman's uprising paralleled that of her 
brother. Men grasped the musket ; women took up the needle and the 
pen. Their efforts, at first, were individual and, at the best, local. Work 
w^as done with especial reference to the soldiers who had gone from their 
own midst. But by degrees the movement became more concerted, and 
societies became affiliated ; the work took on a more co-operate scope, and 
was ultimately merged in that of the Sanitary Commission. 

The work became vast in its extent, systematic in its methods, co- 
operative in its nature, businesslike in its thoroughness, distinct and per- 
sistent in its aims. 

The war brought to the surface a latent patriotism of which the people 
had hardly dreamed. Men did not know how much they loved their 
country until it was in danger. So, likewise, women did not know their 
own capabilities in industrial and executive lines, until the war brought out 
those qualities. The war caused woman' s self -discovery. 



Here is a word from war days concerning the transfer of woman's 
activities. It appeared in the New Covenant^ May i8, 1861. 

* * But no less have we been surprised and moved to 
* admiration by the regeneration of the women of our land. A 

month ago, and we saw a large class aspiring only to be 
leaders of fashion and belles of the ballroom, their deepest anxiety cluster- 
ing about the fear that the gored skirts and bell-shaped hoops of the spring 
mode might not be becoming ; and their highest happiness being found in 
shopping, polking, and schottische — pretty, petted, useless, expensive but- 
terflies, whose futune husbands and children were to be pitied and prayed 
for. But to-day we find them lopping of! superfluities, retrenching 
expenditures, deaf to the call of pleasure or the mandate of fashion, swept 
by the incoming patriotism of the time to the loftiest height of womanhood, 
willing to do, to bear, to suffer for the beloved country. The riven fetters 
of caste and conventionality have dropped at their feet, and they sit 
together, patrician and plebeian. Catholic and Protestant, and make gar- 
ments for the poorly clad soldiers/* 

These stirring words were penned by a woman. 

The war had a niar\elous leveling effect in social lines. For example : 
Word came to Boston that four thousand shirts were needed by Massachu- 
setts troops at the South. Notices were given in the churches, and from 
every place of worship a dcU^gation was sent to '* Union Hall," which had 
up to this time been used as a ballroom. Bells were rung in the suburl)s of 
Boston, and thr shrars and nredle brigade was largely increased. Women 
in silks or calico, Protestant and Catholic, ignorant and educated, worked 
side l)y side. Cut and baste and sew, cut and baste and sew, that was the 
story, and tht- shirts were turned out at the rate of a thousiuui a day. 

There win* "Minute Men'* in 1776. In the sixties of this century, 
there were wonun by thousands ready to respond, at a moment* s notice, to 
the call for service in behalf of the soldiers at the front. On one occasion 
Dorothea Dix sent an order for five hundrcni shirts, which were needed in 
the hospital at Washington. The order was received on Thursday. On 
Friday the wt)men came together, cut, made, and packed the shirts, sending 
them on their way t<j Washington the same night. 



On April 15, 1861, President Lincoln issued his call for seventy-five 

thousand men. On the same day the women of Bridgeport, Conn. , and 

Charlestown, Mass., organized societies to afford relief and 

•anitary comfort to the volunteers. The women of Lowell, Mass., 

took similar action a few days later. About the same time 
the women of Cleveland, Ohio, formed a society for the care of the families 
of volunteers. April 29, a meeting was called at Cooper Union, New 
York, and **The Woman's Central Relief Association'* was formed. 
Some of the people interested in the movement had made a study of the 
Sanitary Commission of Great Britain, and now the society sent a commit- 
tee to Washington to confer with the medical bureau and War Department, 
with a view to ascertaining in what ways the women could be of most help 
to the country. 

The government did not at once give the committee the desired en- 
couragement. The New York society desired to follow the general plan 
of the British Commission, by securing the appointment of a scientific 
board to be given power to visit camps and hospitals, advising, recommend- 
ing, and, if necessary, enforcing sanitary regulations in the army. The 
proposed work seemed superfluous. President Lincoln considered it a 
*' fifth wheel to the coach," a mere incumbrance. The medical bureau 
naturally resented any seeming interference with its work, and refused its 
approval of the Commission. However, a semi-official commission was 
reluctantly appointed with very limited powers. 

The War Department considered itself fully competent to meet emer- 
gencies, but after a few battles had been fought, the treatment of the 
Its First ^v<^"n<^ed was seen to be so inadequate, to say the least, that 
Marked the public saw more fully the need of added and outside 
inflaenc^e agencies for relief. After the capture of P'ort Donelson, the 
Commission arranged a system of hospital steamers. This was because of 
the rude and almost cruel provision of the government for the transporta- 
tion of the sick and wounded. Again, the transportation by cars was 
torture to the suffering soldiers ; the Commission devised a stretcher upon 
which the patient could be carried to the car and which could then be used 
as a bed by suspending it from the ceiling by strong rubber bands. 



The Commission was winning its way. The names of men appeared as 
officers of the Commission and great credit is due to them. In those days, 
a great national philanthropy would have beea discounted from the start by 
having women as officers. But women were the power behind the throne. 
Their untiring activities furnished the motive and much of the means for 
sending relief to the soldiers. Step by step the work of the Commission 
broadened and deepened. Prejudice gave way to praise, cordial co-opera- 
tion took the place of jealous opposition. The demands soon became 
larger than the supplies. 

Great central Aid Associations were formed at Boston, Philadelphia, 

Cincinnati, Columbus, Cleveland, Chicago, and depots of supplies were 

established. A river must have tributaries, and these depots 

^*** had their tributaries in hundreds of the surroundine cities, 
AMioclatlons . 

towns, and villages. The women of this country organized 

over seven thousand aid societies, and workers were counted by hundreds 
ot thousands. 

There were at least six lines of activity in which the Commission soon 
found itself engaged. 

I. Battlefield relief. The medical department had no transportation 
independent of the quartermaster's department, and so was often embar- 

After the battle of Antietam, which left ten thousand Union soldiers 
wounded, besides many Confederates, the medical directors received no 
government supplies for four days, and were largely dependent upon the 
Sanitary- Commission, which with its own wagon-train had sent supplies 
and was ready for the emergency. 

II. Special relief service. Soldiers' homes and lodges were estab- 
lished for the relief of soldiers on their way to and from the front. These 
were in great demand. It often happened that as inexperienced officers 
and men rushed to the front, many were stricken down and needed careful 
treatment before being able to either continue the journey or return home. 
And when the wounded and those afflicted with chronic sickness turned 
homeward, these lodges were veritable havens of rest for the poor sufferers. 
Forty of these places were established and sustained by the Commission. 



III. Hospital Directory. Many aching and breaking hearts had occa- 
sion to bless the Commission for the work of keeping a careful list of names 
of all men coming under its care, so that friends at home could trace their 
loved ones, whether living or dead. 

IV. Pension Bureau, and War-Claim Agency. This was free of cost to 
the soldiers, and was the means of keeping many of them out of the hands 
of "sharks,*' whose fees would have left the soldier and his family minus 
much that was due them. 

V. Special Inspection of Hospitals. This had a stimulating effect on 
all having hospital work in charge. Sixty physicians and surgeons were 
engaged in the work, under the direction of the Commission, with good 

VI. Bureau of Vital Statistics. This work made the Commission one 
of real scientific and permanent value. It sought to collect and tabulate 
information covering effect of diet, marching, equipments, observances or 
neglect of hygiene ; proportion of deaths among recruits of different ages ; 
influence of climate, drill, nationality, and previous occupation or education. 

When the Commission had been in operation less than a year, it seemed 
at one time that its work must cease. People had given supplies but 
Metiiocls of "^^*^^y ^^s sadly needed. Hearts were, however, made glad 
SecnriiiK by a gift in cash of $100,000 from far-away California. This 
®"*'^ seemed to open other springs of supply, and for two years or 
more the work was well sustained. Some measure of stringency began to 
be experienced early in 1864 and this need was met by the series of great 
fairs in a dozen or more of the principal centers of population. Here, again, 
woman's ability was seen. The cash result, $2,736,868. 

Early in 1862 the Northwestern Branch of the United States Sanitary 
Commission was organized with headquarters at Chicago. Mrs. Mary A. 
Livermore and Mrs. A. H. Hoge were appointed agents, and nK)st unitedly, 
indefatigably, and efficiently did they do their work, during all those years 
of the war. They possessed and used eloquence both of j>en and voice. 
By their inventive powers and executive ability, two great fairs were held. 
Moreover, the work was so systematized as to keep up a steady flow of sup- 
plies to the most needed points. These women were most ably supported 



by the tens of thousands of loyal women and the western armies were meas- 
urably saved from the terrible scourge of scurvy, by the work of the Com- 
mission Branch. 

Other fairs followed in quick succession in Cleveland, Boston, Pittsburg, 
St. Louis, New York, and Philadelphia. They were grand affairs and 
turned splendid sums of money into the treasury of the Commission. But 
the fair at Chicago was woman's idea and work. Woman was the pioneer 
and made it an astonishing success. The fairs which followed in other 
cities were the work of both men and women. Men were ready to fall into 
line and co-operate, when women had demonstrated what could be done. 

Miss Dorothea L. Dix had served an apprenticeship of several years in 
the interests of paupers, lunatics, and prisoners. She had a large heart for 
suffering humanity, and great skill in bringing things to pass. 
When the first regiment went to the defense of the national 
capita], Miss Dix followed, ready to serve her country. Arriving soon 
after the soldiers reached the city, she began nursing the victims of the 
Baltimore mob. 

It was seen that many nurses would be needed if the war continued. 
There was no lack of applicants, for, as we know, the women of the land 
were as ready to serve the country as were their husbands and brothers. 
There was need of some one to decide upon the qualifications of the appli- 
cants. Miss Dix received the appointment of Superintendent of Female 
Nurses, and entered upon her work at once. Her duties were not clearly 
defined and she not infrequently came into collision with self-im|X)rtant 
medical directors. 

As the war continued, hospitals filled up with sick and wounded, and 
the work on her hands grew appallingly. She journeyed far and near, 
visited hospitals, discovered the wants and abuses, adjusted disputes, and 
gave instruction. She established at Washington a home for nurses, where, 
worn out with their work, they could rest and recuperate. Several large 
houses were rented as depots for sanitary supplies. It became necessary to 
employ numerous secretaries. She owned ambulances and kept them busy. 
Circulars were printed and distributed for the help and instruction of her 
nurses. Her expenses she paid from her own purse. 



Miss Clara H. Barton arrived in Washington soon after the Massachu- 
setts Sixth, and proceeded to be of service to the suffering men, carrying 
delicacies and comforts and writing letters for the men to 
Clara oarton ^^^^^ ones at home. She had no appointment, no authority, 
no compensation. Washington was soon provided with all 
the aid that was needed for the soldiers stationed there. The greater need 
was at the front. To follow an army to the field seemed a questionable 
undertaking to some, but she decided that it was right. If battles came, 
as come they must, relief would be needed, and men were continually fall- 
ing sick owing to the change from home to camp life. She went. Hers 
was the first aid to reach the men at Fairfax Station after the second Bull 

During the long and disastrous peninsular campaign, she went to the 
wharves daily when transports arrived with loads of suffering men from the 
swamps of Chickahominy, her ambulance loaded with dressings and restora- 
tives, thus alleviating their miseries as they were removed to the hospitals. 
She went by rail with a train load of supplies to minister to the wounded in 
the battles of Cedar Mountain, Chantilly, Fredericksburg, and Antietam. 
She established her headquarters in cornfields or barns, as there was 
opportunity. At Antietam she was so fortunate as to secure an abandoned 
house, where she worked day and night, while shot and shell shrieked 
around her. With face blackened almost beyond recognition, and with 
lips and throat parched by the battle smoke, she toiled on as the men 
were brought to her by scores. No wonder that she wa*s known as the 
*' Angel of the Battlefield." On the long march of the Ninth Army Corps 
from Harper's Ferry to Fredericksburg, her wagon train kept the sick sup- 
plied with comforts. It was, in fact, a great moving hospital and hers was 
the hospital larder and kitchen on wheels. 

Mrs. Mary A. Livermore relates her first experience in a military hospi- 
tal. She was in St. Louis where lay scores of wounded from Fort Donel- 
son. "The sickening odor of blood and healing wounds 
Livermore ''^^"^^^^ overpowered me. In the nearest bed lay a young 
man whose entire lower jaw had been shot away and his 
tongue cut off. A surgeon came to dress the wounds, and I was directed 



to assist him. When the bandages were removed by the surgeon for 
examination of the wound, its horrible nature became apparent. A deadly 
faintncss came over me and I was hurried to the open air for recovery/* 

She was advised to abandon the attempt to serve in the hospital, but 
she remembered what the poor men were enduring and by a great effort of 
the will she returned to the work, and ever afterward held herself in 
check against faintncss and nausea. 

The next sight that met her was a poor fellow who had been wounded 
and, falling in the mud, had frozen fast and could not extricate himself. 
After two days and nights he had been cut out and his frozen feet were 
amputated. The remaining portion of his legs were paralyzed and the flesh 
had in places sloughed off his frozen back and thighs. , 

She felt her heart burn with indignation that he should have been 
neglected so long, but the hero quickly replied, **Oh, they couldn't be 
bothering with us, they had to take the fort, and we. did not expect any- 
body to stop and sec after us until that was done. When the fort showed 
the white flag I was most gone, but the other fellows cheered and that 
roused me up. Jerry over in" that bed had lost his left arm and his right 
hand was shot away, but he threw up his right stump of an arm and hur- 
rahed enough to split his throat." 

We cannot wonder that Mrs. Livermore's soul was roused to an iron 
determination to mitigate the horrible sufferings of the wounded soldiers 
after the battles. She returned north with a burning message, which 
quickened, to a marked degree, the patriotic activities of the people. 

Mrs. A. H. Hoge tells this story of her visit to the men in the rifle- 
pits before Vickshurg. It was a hot June day, the air was almost stifling, 
minie balls whizzed by and an occasional shell cut branches 
from the few trees overhead. She heard music in one of the 
pits and drew near. A gray haired soldier was singing, 

•* Come, humble sinner, in whose breast 
A thousand thoughts revolve, 
C!ome with thy sins and fears oppressed, 
And make this last resolve." 

She was unobserved by the singer and joined in the second verse. 



Then the man burst out, ** Why, ma* am, where did you come from? 
Did you drop from heaven into these rifle pits ? * * 

She told them she had come from friends at home to bring messages of 
love and honor, and some of the comforts the friends owed them and loved 
to give, also to see if they had received the things already sent. 

** Do they think as much of us as that ? Why, boys, we can fight an- 
other year on that, can't we?*' exclaimed one. Then she said to them. 
** Boys, the women at home don't think of much else but the soldiers. If 
they meet to sew, it is for you ; if they have a good time, 'tis to gather 
money for the Sanitary Commission ; if they meet to pray, 'tis for the 
soldiers ; and even the little children as they kneel at mother's knee to 
lisp good-night prayer, say, ' God bless the soldiers.'" The men came 
out of their hiding places as birds from the rocks, and instead of cheers 
there were sobs. Then one and another and another drew from his pocket 
a daguerreotype with pictures of wife, mother, sweetheart, sister, or 
daughter, — the women at home, the inspiration of the men at the front. 

As she was going away, an officer who was near grasped her hand, say- 
ing, ** Madam, promise me you will visit my regiment to-morrow — 'twould 
be worth a victory to them. You don't know what good a lady's visit to 
the army does. These men will talk of your visit for six months to come, 
and agree that you look like an angel." She visited her son's regiment, 
which had suffered fearful losses a few weeks before. She inquired for the 
colors which had been given them as they left home. The colors were 
brought out, tattered, rent, and faded. She looked surprised and in- 
timated that they had not taken good care of the gift. ** Why, ma'am," 
exclaimed one, "'twas smoke and balls did that. Four were shot down 
carrying that flag — two are dead and two are in the hospital." 

Mrs. Hogc visited the hospitals, received messages from dying men and 
returned north, where she told of the scenes in the South. The springs 
of practical, patriotic philanthropy again flowed witli increased supplies. 

There were women who served during, as well as after, the battle. 
Bridget Divers accompanied her husband in the F'irst Mich- 
Battle '^*^" Cavalry and continued until the close of the war. In 
one of Sheridan's raids her colonel was wounded and her 


captain killed in a severe cavalry engagement. She went with the colonel 
to the rear, put him aboard the cars, and took him to a distant hospital, 
and tended him. Then having been four days and nights without sleep, 
she rested one night and returned to the front. She found that the cap- 
tain's body had not been recovered. She said it should never be left 
on rebel soil. With only an orderly for company, she rode fifteen miles, 
found the body, strapped it to her horse, and rode back seven miles to an 
embalmer, where she had the body cared for. She again took the body on 
her horse to the nearest railway station, had it placed in a coffin, and for- 
warded to Michigan. 

Returning to her regiment she told the men there were still some 
wounded men who must be brought in. She ordered ambulances and 
started back to the scene of the battle. On her return she was overtaken 
by the enemy. The ambulance driver fled and she was alone with her 
wounded men. She pleaded with the Confederates to spare the men. They 
in fact did not care to be bothered with them, the horses were taken, also 
any valuables they could find, and Bridget was left alone with her wounded 

Night came on and they were still many miles from camp, but, fortu- 
nately, one of the officers rode out for a reconnoissance and discovered them. 
Horses were soon procured and the men were brought into camp. ''Michi- 
gan Bridget," as she was called, could fight as well as nurse. It several 
times happened that when a man was killed in battle, she took his gun and 
stepped into his place in the ranks. 

"Mother" Bickerdyke. — How shall we characterize this remarkable 

woman? (ientlc yet stern, affectionate and yet wrathful on occasions, 

courageous, persistent, roughly eloquent, but above all a 
••Moiiicr** . , .,. , ,j , . , . 

Bickerdyke ^'<^"^^" ^^* executive ability who could bring things to pass. 

" Red tape" she hated and relentlessly cut on all necessary 


At the outbreak of the war she was a widow, somewhat past middle life. 

She had but a moderate education. Her frame was robust and well fitted 

to do the bidding of her iron will. 

It is interesting to observe that her minbtrations were almost exclusively 



to the private soldiers. She declared that the officers were sufficiently 
looked after, and she would work where most needed. And they were 
ardently devoted to * * Mother ' ' Bickerdyke. 

Her presence had a wonderfully stimulating effect, not only on sick 
men but even surgeons and hospital attendants. She could, and did, 
denounce with terrible vehemence any unfaithfulness on their part, and 
often secured their removal. 

In the Memphis hospitals, with which she was connected, it was rep>orted 
one morning that the surgeon of a certain ward had not appeared, that the 
special diet list had not been made out, and that the men were suffering for 
their breakfast. Quick as thought she gave orders for coffee, soup, gruel, 
and toast, and started a procession of attendants with the supplies, heading 
it, of course, herself. While they were busy feeding the sick men, the 
surgeon came. She at once faced him with, '*You miserable, drunken, 
heartless scalawag, what do you mean by leaving these fainting, suffering 
men to go till noon with nothing to eat and no attention? Off with your 
shoulder-straps and get out of the hospital ! I'll have them off in three 
days, sir.'* She was as good as her word. She made charges against him 
and he was dismissed. He went to General Sherman to complain. The 
General asked who made the charges. "Why — why, that spiteful old 
woman Bickerdyke." "Oh, well," said the general, "she ranks me. 
She has more power than I. I can't do anything for you." 

A richly earned tribute was given to such women by Rev. Dr. Bellows, 
the chairman of the Sanitary Commission. He wrote from wide observation 
and experience. " A grander collection of women, whether considered in 
their intellectual or their moral qualities, their heads or their hearts, I have 
not had the happiness of knowing. They were the flower of their sex. 
Great as were the labors of those who superintended the operations at 
home, of collecting and preparing supplies for the hospitals and the field, I 
cannot but think that the women who lived in the hospitals, or among the 
soldiers, required a force of character and a glow of devotion and self- 
sacrifice of a rarer kind. They were really heroines. They conquered 
their feminine sensibilities at the sight of wounds and of blood, their natural 
antipathy to disorder, confusion, and violence. They subdued the rebel- 



lious delicacy of their more exquisite senses. They lived coarsely and 
dressed and slept rudely. They studied the caprice of men to whom their 
ties were simply human — men often ignorant, feeble-minded, out of their 
senses, raging with pain and fever. They had a still harder service to bear 
with the pride, the official annoyance, the hardness or the folly, perhaps the 
impertinence and presumption, of half- trained medical men, whom the 
urgencies of the case had fastened on the service. 

"Their position was always critical, equivocal, suspected, and to be 
justified only by their undeniable and conspicuous merits, their wisdom, 
patience, and proven efficiency, and the love and reverence they exacted 
from the soldiers themselves." 

Though there was a vast amount iA nursing during the war, nursing 

as a profession belongs to the last quarter of this centur}' ; and a definite 

professional training is of comparatively recent date. 

Profesfi onai ^jj^^ Richards obtained a diploma as a trained nurse from 

the New England Hospital, Boston, in 1873, and is said to 

have been the first woman in America to graduate. In the same year 
Hellevue Hospital of New York opened a training school for nurses. A 
report of the condition of afifairs at the Charity Hospital on Blackwell's 
Island, New York, in 1S74, shows the need of trained nurses, as we now 
know them. 

"In the fever ward (forty beds) the only nurse was a woman from the 
workhousr, under a six months sentence for drunkenness, who told the 
patients tlu- story of a most shameful life." There were no chairs with 
backs in thr hosi)ital. WocKJcn benches were the only seats. Pillows were 
of chopped straw. In the fever ward the only bathing conveniences con- 
sisted of one tin basin, a piece of soap, and a ragged bit of cloth, passed 
from bed to bed. 

When woman as a trained nurse arrived, all was revolutionized. Her 
natural love of order and abhorrence of filth would of themselves have 
caused a transf(>rmation, but when to this was added her skill in caring for 
the sick, all was changed. The attending physicians and practicing stu- 
dents felt the stimulus of a new presence. The lives of patients took on a 
new value. 



Every well conducted hospital now has a training school for nurses as a 
part of its work. This department has been a blessing to patients in hospi- 
tals and homes. It has been of inestimable value also to physicians. They 
are relieved of anxiety as to the intelligent carrying out of their orders. 
The trained nurse follows the physician's directions as a soldier obeys the 
orders of his officer. 

Some women purposing to study medicine have served for a time as 
nurses, and it is said that conduces to the self-reliance and independence of 
thought and action necessary for the physician. 

England was in advance of America in the founding of training schools 
for nurses. When the Crimean war closed, the grateful country sought to 
express its gratitude for the marvelous work of Florence 
Murs nn: n Nighting^ale. The testimonial took the form of a cash sub- 
scription of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. This 
she refused to take for her own use, but asked that it be devoted to found- 
ing a training school where others could be fitted to minister to suffering 
humanity in peace and war. The date of the opening of this school was 
i860, thus antedating the work in America by about thirteen years. 

It is no disparagement of the women of the North to say that their 

Southern sisters endured more during the civil strife, and bore it as bravely 

as did the Northern women, and when the war was over they 

the Boutii ^^^ vastly greater difficulties to face. It was bereavement, 

plus poverty. Loved ones were gone ; fortunes were gone ; 

homes were in ruins. 

We wonder that these women were not utterly crushed under the hard 
conditions. They were not accustomed to industrial pursuits, they knew 
nothing of self-support. They had been accustomed to the service of 
numerous slaves. They had been accustomed to give thought to things 
beautiful rather than things useful. Now, it was not a question of aesthetics, 
but of existence ; it was a battle for bread. 

For a time they were stunned, dazed, helpless. Gradually the vision 
cleared, the nerves steadied, and the women of the South rose in a self- 
reliance which surprised even themselves. 

In many instances it was not merely self-support, but support of others. 



The getting of an education was for a time out of the question for the girls 
of the home, but mother and daughters toiled that the boys might have 
educational advantages. Seldom has the world seen more heroic struggles 
and self-denial than among the women of the South in the days of the recon- 
struction. It was a terriiilc ordeal ; a fiery trial. We deplore the condi- 
tion, but good has come out of it. 

Before the war, the women of the North wrre in advance of their sisters 
in the South in point of self-reliance and general development of all their 
powers. The women of New England and the West had been for many 
years winning their way educationally and industrially. They were less 
dependent upon husbands, fathers, and brothers. These developments ex- 
tended over a considerable period. 

After the war, new conditions in the South obliged women to take a 
greatly advanced i)()sition, and in a remarkably short period of time they 
took the place alongside the women of the North in corn- 
Advance "^<-'rcial, industrial, and j^rofessional life. 

There was at first an industrial awakening in the South- 
land. Then followed an educational revival. Institutions of learning had 
lost their endowments in the general wreck, many buildings were in ruins, 
and instructors were dead or engaged in other lines of bread winning. 
With the awaking, funds were secured, buildings restored, and students 

The woman of the New .South lives in a larger world. .She is occupied 
not ak)ne with the beautiful, but with the useful, and she has made the 
useful beautiful. .She is not less graceful than was her mother in the days 
before the war, but she is more vigorous. .She has not less refinement, but 
more strength. .Self-reliance has been learned in the hard school of experi- 
ence. .She has met new ccMiditions, and has i)roved herself equal to them. 

The woman of the New South has not come up to the measure of 
attainment in professional and industrial lines, but her development has 
covered a shorter period of time, conditions have been harder than in the 
North ; and so her measure of attainment may be counted one of the most 
ninarkable features of the century. 

When the colony of New Jersey was founded the constitution granted 



to all the inhabitants, under certain qualifications, the right of suffrage, 
^voman irrespective of sex. This was a foregleam of the new day, 
and the but the clouds soon gathered and quenched the light. In 
Ballot jg^^ ^j^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ repealed. 

The first convention for the consideration of Woman's Rights was held 
at Seneca Falls, N. Y. , in 1848. A declaration of sentiments was adopted 
following exactly the form of the Declaration of Independence. " All 
Men" was substituted for "King George," and in the several items 
*' he ** refers to man instead of the king. We give a few of the specifica- 
tions : — 

"He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the 
elective franchise." 

" He has compelled her to submit to laws in the formation of which she 
had no voice. * ' 

" He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant 
and degraded of men — both natives and foreigners." 

"He has taken from her all right in property, even the wages she 
earns. ' ' 

" He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all 
colleges being closed against her. ' ' 

There were presented eighteen grievances, the same number as that in 
the famous document which it followed. 

Two years later a national convention was held at Worcester, Mass. 

For the next sixteen years, that is, until about two years after the war, no 

decisive action was taken. There was much discussion and 

liirorcesier ^^^^^-j.^j^ durine the war was findintj: and fillintj: a lareer place. 
Convention ^ /^ s f. r 

She was also discovering and using new powers of organiza- 
tion and administration. In 1866 the American Equal Rights Association 
presented to Congress a petition for woman's snflrage. Though denied, 
the work took on a more systematic and aggressive character. Conven- 
tions were held, literature circulated, legislatures were j)etitioned. Mrs. 
Livermore and Lucy Stone were admitted to the Republican Convention of 
Massachusetts as regular delegates. During the next few years the indorse- 
ment of several state conventions was secured for woman's suffrage. To 



Wyominjif belongs the honor of being the first to grant full suffrage to 
woman. Limited suffrage has been granted in many states. In some, they 
may vote on school questions only, in others on questions of taxes, if they 
are tax-payers, in others on all niunicij)al questions. In twenty-nine of the 
states of the Union women enjoy some form of suffrage. 

In 1870 the petit juries of Laramie, Wyoming, weie composed of both 
men and women. It was a new departure and was watched with deep in- 
terest. Associate Justice Kingman put himself on record as follows : 
"For twenty-fnnr years it has Ixen an anxious study with me, both on 
the bench and at the bar, liow we are to prevent jury trials from degenenit- 
ing into a perfect burK^scjue : and it has remained for Albany county to 
point out the remedy and denu)nstrate the cure f<>r this threatened evil.*' 

Chief Justice Howe j)aid this tribute to tlie jury : ** In eighteen years' 
experience, I have never had as fair, candid, impartial, and able a jury in 
court as this term in Albany county." 

In 189^^ thr State Legislature of Wyoming adopted the following : — 

Resolved, that the pos>ession and exercise <>f sufi'rage by the women in 

Wvoming, for the j)ast quarter of a century, has wrought no harm and has 

done great good, in many wavs : that it has largely aided in 
lJ%'>Ot1llllfC , . 1 • .' ' . , .1 • \ * 1 

ReHoiuiioii banishing crune. pauperism, and vice from this state, and 

tliat without any vi(»hnt (»r oppressive legislation ; that it 

has secured peaceful and ordrrly elections, good government, and a 

remarkabh" dt gree of ci\ ilizati<ni and public order, and we point with pride 

to the fact th;jt after nearly twenly-tive years <»f woman sulfrage. not one 

county in W yoiniiig has a poorhouM-, that <»ur jails are almost empty, and 

(lime, except that committed by strangers in the state, is almost unkn<>wn, 

and as the lesuh of experience, we uri^e every civilized community on the 

earth to enfranchise its wonu'ii without delay. 

Kt>«>l\»(l. Thjit an authenticated copy <»f these resolutions be f(»rujirde(!, 
bv the <L;o\ern»>r (»f the state, to the legislatures of every state and terri- 
t«»rv in the country, and to e\ery legislative body in the world : and that 
we r< <juest th<- pK ss throuj^hout the civilized world to eall the attention of 
lh<ir readers to these resolutions. 

In ('<»lorado, where women were granted the right of suffrage in 1893, 



they have made their power felt in the purifying of municipal governments. 

They have not sought office, but they gave the men who 

Colorado sought office to understand that they must break with the 

power of the saloon and gambling den element. They had 

talked and pleaded before ; now that they had votes, their words needed to 

be but few and they were heeded. 

When Utah came into the Union as a state in 1896, the full franchise of 
woman was included in the constitution. The country will watch with not 
a litde interest the working of this right in a state where the Mormon 
women are so completely subject to their husbands. 

The general results of the fifty or more years of struggle for the enfran- 
chisement of women is thus summed up by Rachel Foster Avery: "There 
has been a great improvement in the legal status of woman. There has 
been a marked change in morals looking toward the same standard for man 
and woman. She has been admitted to most of the great institutions of 
learning. The various professions and business enterprises are open to 
her. In many cases these advantages, where they involved legislation to 
bring them about, were given as compromises to women asking enfranchise- 
ment, by men unwilling to grant the demand for that right, which, once 
gained and exeicised, will guarantee to its possessors all other rights which 
may come through law." 

During the preparation for the great Sanitary Fair in Chicago, 1863, 

Mrs. Livermore and Mrs. Hoge made some interesting discoveries as to the 

^fvotnan and P'^^^P^^^ty rights of women. They were arranging for the 

Property erection of a temporary woc^den structure to be known as 

It ffii s Manufacturers' Hall. The plans were drawn, the contract 
made, and the papers signed. The builders then inquired, ** Who under- 
writes for you? " " What? " the women exclaimed. " Who indorses for 
you," he explained. " We wish no indorsers, we have the money in the 
bank, and will pay you in advance if you will draw the contract accord- 
ingly. We have more faith in you than yon manifest in us," they replied. 
**It isn't a matter of faitli at all," was his answer. " You are married wo- 
men ; and by the laws of Illinois your names are good for nothing, unless 
your husbands write their names after yours on the contract." 



* ' Then let us pay you in advance, * ' they said. * ' We have the money 
of our own earning and are able to pay you on the spot. Instead of a con- 
tract, give us a promissory note like this, 'In consideration of dol- 
lars, I promise to build, for Mrs. Hoge and Mrs. Livermore, a hall of 
wood, etc.* Can't you do that? " 

* * The money of your earning belongs to your husbands by law. The 
wife's earnings are the j)roperty of her husband in this state. Until your 
husbands give their written consent, I cannot give you the promise you 
ask. The law must be respected.*' 

This was to them an astonishing revelation. They had enlisted the 
whole Northwest in a gigantic money-making enterprise which netted 
nearly one hundred thousand dollars. They had money in the bank which 
they had personally earned and which they supposed was their own. It 
was an occasion of not a little chagrin when they discovered that their 
names on paper were as absolutely worthless as that of a minor child. 

They also learned that they had no legal control of their children, 
that they were i^efore the law as minors with these children, while all 
authority was vested in the husband. 

Mrs. Livermore says she then registered a vow, that when the war was 
over, she W(nild take uj) a new work, that of making law and justice syn- 
onymous for her sex, and she declares that she kept the vow religiously. 

It should i)c said that Illinois was at this time considerably behind some 
other states, but the incident gives us a glimpse of what had been the 
j)ropcrty rights or wrongs of women in all the states. 

Rhodr Island took tin* lead in this rtform as early as 1841 by giving to 
the wife, st parated from her husband, and coming into the state as a resi- 
dent, thr sole ovvnrrship and control of her property. A few 

Bea: nil nii: years later another law was passed, securing to the wife her 
of Reform ' * ** 

own property, including her earnings, so that it could not be 

taken by the husband, nor for his debts. Massachusetts passed a similar 
law in 1845, and New York in 1848. 

The reform continued to spread until now in every state in the Union 
except Ttnnessce. the wife's property is secured to her. 

Rights and responsibilities should go together. It should be noticed 



that as an offset to the restricted property rights of married women which 
prevailed in former days, the husband was counted the legal guardian of 
the children and was liable for the support of the family. Probably most 
women are more willing to have granted. to them the right to hold property 
in their own name, than to be held jointly liable with the husband for the 
support of the family. In some of the newer western states, the property 
acquired by either husband or wife during marriage is the joint property of 
both, and they are jointly liable for the support of the family. Their legal 
standing is a sort of partnership. 

The mother's right to the guardianship of her children is recognized as 
equal to that of her husband in not more than six or eight of the states. 
Oregon, Washington, Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, and New York are of that 

As to the interest of the widow in the property of her husband, the laws 
are far from uniform, though a change has been made for the better in most 
states. The old law of dower y^'as that the widow should have a life inter- 
est in one third of the husband's real estate. This has generally been 
changed so as to grant her an equal share of the estate, with power to dis- 
pose of it by will. 

What we have said about property rights of women refers to married 
women only. Unmarried women have, during all this time, had the same 
rights of property as those enjoyed by men. 

We glance at other lands. The Married Woman's Property Act was 

passed in England in 1882. She can now hold and transfer property, sue 

and be sued, the same as though she were an unmarried 
In Burope 

woman or a man. 

In Italy and Russia the wife's property is separately and solely her 
own. In Russia the wife has a completely separate legal existence. She 
has one advantage of her husband. He is obliged to support the family — 
she is not. In Italy she needs simply a power of attorney to enable her to 
act as a single woman in respect to her property. But she can carry on 
trade without her husband's consent. 

Generally on the continent of Europe, there is recognized a common 
ownership of property, init the control is in the hands of the husband. 



There is, however, this compensation. If the dowry of the wife is endan- 
gered or the husband's affairs arc in a serious condition, the wife may 
have her property set apart for her out of the common purse. 

A widow's rights in Europe are quite limited outside England and Italy. 
In France and Belgium, for example, while she may have her own share, the 
husband's property cannot come to her until his heirs to the twelfth degree 
have failed. 

We began by citing the experience of Mrs. Livermore and Mrs. Hoge 
in Illinois. We give an epitome of the present laws as to the property 
rights of married women in that state. 

p omc They may own in their own right real and personal prop- 

erty, sue and be sued, contract and incur liabilities the same 
as if unmarried, but they may not enter into or carry on any partnership 
business without the consent of the husband, unlc^ss abandoned by him or 
he is incapai)le of giving assent. Heyond the necessaries, the husband is 
not liable for tiie debts of the wife, except in case where he would be jointly 
liable if the marriage did not exist. The estate of l)oth is liable for the 
family expenses, but the wife's separate earnings are her own. A suniving 
wife or husband takes one third of all the realty of the deceased, unless 
relin<iuislu<l in due form. Tlie husband and wife are put uj)on the same 
footing as to dower, and tlie estate of courtesy is abolished. 

Oklahoma has tak<*n advanced and it may seem radical ground. 
Neither husb.uul nor wife lias any interest in the j^roperty of the other. 
Hither ni.iy enter into any engagement or transaction with the other or 
with any otlicr j)erson. Woman retains tl'.e same legal existence after mar- 
riage as l)e!'ore. 

This (xntury has witnessed heroic struggles and brilliant victories by 
woman .uul for won^an, first, to secure an edut^ation, and then to become 
an etlueator. 

eac nK ^^^ ,^^^ ashamed of the nun of seventy-ti\<- and even fifty 

y< ars ago. a^ue renuinlxr their contemptuous altitude toward woman in 
her thir>l f^r a higher <-<lucation and her desire t(> bean educator. 

Woman is a natural teacher. She starts with certain capabilities which 
man can never acquire. Man has force : woman has tact. Man reasons : 



SO does woman ; she also has intuition, which is quicker than reason. Man 
can drive ; woman can draw. 

With the admission of women to institutions of higher education on an 
equal footing with men, and the establishment of seminaries and colleges 
for women, the way has been won for woman to become an instructor in 
the higher and even in the highest branches of learning. 

It is now generally conceded that one should have at least a high 
school education to teach a common school, and a college education to be- 
come a teacher in a high school, and a special university training to be- 
come a college instructor. Woman has met these requirements and 
secured the positions. The following tabulated statement for 1897-98 
shows the present standing of woman as a teacher : — 



Common Schools, 

High Schools (Secondary Teachers), 

Colleges and Universities, 


I 1511863 288,419 

Women have won their way from the common school, where they out- 
number men more than two to one, to the high school, where they still 
surpass men in numbers and equal them in efficiency. As we pass to the 
colleges and universities, we observe a marked change. But this is not 
surprising, as so large a proportion of the colleges are for men only, and it 
would hardly be expected that female instructors would be employed. 
The showing of 1,577 women instructors in the colleges and universities of 
the United States is of itself a mark of notable achievement. 

The great field of education is thus occupied very largely by women, a 
total of 288,419, as against 151,863 men. To be sure they are largely in 
the common schools, and this is right, not that they are lacking in capabil- 
ity, but they are more needed where lives are in the formative period. If 
we could place all the elementary teaching in the hands of men, we 
would not. The heart of woman, fitted for motherhood, is best adapted to 
the training of young lives. 





















KfjiriKlaci -! irotn .i juiirilitiK '■> .^ii:!>«t>;. i-i' TMl-t-r of 
\hv Herliii Ar.Kiriny <•• An.--. 


^T NY study of this theme must naturally divide itself into four parts : 
r^ (i) the literary position of women in the classic ages ; (2) in the 
continental nations of Europe ; (3) in England ; (4) in America. 
Let me, therefore, take up these four points in their due succession. 


Strange to say, during the classic period, feminine genius developed 
itself to a very high point, unsurpassed for a thousand years ; and this 
through one woman, with the circle she summoned around her. Sappho 
(610 H. C. ) grew up in the highlands of Lesbos, where women had more 
freedom and more culture than elsewhere, and where, by a most gratifying 
coincidence, they also made bread so' admirable that it has kept its reputa- 
tion for two thousand years. The Greek Archestratus, who wrote a book 
on cookery, said that if the gods were to eat bread they would send to 
Eresos — Sappho's birthplace — to buy it, and a traveler, Mr. C. T. 
Newton, who visited the village in 1865, reported the same receipt for bread 
as still followed. 

The Greek Anthology mentions seven women who were as it says 
'* divinely tongued." Of these Sappho was the recognized chief. Among 
the old Greeks, "the poet" meant Homer, "the poetess" meant Sappho. 
There flourished in those days, says Strabo, writing a little before the 
Christian era, •*Saj)pho, a wondroui: creature, for we know not any wo- 
man to have appeared within recorded time who was in the least to be com- 
pared with her in respect to poetry." She and Alcieus — her townsman 
and possible lover — were the joint founders of the lyric poetry of the world. 
Pindar and Anacreon, Horace and Catullus, imitated their measures. 
Alcieus is the authc)r of tlu't noble poem translated by Sir William Jones 
and ])eginnin3L^ '* What constitutes a state." But of him, as of Sappho, 
only fragments remain, one of which is a line addressed by him to her, — 
** Violet-crowned, pure, sweetly smiling Sappho.** 

Plato called her the tenth muse. Solon so admired one of her poems 
that he wished he might not die until he had learned it by heart. Legends 



grew up around her in the hands of the Roman Ovid, living centuries 
later, for which it is now admitted that there is no ground ; this being 
especially true since the work of the German Welcker under the title 
'* Sappho Vindicated from a prevailing Prejudice." Bishop Thirlwall said 
of this book, * * The tenderness of Sappho, whose character has been res- 
cued, by one of the happiest efforts of modern criticism, from the unmerited 
reproach under which it had labored for so many centuries, appears to 
have been no less pure than glowing.'* 

Of all modern poets, the one who has most highly praised the genius of 
Sappho is Swinburne, who says of her, ' * Her remaining verses are the 
supreme success, the final achievement of the poetic art,'* and says of his 
own translations, * ' I have striven to cast my spirit into the mould of hers, 
to express and represent, not the poem but the poet, ' ' and he describes her 
in his Songs Before Sunrise^ 

•* O deathless, O god's daughter, subtle soul.*' 

An admirable little volume of her poems, including every broken frag- 
ment of the text with a memoir with selected renderings and a literal 
translation, accompanied by the original, was published by David Stott, 
Oxford, in 1885, the editor being the late Henry T. Wharton. He paid 
the writer the honor of including in this volume the writer's own version 
of Sappho's most celebrated poem, the ** Ode to Aphrodite," which is as 
follows : — 

Beautiful- throned, immortal Aphrodite, 
Daughter of Zeus, beguiler, I implore thee. 
Weigh me not down with weariness and anguish, 
O thou most holy I 

Come to me now, if ever thou in kindness 
Hearkenedst my words, — and often hast thou hearkened — 
Heeding, and gliding from the mansions golden 
Of thy great Father, 

Yoking thy chariot, borne by thy most lovely 
Consecrated birds, with dusky-tinted pinions, 
Waving swift ^^-ings from utmost heights of heaven 
Through the mid-ether ; 



Swiftly they vanished, leaving thee, O goddess, 
Smiling, with face immortal in its beauty, 
Asking why I grieved, and why in utter longing 
I had dared call thee; 

Asking what I sought, thus hopeless in desiring, 
Wildered in brain, and spreading nets of passion — 
Alas, for whom ? and saidst thou, '* Who has harmed thee ? 
O my poor Sappho I 

** Though now he flies, ere long he shall pursue thee ; 
Fearing thy gifts, he too in turn shall bring them ; 
Ix)ve less to-day, to-morrow he shall woo thee, 

Though thou shouldst spurn him.*' 

Thus seek me now, O holy Aphrodite I 
Save me from anguish ; give me all I ask for, 
Gifts at thy hand ; and thine shall be the glory, 
Sacred protector I 


The literary development of women on the continent of Europe has 
always been fragmentary rather than systematic. There has been no con- 
tinuous recognition of the mental powers of the sex, except so far as it was 
seen in the universities of Bologna and Padua, recorded in the one case 
by Carolina Bonafede, and in the other by Napoleone Pietrucci. The 
most remarkable instances of prominence in these easels were those of 
Laura Catherine Maria Bassi (1711-1778) and Clotilda Tambroni. The 
former of these on April 17, 1732, held a public dispute on philosophy 
in the Latin language at Bol<^gna and in the May following submitted her- 
self to philosophical examination, after which the faculty invested her with 
the ofli( ial gown and crowned her with a silver crown. The senate of the 
city settled a pension upon her. .She married Dr. Veratti. She bore a 
large family, was an admirable housekeeper, and was appointed by the uni- 
versity to be professor of experimental philosophy, in which she had 
carried on for twenty-eight years, in her own house, a course of investiga- 

Clotilda Tambroni (1758- 18 17) was born at Bologna and learned Greek 
by listening to the lessons of a celebrated scholar, Professor Aponte, who 
lodged with the Tambroni family. By his influence, she was, while quite a 



girl, appointed teacher of Greek in the junior department and afterwards 
became a full professor. Several other ladies of distinction received honors 
from the same university, and the intellectual position of medieval women 
in Italy was doubtless higher than that enjoyed by them anywhere else. 

It is a curious fact that during the Augustan Age of France, that of 
Louis XIV., the person whose style has on the whole best borne the test of 
time was a woman writing letters to her daughter. Other letter writers 
of that time, then praised to the skies, such as Voiture and the elder Bal- 
zac, are now unreadable and forgotten. But those of Madame de S6vign6 
(1627-1696) are still read and translated, and furnished in England at a 
later period the unquestioned model of those of Horace Walpole and I^dy 
Mary Wortley Montagu. Like Walpole she painted by single touches and 
gave immortality to trifles. Her literary judgments have sometimes not 
been confirmed, as where she said of Racine that he would prove but a 
passing flavor like that of coffee, '' II passera comme le ca/i''\' and she 
shows an unfeeling and almost cruel nature in the amusement she often 
extracts from the misfortunes of others. Her letters were not intended for 
publication and actually did not appear until thirty years after her death, in 
1696, and there is not in literature, perhaps, so remarkable an instance of 
peniianent fame attained without conscious effort for the purpose. 

Another brilliant French woman. Mademoiselle de Scuderi, or Scudery 
(1607-1701), was one of the long series of women who have contributed 
to the literary reputation of men by writing books under men's names. 
The interminable novels which bore the name of Scuderi were known even 
at the time to be the joint product of herself and her brother, George. 
But it became gradually known that she wrote them nearly all, and that her 
brother locked her up in her room to write them while he went about his 
amusements. Among these books were, Artamtuc, Clclie, Lc Grajid 
Cyrus^ and Ibrahim. She was chosen a member of the Academy of 
Padua, Christina of Sweden sent her her picture, and she was pensioned 
by both Cardinal Mazarin and Louis XIV. It liappened to her once in 
traveling that she and her brother discussed at an inn whether the hero of 
the story should die by poison or by the sword and when the brother said, 
** Not quite yet, we can dispatch him when we please," some eavesdroppers 



reported it to their host who called the police and the novelists were sent 
back under a stronji; escort to Paris. No woman of her period contributed 
so much by her writings to relieve the monotony of life in many a solitary 

Anna Maria Schurmann (1607-1678), a German contemporary of 
Mademoiselle de Scuderi, was one of the traditional marvels in the way of 
learning. In early girlhood she learned more or less of music, painting, 
sculpture, and engraving, succeeding equally well in all, and it is recorded 
that she made artificial pearls so like natural ones that they could be distin- 
guished only by pricking them with a needle. She wrote and spoke Latin, 
Greek, Hebrew, I^'rench, Knglish, and Italian like her own language and 
had studied several Oriental languages. She corresponded with scholars all 
over luirope and wrote an essay, De I liw Humana* Tvrmino, She became 
a convert of the celebrated mystical writer Labadie and wrote in defense of 
his opinions. 

Madame Dacier (1651-1720) was the great translator during her 
period, and her versions are still quoted. They included Plautus, Terence, 
Aristophanes, Plutarch, and Homer, but she was shy of discussing mat- 
ters of scholarship and when asked for her name for a learned album added 
to it a sentence from Sophocles, *' Silence is the ornament of women." 

Madame Deshoulieres (originally Mademoiselle de la Garde) (1634- 
1694) was another feminine member of the Padua Academy and an accom- 
plislu'd scholar in various modern languagt^s, besides having acquired some 
scientitic knowletlge. Ht-r husband served under the great Conde and took 
an active part in the civil wars of the Fronde and she was herself imprisoned 
on one occasion for eight months. She wrote many pastoral poems which 
were admired by the most cultivated Frenchmen of the time, the two Cor- 
neilles, Flechier, ( hiinault, and La Rochefoucauld. Her daughter also took 
a prize for poetry at the French Academy against Fontenelle. 

Madame Guyon, best known as the friend of F(-nelon and the founder 
of the sect of Ouietists C 164H-1717 ), was a singularly noble and lovable 
French woman who composed many religious l)Ooks and had much per- 
secuti<)n to undergo, being repeatedly tried, imprisoned, but usually 
ac(|uitted. .She left nearly thirty volumes of writings, but is best rcmem- 



bered by her hymns, which were singularly elevated and beautiful. Some 
of these were translated by the poet, Cowper, and the best remembered are 
perhaps that beginning- '^ O Thou by long experience tried,*' and that 
peculiarly graceful one whose first verse is — 

*• Sometimes a light surprises 

The Christian while he sings. 
It is the Lord who rises 

With healing on his wings. 
When comforts are declining 

He grants the soul again 
A season of clear shining 

To cheer it after rain." 

Madame de Genlis (1746- 1830) was one of the most prolific authors of 
her time and one of the ablest, and, while acting as governess in the fam- 
ily of the Duke of Orleans, wrote many books which were translated into 
other languages and had a wide circulation. These were, for instance, The 
Tales of the Castle and The Theatre of Iiducatio7i, which were quite familiar 
to American children half a century ago. They are still both forcible and 
readable, and her views of education were far in advance of her period. 

Madame Roland (i 754-1 793), whose name as preserved by her memoirs 
will keep her longer in memory than any of those yet mentioned, used to 
read Plutarch s Lives when nine years old and carried them to church with 
her for secret perusal, thus forming herself upon them and marrying the 
man in all France who was most like to ow: of them, Monsieur Roland, a 
leader of the (Girondist party. When minister of the interior, he lost his post 
because of a letter of remonstrance to the king which was in reality written 
by his wife, and when protesting against the Reign of Terror they fell 
victims to it. She was thrown into prison and there prepared her memoirs, 
which are likely to be among the immortal books. Her remark when she 
passed beneath the statue of Liberty on her way to the scaffold. '* O Liberty, 
how many crimes are committed in thy name!" will hold its place among 
historic cpiotations. She died at thirty-nine, and a few days after the 
body of her husband was found in a sitting posture beneath a tree, stabbed 
to the heart by himself, with a paper pinned to his garments, saying that 
he could not live without her. 



The most distinguished of women writers in France, and perhaps in all 
history, was Madame de Stael (i 766-1817). She was the daughter of a 
celebrated banker, Monsieur Necker ; and instead of being educated in a 
convent, like most Frencli girls of her period, she was brought up in her 
father's house, and accustomed from childhood to a highly intellectual 
society. This cultivated lur mind and gave her an especial interest in 
political qu(\stions, which was further developed by her early marriage to 
the Bart)n de Stael Holstein, Swedish Ambassador at the Court of France. 
She took an active [)art in public affairs and, though a republican, published 
a powerful defense of Oueen Marie Antoinette. She lived in Paris under 
the Republic, and exerted much public and private influence. Incurring 
the wrath of Napoleon, she was banished for a time, and it was said of her 
by the conqueror, " What does the woman want, does she want the money 
the state owed to her father ? " and she replied, *' The question is not what 
I want, but what I think." This was the first instance in the history of 
P^urope, pirhaps, when a woman's thoughts, apart from her personal influ- 
ence, were recognized as forces in the political world. Her best known 
books wen- thr two fouiuled (m lu-r visits to Italy and (lermany. Corijinc, 
oil I' Italit\\\u\ LWIlcmaiTuc. She had some personal vanities and pecul- 
iarities, but no one (an nad her works even at this tlay without recogniz- 
ing their reniarkal)le j)ower. 

Perhaps one of the nio>t eminent (lerman wonum, intellectually speak- 
ing, was Raliel or Rachel X'arnhagen von Iuim- i 1771-1S33 ) ; the same 
whom Whiltier describes as "the blue-eyed derman Rahel," although she 
was unhappily a Jewess and had brilliant black eyes. She knew and cor- 
resj)on(le(l with most distinguished (Germans of her time, had great wit, 
originalilw and truthfulness, and made herself a ministering servant to all 
^nfterers during the war perio<l at Berlin in 1.S13 and the terrible pestilence 
in iS;^i, when >he exclaimed triumphantly, "My whole day is a feast of 
doing g<»< k1. " 

As W'hittiei p.iid tribute to her so did Kmerson to Bettina Bretano 
( i7S5-i^5<^ '. ot \\lios<- ('orres|)on<lence with < ioethe he says that at one time 
he hardly nrcdcd any other book. That with her friend (iiinderode was 
e(jnally laseinatinii to the readers of half a century ago, and was charmingly 



translated in part by Margaret Fuller, the work being afterward com- 
pleted by Mrs. Minna Wesselhoeft. These books were such a delight to the 
writer in his youth that he may be in danger of overrating them, but their 
memory led him in later years to spend several happy days upon the Rhine 
in searching out the haunts which Bettina loved and the scene of Giinde- 
rode*s tragic death. 

Marie Aurore Dudevant (i 804-1 876), best known as George Sand, 
held once a literary standing which is now somewhat impaired by a change 
of literary taste, but the beauty of her style is still conceded and her novel 
of Consuelo was considered, fifty years ago, to be one of the epoch-making 
books. Her free and somewhat daring mode of life created a suspicious 
feeling toward her stories such as they hardly justified, for when tried by 
more recent French standards they are delicacy itself. Perhaps those that 
are simplest and sweetest in their tones, as, for instance, La Mare au Diabie, 
will outlast any of her more elaborate efforts. 


The literary development of women in England, coming later than in 
Italy and Germany, proceeded much more rapidly, as did the provisions 
for their education. Dr. Johnson, tlie intellectual monarch of the last 
century, compared the manifestation of intellect in women to the figure of 
a dog dancing on his hind legs ; he does not do it well, but we are sur- 
prised that he can do it at all. Yet our best insight into Dr. Johnson him- 
self is attainable, not so much through Boswell, as through two of his 
female friends, Mrs. Thrale and Madame D'Arblay (Fannie Burney). It 
was seven years after his death, moreover, that the first definite plan for the 
intellectual position of woman was made by Mary Wollstonecraft — after- 
wards the wife of William Godwin — in 1791. This was, in reference to its 
subject, an epoch-making book. Its author (1759-1793) had a remarkable 
career and produced a varied literature ; her Historical I Inc of the French 
Revolution gave her a place among the strong thinkers of the day and her 
Letters from Nonvay had a charm in their descriptions of nature, in which 
department they then found no equal in English literature. All these were 
written before her marriage with Godwin. Her only daughter, Mary 



Wollstonecraft Shelley, will always be identified in fame with her gifted 
husband, and her novel Frankenstein gave her a reputation which her series 
of later romances did little to justify. 

There appeared afterwards, in rapid succession, a remarkable series of 
English women of whom the most gifted are now seen to have been, in 
their respective departments, Jane Austen, Harriet Martineau, and Mary 

There is something remarkable in the steady and increasing recognition 
of fame in the case of Jane Austen (1775-1817), beside the obviously waning 
literary reputation of Miss Burney and Miss Edgeworth, "both of whom 
outshone her in their day. Scott, it is true, always placed her above her 
rivals while she herself modestly undervalued the little piece of ivory, as 
she said, on which she worked so hard. Her fame, after all, illustrates the 
fact that the highest work of fiction is to create character rather than plot. 
A person like Jane Austen, who can introduce us, for instance, to a family 
of ^\'Q sisters, not one of them very remarkable, but so perfectly individ- 
ualized by her, that, on turning the page, we can recognize without being 
told which sister made a certain remark or did a certain act — such an 
author vindicates in the highest sense her claim to the title of artist and her 
work may truly be called creative. Tried by this sole test, Jane Austen 
un([uestionably stands very near the head of the world's literar>' workers 
and her fame rests on sure grounds. 

The name of Harriet Martineau (1S02-1876) was identified with the 
great moral reforms and social development of her day ; and Lord 
Hrougham. who was regarded for a time as the leading intellect of England, 
designated her as the most intellectual woman of her period, and en- 
couraged her to write pamphlets and stories illustrating the most important 
points of political economy. Her Juisiern /.//i' was, in its time, the best 
picture of Oriental travel, and her Life in the Sick Room was a heroic 
delineation of the j^ower of self-control and patience. W^v Letters on Man s 
Xature ami Pezriopment somewhat impaired her influence, as lK»ing written 
partly under the leadership of Mr. H. (i. Atkinson, a man who did not, 
unless through her, greatly influence mankind ; but she was to the end 
of her days a powerful reformer and also a good hater. 



The career of Mary Somerville (1780-1872) is profoundly interesting, 
as read in her own recollections. She had in childhood no opportunity of 
scientific knowledge, but on being present at a card party in Scotland, 
found in an illustrated magazine of fashions an algebraic problem which de- 
termined the whole course of her life : and thenceforth, under all obstacles, 
she followed up the subject. Her father only discouraged her and pre- 
dicted that the study would drive her mad. She was married young to a 
husband who took no interest in science and had a contempt for the intel- 
lect of women. Her own family considered her eccentric and foolish, hut 
her second husband was devotedly kind and generous and rejoiced in all 
the scientific honors she subsequently obtained. Her works, Comiexioji 
of the Physical Sciences, Mechanism of the Heavens, and Physical 
Geography, went through many editions. 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861) led a life very exceptional in 
various ways. Her mind was disciplined by an unusual education and her 
character by prolonged illness, but she married most happily and the high 
water mark of her poetry is shown in love sonnets to her husband, the 
Smmets from the Portuguese. Spending most of her married life in Italy, 
she devoted herself with enthusiasm to continental politics and, rather to 
the surprise of the most of her admirers, was in sympathy with the short- 
lived career of Louis Napoleon. Her longest poem. Aurora Leigh, was full 
of profound sympathy with the wrongs of her sex, and drew from the first 
of living English poets a praise like that which he bestowed on Sappho. 
He says of her : — 

" No English contemporary poet by profession has left us works so 
full of living fire. Fire is the element in which her genius lives and 
breathes ; it has less hold on earth than Tennyson's or Browning's or Miss 
Ingelow's, and less aerial impulse, less fantastic or spiritual aspiration, 
than Miss Rossetti's. But all these noble poets seem to play with life and 
passion like actors or like students if compared with her." , 

The high water mark of prose writing among iMiglish women was un- 
doubtedly attained by Mrs. Cross, who wrote under the name of George 
Eliot (1819-1880). She was educated at home, except for a year's resi- 
dence as governess at Geneva, became an assistant editor of the Westmin- 



ster Revinc and was first known as a writer of fiction by her Scenes of 
Clerical Life ( 1858 ). Shr afterwards wrote Adant Bede, The Mill on the 
Floss, Silas Manier, Romola, Felix I Toll. Middlemarch, and other w-orks 
of which Middlemarch was probably the niatiirest and best. Sharing with 
Miss Austen the power of creating individual characters, she reached far 
greater depths and one of her poems, " O May I Join the Choir Invisible," 
would alone strcure to her a lasting fame. 


Following out the plan already indicated under which mention has 
only been made of those attaining the higher degrees of excellence, it 
needs only to be said that in the early period of American life literature 
was wholly subordinated to theology among women as among men, and 
while an extraordinary intiuence was exerted by the former sex, as in the 
cas(* of the celebrated Anne Hutchinson, it did not embody itself in 
literature, and those women who early engaged in literature, as Anne 
Hradstreet and Phyllis Whtatley, left little that was valuable behind. 
Miss Sedgwick, Miss Leslie, and above all Mrs. Lydia Maria Child, gained 
afterwards a widr though not pirmanent reputation : and all were eclipsed 
by the cxlraordin.iry success of ( 'ncle Tonf s Cabin, the production of Mrs. 
Harriet Heeclur Slowe • 1S11-1S96). .Shejwas the daughter of the Rev. 
Lyman Bei elier. D.D. . and the wife of Prof. Calvin K. Stowe. Her life 
upon the we>tern border had brought her closely in contact with slavery, 
antl after >he had remo\e<i with her husband to the little town of Hrunswick, 
in Maine, she wrote. anii<l the cares of her own nursery, a book which was 
within a year or two more widely read and in a greater variety of languages 
than any book that had e\ er appeared within the history of the world. 
The publi>hirs had put litth* faith in it and wished her to share the expense 
of j)rintinii it. but ten th<»usand copies were sold in a week, and according 
to Mrs. Stow I > own statement, perhaps a little exaggerated, three hundred 
thousand ((>j)ies within the year. Within eight months twelve shilling edi- 
tions wtre i>su«(l in London. There were in all forty Kni^lish editions, and 
thiTe was in th<- British .Museum, some years since, a collection of versions 
in twenty ditTerent languages and sometimes from six to ten diflerent trans- 



lations in the same language. It cannot be said that this success was due 
to the subject only, for both Harriet Martineau and Richard Hildreth had 
written anti-slavery novels, but the comparative mediocrity of Mrs. Stowe's 
other work shows that the theme at least helped the work of the author. 
Various books by other authors, also mediocre, as The Lamplighter and 
The Wide Wide World, also followed in the path of success ; but no other 
American woman can be said to have achieved a permanent name in fiction 
until the writings of Miss Mary E. Wilkins (1862), who has dealt with the 
oft-told story of plain New England life with extraordinary success, and who 
occasionally, as in \i^x Jane Field, exhibits a grasp which fairly entitles her 
to rank among the great artists. Among other successful American writers 
of fiction may be mentioned Miss Sarah Orne Jewett of Massachusetts, Miss 
Mary N. Murfree of Tennessee, the lady who writes under the name of 
Octave Thanet (Miss Alice French of Iowa), and Miss Grace King of New 

It is a singular coincidence that the two American women, who stand 
highest in poetic genius should have been born within a few years of one 
another in the same little New England town, Amherst, Mass. One of 
these, Helen Waria Fiske (1831-1885), was the daughter of an Amherst 
professor and the wife of an army officer, Captain Edward Hunt, though all 
her literary development occurred after she became a widow. The other, 
Emily Dickinson (i 830-1886), who was the daughter of Edward Dickinson, 
the treasurer of Amherst College, led a peculiarly shy and secluded life, so 
that only one or two of her poems were published during her lifetime. In 
both cases, therefore, there was something abnormal in their literary fame, 
although Mrs. Hunt had lived in various places, had traveled much, had a 
wide acquaintance, and was, when compared with Miss Dickinson, an 
experienced woman of the world. Her poems sound a depth of passion 
and analysis equaled by no other American woman, but she was best 
known by two prose works, A Century of Dishonor and Ramo)ia, both 
devoted to depicting the wrongs of the American Indian. In later life she 
became the wife of Mr. William S. Jackson and resided with him in Colo- 
rado, but died in San Francisco. 

Emily Dickinson wrote no prose, except some remarkable letters which 



were published after her death, but her shy and mysterious poems, always 
short and full of the most elevated and ideal thoughts, achieved unexpected 
popularity and had, strange to say, a wider circulation than those of any 
contemporary poet. 

Next to these two authors in poetic ability and surpassing both in 
standard of skillful execution and also in transatlantic fame is Louise 
Chandler Moulton (1835) of Boston. Prolonged residence in London has 
given her a much wider personal acquaintance, has given her work more 
direct publicity, than belonged to either of those just mentioned and, since 
their decease, she undoubtedly stands at the head of women poets in 
America. With her should, however, be linked a woman of singular social 
brilliancy and varied experience, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe (1819), whose 
permanent literary fame is likely to rest upon a single poem, *' The Battle- 
Hymn of the Republic," which owes its fame largely to its connection with 
the most popular war song of the civil war, although mainly to the ardor 
and fire of its execution. The number of American women writers is now 
very large and constantly increasing, but it may be that those whom we 
have mentioned are the ones who, tried by the standard of permanent fame, 
have a(fcomplished the most for their country. 

We have made no effort to go beyond the leading names of those who 
have attained to fame among literary women. It may be said of them as a 
whole that their development has been broken and unequal, not merely 
through the varying influences of different races, but through the inter- 
rupti(Mis of war and the lingering prejudice against their work. Enough 
has, however, been produced at almost every period to show the still greater 
results that might have followed from a more generous recognition and a 
more systematic culture. All modern society has, until a very recent 
period, been incredulous and repressive in dealing with intellectual women, 
and it is a satisfaction to think that it is in the English-speaking nations as 
a whole that more sympathy has been bestowed on them and more justice 
has been done their just claims. 



^J^T the centennial celebration of the American patent system held in 
^^4. Washington city in April, 1891, the Honorable Carroll D. Wright 
of Massachusetts, in an address on The Relation of Invention to 
Labor, said these words : * * The age of invention found its birth in the 
development of spinning and weaving, and as these two arts lay at the very 
foundation of the industrial arts of the ancients, so they are the basic arts of 
the modern system of industry. ' ' The inspiration that led to the celebra- 
tion of the beginning of the second century of our American patent system 
was a happy one, for it gave opportunity for the description of the develop- 
ment of invention in its many phases by masters in the various divisions of 

Conspicuous among the papers presented on that occasion was one by 
Professor Otis T. Mason. This eminent student of mankind has given 
many years of his life to the study of the rich stores of objects that have 
come to the National Museum from all parts of the world, and from these 
he has worked out the evolution of many of our household implements, so 
that there was none more competent than he to tell of the Birth of Inven- 
tion. He sees the beginning of the cradle "when the savage woman a 
century or two ago strapped her dusky offspring to a rude frame and hung 
it upon the nearest sapling for the winds to rock," and the ocean steamer, 
with skin of steel drawn over ribs of like material, he traces to the Kskimo's 
framework of driftwood or whale's rib, over which is stretched a covering 
of sealskin. 

From this paper grew his valuable book on The Origin of InventioJis^ 
and in it he writes : * ' There is no reason to doubt that the very first women 
were weavers of a crude kind, and that the textile art has been with us 
always in one form or other." And so it is evident that our oldest inven- 
tion, that of weaving, had its origin with woman. 

It is not difficult from this beginning to show how primitive man, occu- 
pied with the necessity of providing his family with food, became proficient 
in the arts of hunting and fishing, while the care of the household was left 



to the wife, from whom came the inspirations that have given to us our 
modern civilization. Indeed, within tlie memory of most of us, in that part 
of the country which was called tlie Oreat West, could be seen the Indian 
woman fashioning the pottery of which "no tool but a woman's delicate 
fingers has touched the gracious surface," or weaving the blankets that 
rival the rugs of the Orient in the richness of their coloring, or making the 
baskets that are now so eagerly sought for by lovers of the beautiful and 
curious. From a desire to make the objects more beautiful she sought and 
found inspiration " in the vivid flash of lightning, the fleecy clouds, the 
seed pods of plants, the ripple of a stream, the scale of a fish, the graceful 
interlacing of twigs and stems, and the flight of birds across the sky." 
Woman's interpretation <>f nature furnished her with designs for decoration, 
and thus the art-instinct began to manifest itself in mankind. 

From primitive woman to the present, the time is long, and, although 
we can trace without difficulty the origin of many arts to woman, still it is 
also true comf)aratively few inventions have been made by them. Says a 
recent writer : " None, indeed, which have involved difficult considerations 
have come from women in this or other countries," and in explanation of 
this fact he adds: "This limitation is doubtless due to the very narrow- 
range of education and eni|)loynient in tliat sex." It would be too much 
to claim for woman, tliat she possessed the same mental temperament as 
man, and therefore the mechanisms of invention have usually been devised 
by him. 

We can. however, rightly and proudly claim that the ins[)iration from 
which many im|)ortant inventions have come hail their origin with woman. 
It was James Hargreaves, an unlettered and untutored hand-spinner and 
weaver, who, watching his wife at the spinning wheel in their cottage, took 
the hint from her nimble fingers and invented a machine which he then 
called the Spinning Jenny. 

The Hon. H<njamin lUitterworth, who was commissioner of patents, 
sai<l : " Whitney's cotton gin contributed more for the convenience and 
comfort of mankind than was derived frr)m the aggregated labor of every 
workman in liis state for five years." That the invention of the cotton gin 
was inspired by a woman is well known. /\t a gathering of gentlemen at 



the home of the widow of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, near Savannah, Georgfia, 
the desirability of inventing a machine that would greatly facilitate the 
cleaning of cotton was mentioned. *'Send for Mr. Whitney," said Mrs. 
Greene, **hecan make anything." Whitney studied the isubject and the 
cotton gin was the result. 

Senator Daniel of Virginia wrote : " Woman's intuitions are proverbial ; 
when she turns them to mechanical invention the possibilities of achieve- 
ment surpass the scope of prophecy." On May 5, 1809, Mary Kies re- 
ceived for an invention of ** straw weaving with silk or thread," the first 
patent issued to a woman by the United States Government. Mrs. Mary S. 
Lockwood, in commenting on this patent, said : ** It is a short road back to 
the primitive woman who found the warp and woof for mat and basket in 
the waving grasses, palms, and calamus surrounding her door." It was not 
until six years later, on July 21, 181 5, that a second patent was granted to 
a woman and then the invention was a "corset." Mary Brush was the 
name of the inventor. Prior to 1850 there were only thirty-two patents re- 
corded as being issued to women, and of that number two were for corsets 
and one for a sheet iron shovel. From the list of titles of inventions pub- 
lished not much information can be gleaned, but we note that in 1845 
Sarah P. Mather is credited as being the fortunate inventor of a *' sub- 
marine telescope and lamp." 

During the decade of 1850-60, twenty-three patents were issued to wo- 
men by the United States Patent Office. No. 6423, issued to Agdalena S. 
Goodman of Duval County, Florida, for an improvement in broom brushes, 
is said to be the first patent given to "a native born American woman." 
The titles given for these years include a baby-jumper, lady's skirt, clothes 
frame, door-lock, fountain pen, and composition for kindling fires. 

Having demonstrated her right to obtain the deserved recognition of 
her inventive skill from the National Government, woman at once began 
her active competition with man in that domain. It is not surprising there- 
fore to find in the records of the ten years that followed i860 a large in- 
crease in the number of names of women among the successful inventors of 
that period. The entire number of patents granted to women during the 
time mentioned was two hundred and sixty-seven, or more than ten times 



as many as were issued to women during the previous decade. Obviously 
it will be impossible to attempt any account of the inventions of this period, 
but in the list of their titles the word improvement begins to appear more 
and more frequently, and there were patents granted to women for an im- 
provement in reaping and mowing machines, in locomotive wheels, in re- 
ducing straw and other fibrous substances for the manufacture of paper 
pulp, in heating stoves, and in corn plows. Many of these improvements 
refer to special articles of woman's dress, and so there are improvements 
recorded in corset skirt supporters, in hair crimpers, in ladies' hoods, in 
ladies' paper undersleeves, in hoop skirts, in headdresses, in combined 
corsets and bustles, and a rouge pad. - 

During the quarter of a century that followed, the number of patents 
granted to women increased more than tenfold, and in the lists published 
that extend down to March i, 1895, there are recorded about thirty-five 
hundred patents and designs that were granted to women. Since that 
time, that is, during the past four years, fully five hundred more patents 
have been issued to women, thus swelling the entire number to more than 
four thousand. 

In the list issued by the Patent Office for the j>eriod between October i, 
1892, and March i, 1895, the patents granted to women were arranged in 
dehnite groups, and from that classification we take the following sum- 
maries, which indicate the kinds of things that women have invented. 
I'ndrr aj^ricultural implements there were fifteen patents granted, including 
one eadi for a liarrow, a rake, a digging machine, and a wheel cleaner. 
There were nine art appliances patented, and six baby carriers, including a 
nursery case for children's carriages. Four barrel attachments and two 
l)icycle attachments follow, and then come twenty-two building appurte- 
nancrs of which eij^ht were varieties of fire escapes. There were two 
bottling apparatus, six boxes and baskets, and three under clock and re- 
pairing. The class culinary utensils included one hundred and two patents, 
among which may hv mentioned the following titles : Stove hood, cooking 
kettlr, meat broiler, bake oven, sliding drawer, shield for baking ovens, 
detachal)lr handle for coffee pots, dough raiser, batter droi)per, ^^ tc»ster, 
milk pan cover, combination beef mangier, invalid's hot tray, pot for preserv- 



ing provisions on ice, and mayonnaise mixer. Under educational appli- 
ances there were fifteen, and for flowers and plants five patents were 
granted. Furniture and furnishings yielded no less than fifty-three patents, 
many of which were combination articles, such as combination tnmk, bureau, 
and writing table, combination lx)ok rest and table, or stand, arm and 
waist rest, school desk and organ combined, knee desk and reading stand, 
combined folding table and bed, and combined baby tender and crib. 
Thirty-one patents were issued to women for heating apparatus, while there 
were only three for horseshoes, and all to the same woman. Under medi- 
cal appliances there were twenty-three ; under motor, three, one of which 
was a windmill or wind motor ; under musical apparatus, six ; under plumb- 
ing, three ; under preserving and disinfecting, two ; under printing and 
binding, (\ve : and under railway appliances, eight, with one for a railroad 
car and one for an attachment for unloading box cars. Screens and awn- 
ings yielded six, while sewing and spinning were productive of thirty 
patents, most of which were improvements or attachments for sewing 
machines. Under stationery there are recorded nine patents, and under 
theatrical apparatus four titles are given, one of which is for an artificial leg 
for theatrical purposes. Toilet articles are more numerous, and among the 
eleven titles arc, a toilet vaporizing apparatus for the complexion, a face 
mask for treating tlie skin, two hair curlers, a curling tool, and a pin curl. 
Twenty-seven toys and games were credited to wcmien during the period 
nienti(Mied. and tlie titles sliow a game table for soap bubbles, a composition 
for blowing soap bubbles, and a marble shof)ting toy. Of trunks and bags 
there were seventeen, including a combined trunk and couch, a collapsible 
trunk, a knockdown case, and a convertibh^ or combined bath tub and 
traveling bag. while only six were recorded in the class of typewriters and 
appliances. I'nder washing and cleaning we find no less than fifty-three 
titles of inventions ; but the longest of all the groups was naturally that of 
wearing apparel, of which there were one lumdred and thirty-two patents 
issued, and of that number forty-six wrre for various kinds of woman's 
underwear and their fastenings. Tlie miscellaneous class, comprising 
twenty-seven titles, included a thermometer scale, a cigarette holder, a 
centrifugal screen, a burial apparatus, and a clamp joint. 



This list has perhaps been over long, but it will have served its purpose 
if it demonstrates as clearly as it should that thus far the inventive genius 
of woman has manifested itself chiefly in devising improvements of the 
minor articles of life. Those things that pertain to the home, both in the 
drawing room and in the kitchen, have received her consideration, and 
she has added largely to the comfort of our everyday life by her ingenuity. 

At the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893, there was a special collec- 
tive exhibit of the inventions made by American women, and the models of 
three hundred and thirty-flve inventions were shown. The character of 
that exhibit has been well described by Mrs. Candace Wheeler, who wrote : 
"The exhibits were sufficiently varied to excite surprise at the new direc- 
tion in which women have chosen to exercise their artistic ability, and so 
excellent is the application of principles of beauty as to warrant the belief 
that the best era of art manufacture has fairly begun." 

It is to the realization of this belief that wo confidently look forward, for 
in the domain of art manufacture wf)man is easily supreme. In it she will 
find her best and surest place as an inventor. 

In passing from invention to science, the field broadens, and the oppor- 
tunities for success are greater. There are no heights to which a woman 
cannot soar in scirnee. .\ natural predilection for a given study combined 
with education, and the opportunities in this direction are practically un- 
limited, are (piite sufficient to begin with, and then comes the more difficult, 
but by no manner of means insurmountable, task of finding a suitable envi- 
ronment. The won<ler is. to my miiul, that there are not more great 
women scMentisls in tlie world. Women, as well as men, are ambitious to 
secure fame, and in \U) way <'an that |)recious bauble be so easily obtaine<l 
as bv contributing some valuable discovi-ry to human knowledge. 

Tliere iia\e been >ome great scientists among women. In the remote 
pa>t. Mrs. Henrietta 1. Holton tells us that -Miriam, the sister of Moses, 
was "learned in the sciences, and invented the bain-marie, the double 
boiler of our kit( hens, which still bears her name." 

.As is well known, the universities c»f Italy early gave women every 
oj)p(ntunity t>t accpiiring knowledge and rewarded those of preeminent 
ability i)y calling them to professorial duties. In more recent years we 



have had the storming of the doors of the great universities of Europe by 
women eager to study. One by one, these institutions have succumbed to 
woman's persistence, and in continental Europe it is now possible for a 
woman to obtain an education equal to that of a man, in all branches of 
science. Conservative England still denies equal rights to the gentler sex 
in the venerable colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, while in our own 
country Radclifle and Barnard on the one hand, and Smith and Vassar on 
the other, are typical of the many institutions where every opportunity is 
afforded to women who desire to learn. The sad story of Sophie Kowalev- 
sky, so recently given to the world in book form, deserves special mention 
in this connection, for it tells how one woman overcame all obstacles and 
persisted until the world crowned her with honors, such as are accorded 
only to the very great. As a distinguished mathematician her name will 
always remain with us. 

No one, so far as the writer knows, has yet collected a complete list of 
the women of our country who have become distinguished in science, but 
there are a few names that must he referred to, for they illustrate the possi- 
bilities of success that are attainable. 

Medicine deserves a passing word, for in the art of healing woman has 
indeed won laurels. Among the very many who have achieved distinction 
may be mentioned Dr. Clemence S. Lozier, who received her doctor's 
degree in 1853, and of whom it has been said : "In the surgery required 
by the diseases of women she showed remarkable skill, and performed 
many capital operations." Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi was the first woman 
admitted to the Ecole de Medicine in Paris, where she was graduated in 
1 87 1, and she won the Boylston prize at Harvard in 1876. Dr. Jacobi was 
also the first graduate of her sex at the New York College of Pharmacy, and 
now there is scarcely a college of pharmacy in the country that does not 
contain young ladies as members of its classes, while drug stores conducted 
by women who are graduates, exist in nearly every city. It should also be 
remembered that Dr. Anita Newcomb McGec, the brilliant daughter of 
America's first astronomer, as acting assistant surgeon in the United States 
Army, selected the trained women nurses for both the army and navy 
service during the Spanish- American war. If woman is born ** to soothe 



and to solace, to help and to heal the sick world that leans on her,'* then 
all credit is due to the noble women who, like Miss Annie Wheeler, have 
left homes of comfort to succor the unfortunate victims of war. 

Science is commonly divided into the physical and natural branches, 
each of which has many followers devoted to its pursuit. It is conventional 
to begin with mathematics as the first of the physical sciences, and a worthy 
example of a woman who has gained a high reputation for herself in that 
branch is Mrs. K. F'ranklin of Baltimore, Md. As Miss Christine Ladd, 
she graduated from Viissar late in the seventies, and having shown a pre- 
dilection for mathematics she was invited by the authorities of Johns Hop- 
kins University to continue her studies there with all the privileges and 
emoluments of a fellow, save only the name. She devoted herself to the 
development of the new specialty of algebraic logic, and published 
papers of uncommon merit in the Atnerican Journal of MathemcUics. 

In astronomy the career of Miss Maria Mitchell ser\'es to demonstrate 
the possibilities of succt*ss in that science, although she herself modestly 
claimed that she "was not born with much genius, but with great persist- 
ency." During the lifetime of Henry Draper his wife's name was given 
as his assistant at the little observatory at Hastings on Hudson and right 
loyally has she shown her interest in astronomy by her valuable contribu- 
tions to the work at Harvard carried on as a memorial to her husband. 
The sudden cUath of the astronomer, Richard A. Proctor, resulted in the 
taking up of his unfinished work by his daughter. Miss Mary Proctor, who 
has on frc(iui-nt occasions presented acceptable pai)ers before scientific so- 
cieties. The famous Klumpke sisters have attracted much attention. 
Miss Dorothea Klumpke won her way into the Astronomical Ol)servatory 
in Paris over half a hundred I'Venchmen who were anxious to secure the ap- 
pointment. She now has charge of the department which computes the 
measurements of the stars in the Paris belt. 

For a (luartcr of a century there have lx?en young women working side 
by .side with their brothers in the chemical lal>oratories of many of our 
American universities, and the names of more than a dozen women who are 
following that science are given in the Directory of the American Chemical 
Society. Perhaps the best known woman chemist in the United States is 



Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, who since 1873 has been connected with the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, and for part of that time has been in 
charge of the woman's laboratory of that institution. Although she claims 
as her specialty the analysis of water, still she is best known for her contri- 
butions to the chemistry of foods and of cooking and cleaning. Many 
women, like Mrs. Helen Abbott Michael, began careers of much promise 
only to succumb to the almost inevitable marriage. 

No name of a woman who has won special distinction in the branches 
of geology or paleontology occurs to the wTiter, although it is well known 
that Miss Florence Hascom of Bryn Mawr College is not only a fellow of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, but also the only 
fellow of the Geological Society of America. A single paper by Miss 
Mary A. Fleming was read before the section devoted to these subjects at 
the meeting of the American Association held in Columbus in 1899. In 
geology and especially in paleontology excellent opportunities are available 
in which women might easily win high honors as specialists. 

In zoology excellent work, both in the field and the laboratory, has 
been accomplished by women. Miss Florence A. Merriam has done valua- 
ble field work as an ornithologist in California, Utah, Arizona, and in the 
East and South. Doubtless her inspiration iov work in natural history 
came largely from her able brother, Dr. C. Hart Merriam, the chief of the 
U. S. Biological Survey, under whose direction a portion of her work was 
done. As a represenlative woman wh.) has been successful as a worker 
in the laboratory, mention may be made of Mrs. Susanna P. Gage of Ithaca, 
N. v., who, both alone and in association with her husband, Prof. Simon 
H. Gage of Cornell University, has contributed many papers, the result of 
much investigation, to scientific literature on the s|)eciallies of histology 
and embryology. Miss Mary J. Rathhun, who is an assistant curator 
in the division of Marine Invertebrates in the U. S. National Museum in 
Washington, has done excellent work in her specialty of carcinology, 
or that branch of zo()logy that treats of crustaceans. In the prosecution 
of her specialty she has been sent to remote localities for the purpose of 
collecting or examining specimens, and her pul)lished papers are accepted 
as authoritative. Miss Harriet Richardson, who is also a worker in 



the National Museum, has made a special study of the isopods of this con- 

Early in the last century Miss Jane Colden prepared a Flora of New 
York, and thus gained for herself the reputation of being the first woman 
in America " to become proficient in the study of plants." From that time 
to the present there have not been lacking women who have distinguished 
themselves as botanists. As the science has grown the tendency to 
specialize has increased, and it may not be too much to claim for Mrs. 
Elizabeth G. Hritton the distinction of being the best authority on mosses 
in this country. She has always shown herself a scientific helpmate to her 
husband, who relinquished the chair of Botany in Columbia University in 
order to accept the directorship of the New York Botanical (iarden in 
Bronx Park, N. ^^ Also eminent as a specialist is Mrs. Flora W. Patter- 
son, who, after serving as an assistant in the Gray Herbarium of Harvard 
University, was called to a like charge in the Division of Vegetable Physi- 
ology in the Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C. It was for 
her excellent work in microscopical botany that Mrs. Louisa R. Stowell of 
Lowell, Mass., received the honor of an election as fellow in the Royal 
Microscopical Society of Great Britain. The list could easily be extended, 
for there are many worthy women botanists. 

Among women who have devoted themselves to the fascinating science 
of antliropology may he mentioned Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, who is an honorary 
assistant of the Peahody Museum of American Arch.neology and Ethnology, 
and who has made special study of the languages and antiquities of Mexico, 
including their ancient picture writings. Likewise connected with the Pea- 
hody Museum is Miss Alice C Metcher, whose studies on the folk-lore and 
myth> of our American Indians gained for her the honor of presiding over the 
section on anthropology of the American Associaticm for the Advancement 
of Science in iSgfS. Mrs. I'>minie A. Smith and Mrs. Matilda G. Stevenson 
have both conlrilMited to the work of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
The former by her philological studies and the latter by her work in the 
field. U\y,h honor sliould be accorded to Miss Cornelia Horsford, who, 
since the death «»f lur father in i«^y3. has continued the arch;e<»l()gical re- 
searches begun l)y him, and especially those that had to do with the Norse 



discovery of America. Besides directing expeditions to Iceland and else- 
where, she has published important works containing the results of her in- 

To attempt to make any mention of women who have contributed to 
the wide range of topics that are included under the name of economic sci- 
ence would require a chapter by itself, for the subject embraces everything, 
and more especially those things that are commonly called woman's work. 

Illustrations in sufficient numbers have been cited to show that woman 
has, and can take, high rank in science. The increased opportunities for 
education and the recognition that scientific work now commands, makes it 
certain that more women in the future will turn to science, believing that in 
its study they will find a vocation that will gain for them the. greatest 
rewards and the highest fame. 

In this chapter examples have been chosen entirely from American 
women, and in closing let us say that the many papers presented in recent 
years before the British Association for the Advancement of Science led that 
body, at its meeting held in Dover in 1899, to announce that *' the status of 
women in the association'* would be considered at the meeting next year. 
A decision will be reached in time, but we may be sure that the result will 
be to place woman on an equality with man in that organization which is 
foremost among scientific bodies in the world. 




/ I \HE number of women engaged in the industrial and commercial lines 
JL is increasing so rapidly, that it is but natural to expect that they 
will also turn to the legal profession. The amount of property 
handled by women is rapidly increasing. Property rights before the law 
need to be understo<:)d and asserted by women. Many, who have large 
property interests to care for, have taken a course in law, that they may 
the more intelligently and safely conduct their affairs. Women must study 
law and practice law in self-defense. 

Those who devote themselves to law as a profession have large op- 
portunities for enabling their sex to secure their rights and win substantial 

We do not ordinarily associate the legal profession with philanthropic 
activities, but women lawyers have opportunities for philanthropic work on 
a broad scale, scarcely inferior to those afforded by the medical profession. 

The improvement in the social and legal status of woman during the 
past century has not been due to man primarily. Woman herself has been 
obliged to take the initiative ; then a few broad-minded men have been 
found who were willing to give sympathy and support to the movement. 
But generally man has been an obstnictionist in anything relating to wo- 
man's advancement. He looked upon her with suspicion and jealousy, es- 
pecially in the professional field. 

So the world needs women lawyers who, with a comprehensive grasp of 
the present statutes and a familiarity with legislative proct*sses, can seek 
and secun» still hirther protection and advancement of their sex. 

The legal profession has been the most difficult for woman to enter. 
The educational recpiirements are severe. There must be a broad and 
almost measureless knowledge of things legal. There must be a mind 
fitted for painstaking investigation. There must be profound knowledge of 
human nature. Woman's intuition is a good part of the equipment. But 
her naturally sympathetic nature must not be allowed to overrule intuition. 
There must be a training for putting things on a basis of evidence and 



giving a high place to cold, hard reasoning. Woman has those great gifts, 
tact and common sense, and these must be cultivated rather than allowed to 
become blunted and dwarfed. 

Then there is required, when she begins the practice of her profession, 
an attention to the minutest details, for a case may turn upon the merest 
trifle. Courage of a peculiar sort she must have ; courage to face the 
sneers and braggadocio of an opponent. In the medical profession, woman 
can go forth quietly among her patients, with no antagonism to break in as 
a discord, while she ministers to others. But in law it is different. Her 
sensitive nature must be armored against loud-mouthed abuse and brow- 
beating. She must have courage without brazenness ; intensity without 
noise ; persistency without loss of self-control. 

The United States gave to the world the first woman lawyer. During 
the past thirty years, more than three hundred have been admitted to prac- 
tice law in the various state and federal courts. Probably one hundred 
and twenty-five are now practicing in these courts. The exact number is 
not obtainable. 

Arkansas, Idaho, Indiana, and Maryland have laws which prevent wo- 
men practicing in these several states. Other state/» have no statutory pro- 
hibition and woman has only prejudice to overcome. 

Mrs. Belva A. Lockwood, whose biography is briefly given in another 
portion of this book, was refused admission to the Law School of Columbia 
College. After receiving her degree of A.M. from another university, she 
was fmally admitted to the National University Law School. But after this 
the battle was a long one. Step by step she won her way. She did not 
always find a way, and was then obliged to make one. A notable instance 
of this latter work is seen in her drafting a bill admitting women to the bar 
of the United States Supreme Court, and securing tlie passage through 
both branches of Congress. Having made the way, she entered it and w^as 
the first woman to be admittel to the bar of that august body. 

The name of Mrs. Myra B. Bradwell stands beside that of Mrs. Lock- 
wood, as that of a pioneer in the legal profession. She studied law partly 
as a pastime and partly to be of assistance to her husband, Judge Bradwell. 
Her taste for the profession increased as she proceeded with her studies. 



Though her abilities were iiiKiiiestioiiable, she was not admitted to the pro- 
fession because she was a married woman. She sent out a writ of error 
against the state of Illinois, where she was living. The case was decided 
against her, and so she was still refused admission to the bar. After many 
years, however, the decision was reversed, and she received her certificate 
of admission. For twenty-five years, beginning in 1869, Mrs. Bradwell 
was editor and manager of the Oncaj^o Lcfral Xews, which took high rank 
in the legal profession. 

Another woman, who not finding a way made one, is Miss Mary Phil- 
brick of New Jersey. Having completed her studies and applied for admis- 
sion to the bar, she discovered that, being a woman, she was legally 
dis(iualified She proceeded to have a bill introduced into the state legisla- 
ture, permitting women to practice law. She appeared before the commit- 
tee, argued her case with great effectiveness, and secured the passage of the 
bill through both branches of the legislature. When the bill had been 
passed, with heroic and womanly ptTseverance she went to the governor 
and convinced him that he ought to sign the bill. So she won a victory 
for herself and womanhood. Her legal disabilities being removed, she was 
admitted to tin- bar and achieved marked success, as she so well deserved. 

If women are to make pn>^re>s, some one must push. All great 
refr)rms have been won only by agitation and usually through obloquy. 
With the majority <»f mankind, "whatever is, is right," and womankind 
has too long submitted to this monstrous dictum, which is the fossilizing 
force of humanity. 

At the ojxning of this century and for more than half its course, woman 
was held in a sort of servitude so far as the laws of the several states were 
concerned. The laws relating to woman were largely relics or reproductions 
of ancient and nn-ditval legislation, which had its origin in an assumed infe- 
riority of woman. .Striking changes have been wrought. Much remains to 
be done, and woman with a thorough legal education must take the lead. 


Two or three decades ago, the doors of opportunity seemed fast barred 
against woman in this profession. One l)olt was the prejudice of the trus- 



tees and faculties of medical colleges ; another was the unwillingness of 
young men students to have young women in the classes. But after these 
difficulties had been overcome, and young women had been graduated with 
honor, there still remained the struggles of competition, public prejudice, 
and general distrust. 

At the time when the first women graduated from our medical schools, 
there were in nearly every city, so called ** women doctors,'* but they were 
almost universally, and generally with justice, held in disrepute. Their 
practice was generally of a criminal nature. So when respectable and 
highly educated women announced themselves as medical practitioners, they 
were at once classed with those who had disgraced their own womanhood 
and the medical profession. 

Women can endure and overcome indifference and even opposition, but 
the one thing which woman's nature finds hardest to bear, is disrepute. 
After years of study with the high aim of being of service to her sisters in 
sickness and suffering, to be met with the cold look of suspicion tends to 
crush those who are not truly heroic. But happily these days of suspicion 
are now forever past. There are now between three and four thousand 
women in the United States who are regular graduates of medical colleges 
and are practicing the profession with honor and success. 

VV^omen have long, and we may say always, felt keenly the need of 
women physicians. It was claimed by many that woman in entering the 
medical profession was overstepping the bounds of modesty. But they 
seemed to forget that women patients have modesty and, in hundreds of 
instances, suffer for years, rather than to consult a physician of the other 

Woman is preeminently the ministering one of the household, from the 
cradle up, and why should she be denied the training for the most skilled 
form of ministration to [)hysical suffering? 

In the Buffalo Medical Journal ^ in 1869, was the following editorial com- 
ment on woman in the medical profession : " If I were to plan with mali- 
cious hate the greatest curse I could conceive for woman ; if I would 
estrange them from the protection of men and make them so far as 
possible loathsome and disgusting to men, 1 would favor this so-called 



reform, which proposes to make doctors of them.** This sounds like a 
voice from India, Turkey, or China, or, at the best, a voice from medieval 
Europe. And to think that this was seriously written in a medical journal 
but three decades ago ! Surely this has been a wonderful century for 
women, or, we should say, woman has made it a wonderful century. 

A sketch of the life of Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman in America 
to receive the degree of M.D., is elsewhere given in the book. She was the 
pioneer and prepared the way for others, who followed in rapid succession. 
A Boston journal speaking of her graduation said, *'The ceremonies of 
graduating Miss Blackwell at Geneva may well be called a farce. The 
profession was quite too full before." So full that there was not room for one 
lone woman ! But men have been obliged to make room. Students in 
medical colleges where women were admitted found that they were obliged 
to attend sharply to their studies to keep along with the brave women who 
were seeking preparation for the noble art of healing. 

It may be of interest to relate the experience of Dr. Susan B. Edson, 
who was for years the physician of President Garfield and his family. She 
was the entering wedge to open the doors of the Cleveland Homeopathic 
Hospital. This college would not sell its scholarships to women. The 
institution was in debt for a new building and the creditor would not turn 
over the keys until he had lx.x*n granted a scholarship to be disjx^sed of as 
he chose. This scholarship he sold to Miss Edson, who was thus entitled to 
enter. A faculty meeting was held and it was decided that she would not 
be allowed to enter, but she calmly informed them she would be there 
at the opening of the year. They s;iid, ** It would not l)e very pleasant for 
you." .She replied, "That is your lookout. If the men who come here 
to study medicine cannot treat a woman decently here, they are not fit to 
treat them elsewhere. If I live I shall be here.'* And .she came and .soon 
other women came and they were graduated with honor. 

Having been the physician of President (iarfield for many years, she 
was in constant attendance upon him during his last days, though he was 
under the surgical care of six other physicians. It is also said of her, ** She 
introduced to the United States the first Chinese Ixiby of rank lx>rn in this 



There are now thirty-six medical colleges which admit mixed classes, 
and f\ve medical schools exclusively for women. 

The movement is becoming world-wide. Women are studying- and 
practicing medicine with success in France. In Belgium they are allowed 
to practice medicine, though the law profession is still closed to them. In 
Russia a special school of medicine for women was established by imperial 
decree in 1890. In Switzerland, Italy, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, 
women are allowed to enter this profession. English medical schools in 
Great Britain and the colonies are open to women ; in the latter we may 
mention Madras, Melbourne, Sidney, Wellington, Calcutta, and Toronto. 

America has the honor of graduating the first Chinese woman prtiysician, 
that is, to give back to China the first native woman with a degree from a 
non-Chinese school. Dr. Hu King Eng. She spent nine years in this 
country, and from the first had in view serving the women of her own race 
by becoming a physician. She graduated from the Woman's Medical Col- 
lege in Philadelphia and took a post-graduate course at the Polyclinic, 
where she made a special study of the eye and ear. She returned to China 
to direct the work of the Foochow Hospital under the auspices of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist church. 

Woman is by nature fitted for the medical profession. She has gentle- 
ness, sympathy, patience. She feels for childhood and womanhood as men 
never can, and, because of her intuitive powers, we believe that with the 
same intellectual and technical equipment, she will more quickly and 
accurately diagnose a case than will a physician of the other sex. And she 
has a special mission to motherhood, for which the world has waited. 


Many people have conscientious scruples against women preachers. 
Let them not do violence to conscience, but rather search carefully, and see 
if a part of what they call conscience is not prejudice, rather. Let them 
ascertain whether or not their aversion to women becoming regular pastors 
of churches is not closely akin to the antagonism which has been until 
recently shown toward women who would enter the profession of medicine 
or of law. There will be with many a residuum of real conscientious con- 



viction against encouraging women to enter the regular ministry. This is 
not the i)lace to argue the (jut^stion, or to seek an ehicidation of the scrip- 
tural grounds of woman's activities in ministerial lines. 

But there should be made a careful study of woman's work as set forth in 
the New Testament. There should he an inductive study of her work in all 
lines. It shouKl be observed how Christ uplifted and honored womanhood, 
and that he and his apostles advanced woman, in spite of the prejudice of 
the times. We have but to read the closing chapter of the letter to the 
Romans, to find how the women workers in the churches were prized by 
Paul. It is not (juite fair in the face of all these considerations to make a 
single utterance of the great apostle a bulwark behind which to hide while 
we hurl darts of criticism at women who feel called of (»od to preach. 

We concede to them the right to all sorts of humbler work. They can 
toil and teach and lecture. They can go down into the slums and speak to 
the submerged tenth in groups of two or twenty or a hundred. They can 
go to the foreign field and have a pagan pastorate, and we applaud their 
efforts. But when it comes to preaching in an uptown church or even a 
rural parish, hands are lifted in protest. 

There are some wlio raise the cry that the ministry is already full. So also 
the medical profission was declared to be full when women sought admis- 
sion. Hut if woman can lual or preach as well or better than some men, 
room will be made ft)r her. Incompetent or indolent men will be thrust 
aside, as they ought to be. Men who are merely holding a position rather 
than occujjying it, will be compelled to give way for men or women who 
can cultivate the field and make it fruitful. When the right of woman to 
occupy the pulpit is conceded, there remains the (jut^stion of the administra- 
tion of the ordinances, which we do not assume to settle, as each denomina- 
tion is a law unto itself in these matters. 

The I'niversalists. I'nitarians, Free- Will Baptists, and Wesleyan 
Methodists open their theological institutions to women and ordain them 
to the regular ministry, if they desire. Kach Gmgregational church is self- 
govtrning and may act its own pleasure in the matter of ordaining women. 
Hartford Theological .Seminary is open to women and several have graduated. 
( )berlin College was, from the first, open tol>oth se.xes in all its departments. 



One woman, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, was graduated from Oberlin 
and ordained in 1853. 

Presbyterian preachers are prohibited from inviting women to occupy 
their pulpits and the ordination of women is not allowed. 

For twenty-five years, the divinity school of Chicago University has 
admitted women to the classes on equal terms with men, but they are not 
encouraged to enter the regular work of the ministry at home ; their prep- 
aration is rather for the foreign field. Some have felt moved to question 
the justness of this discrimination, saying that "Christian pastorates" are 
reserved for the men and * * pagan pastorates ' * are open to women and they 
are debarred from the one and directed to the other. 

The Methodist Episcopal church has long admitted women to its theo- 
logical schools, but the General Conference has thus far refused to grant 
full ordination to women. 

The United Brethren claim the honor of having ordained the first woman 
to the Christian ministry. Lydia Sexton was. thus set apart to the work of 
the Christian ministry in 1851. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, of whom 
mention has already l)een made, was ordained two years later by the Con- 
gregational ists. The Friends have from the first given to women the same 
rights and opportunities as were accorded to men. Several hundred are to- 
day educated and recognized preachers among them. 

Returning now to the four denominations first mentioned, we find that 
in 1856 the Universalists founded an institution at Canton, N. Y. , known as 
St. Lawrence University, having connected with it a divinity school. 
Women were free to enter and the first woman graduate received her 
diploma in 1863. The Ryder Divinity School of Galeshurg, 111., and the 
divinity school of Tufts College, were opened to women in 1881 and 1892. 

Among the Unitarians, the movement for the theological education of 
women began about thirty-five years ago. In 1868, women were admitted 
to the institution at Meadville, Pa. The Free-Will Baptist College at 
Hillsdale, Mich., opened its theological department in 1878 to women and 
men on an equal footing, and a goodly number have availed themselves of 
the opportunity. The theological seminary connected with Bates College, 
Lewiston, Me., is also open to women. 



Rev. Eugenia St. John, a Methodist clergyman, has this to say : ** We 
believe that woman's native intuition is as necessary in the pulpit as man's 
logical reasoning powers. Reason has stood still and argued from cause to 
effect and has asked these questions : * How shall it be done ?' * Why shall 
it be done ? * ' Can it be done and shall we do it ? ' Meanwhile, intuition 
has made rapid transit across the pathway of reason ; has probed 'the mys- 
tery, solved the question, brought the remedy, and, when reason has come 
to its conclusions, intuition is already at work at the business.** 

Rev. Mary L. Moreland, Congregationalist, speaks thus of herself : 
** Years ago in a little town in Massachusetts, I got my call from God and 
I said to the old minister of my church : * I will not be a minister ; I will not 
enter the ministry, when men are opposed to it, I do not propose to choose 
a life of hardships,* and so I put off the earnest call and went out into other 
departments of work. But one day, unexpectedly, it seemed to me that 
God had again led me out in spite of my wish or desire ; and so the deacons 
of the church to which I had been called said, * Miss Moreland, it is your 
duty to be ordained.' I said, ' It is not, don't mention the matter ; you 
will break up the church and spoil our meetings.' I said I had never heard 
of a woman's being ordained in a Congregational church (but I found there 
was one before me). That ordination was urged upon me, and the work 
of the pulpit became possible." 

Thus victories have been won along the line of this profession for woman 
and by woman. She has not here been so self-assertive as in medical and 
legal lines. It has been a smokeless Ixittle, or rather, let me say, it has not 
been a battle, but a quiet, steady, onward march of the springtime rays of 
the sun as they advance upon the ice-bound earth, and quietly loosen the 
fetters. We hardly know how it is done. It is not an act, but a process. 
At length the conc^uest is complete, and we are glad. 




O transform tempted humanity by the power of divine grace, to purify 
and protect the home, and to enthrone Christ in government is the 
high and sacred mission of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, the largest society in the world composed of and conducted by 
women, and one which has been aptly defined as "Organized Mother 
Love." It is one of the most remarkable movements of the nineteenth 
century, and had its origin in the great Women's Temperance Crusade of 
'73-74. The National W. C. T. U., or ** Sober Second Thought of the 
Crusade," was organized in November, 1874, in Cleveland, Ohio, and has 
had a phenomenal growth in membership and influence. Its basis of mem- 
bership is the signing of the total abstinence pledge and the payment of an- 
nual dues to the local society. The local societies are federated in each state 
into a state organization, and they in turn into the national society, while 
fifty different nations are now federated in a World's W. C. T. U. , of which 
Miss Frances E. Willard was the founder and, until her translation to 
Heavenly activities, its beloved leader. 

A bow of white ribbon is the simple yet significant badge of these de- 
voted, unselfish toilers for (jod and humanity, who now number nearly 
three hundred thousand in the United States and more than half a million 
in the world at large. Their watchwords are, Agitate, Educate, Organize ; 
their banners bear the inspiring motto, " For God and Home and Every 
Land," and their Declaration of Principles reads as follows : — 

" We believe in the coming of His Kingdom whose service is perfect 
freedom, because His laws, written in our members as well as in nature and 
in grace, are |)erfect, converting the soul. 

*• We believe in the g()S|)el of the Golden Rule, and that each man's 
habits of life should be an example safe and beneficent for every other man 
to follow. 

'* We believe that God created both man and woman in His own image 
and, therefore, we believe in one standard of purity for both men and 



women, and in the ecjiial right of all to hold opinions and to express the 
same with ecpial freedom. 

'* We believe in a livinj^ wage ; in an eight-hour day ; in courts of con- 
ciliation and arbitration ; in justice as opposed to greed of gain : in *» peace 
on earth and good will to men.* 

'* We therefore formulate and for ourselves adopt the following pledge, 
asking our sisters and brothers of a common danger and a common hope to 
make common cause with us in working its reasonable and helpful precepts 
into the practice of everyday life : — 

" I hereby solemnly promise, (lod helping me, to abstain from all dis- 
tilled, fermented, and malt litjuors, including Wine, Beer, and Cider, and 
to employ all proper means to discourage the use of and traffic in the same. 

"To confirm and enforce the rationale of this pledge, we declare our 
purpose to educate the young ; to form a better [)ublic sentiment ; to re- 
form, so far as j)ossible, by religious, ethical, and scientific means, the 
drinking classes : to seek the transforming power of divine grace for our- 
selves and all for whom we work, that lh<-y and we may willfully transcend 
no law of j)ure and wholesome living ; and, finally, we pledge ourselves to 
labor and pray that all these principles, founded upon the (lospel of Christ, 
may Ix- worked out into the Customs of .Society and the Laws of the Land." 

The svstem itic arrangement of plans running through the entire organ- 
i/.ition from the 1o(m1 to the national union, its unity of method, its splendid 
seoj)e of department work, its sublime purpose, and its steadfast faith in 
(lod must a("<"ount f(»r the succ^ess and influem^e of the Woman's Christian 
Teinp<ran((' Inion, whirh ought to command the symi)athy and co-ojurra- 
tion of Chri^^tian people e\'eryw here. 

Tile \\«»rk of this great society is dassitied into fi\e general divisions, 
j)re\iiiti\ ('. e<lu(Mtional. evangelistic, social and legal, and the department 
of organization, while under these heads are grouped fifty different depart- 
ments, eaeh «)t u liieh receives the care of a sui)erintendent, who is an ex- 
jxrt, and who plan^ to advance from a world's or national point of view 
the work intru-led to her. Another superinteiuh-nt under the direction of 
the fn-^t i>> ap|)oinled for each nation, colony, {province, or state, and she in 
turn (liret Is the superintendent in the local .societies of her territory. Great 



(3Yfe4Qinii5«howli by the parent organization in the fact that ^none of the 
departments of work are binding upon any auxiliary societies, they being 
Srt^gg^stive. rather than obligatory, neither is any principle espoused by the 
:$igtiopal.prg:anizatian binding upon any of the affiliated unions. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union has been a chief factor, in 
p>ahy' state campaigns for statutory prohibition and constitutional amend- 
ments and for securing the enactment of other reform laws, es{>ecially those 
K)ir the protection of girls. It has been the means of securing laws in all 
the states but two requiring scientific temperance instruction in the public 
schools and has siecured congressional legislation by means of which all the 
territories aiid the District of Columbia are brought under the same benefi- 
cent statutes. 

The work of the National W. C. T. U. for peace and arbitration, for the 
children in Sunday schools, Loyal Temperance Legions, and kindergartens ; 
its efforts to influence college students and to train and organize young 
women for a philanthropic life ; its evangelistic work for non-churchgoers^ 
railway employees, soldiers, lumbermen, miners (especially for the drinking 
men of all clashes), have proved its comprehensiveness and the tirelessness 
of its zeal. Its efforts to reach the pauper and the prisoner, to establish 
reformatories and homes for the wretched victims of inebriety and their 
suffering children, and its temperance Flower Mission, must appeal to every 
true heart. 

It also strives to redeem outcast women from a slavery worse than that 
of chains, and by better laws to secure protection to women and girls from 
the outrages of brutal nr designing men. It has been instrumental in raising 
the age of consent in nearly every state in the Union, and its influence is 
being strongly felt in the purification of our literature and art. 

These departments have been adopted one by one as the development 
of the work revealed their need and were most of them suggested by Miss 
VVillard on the principle that ''every question of practical philanthropy 
has its temperance aspect and with that we are to deal." Miss Willard 
has thus stated her reasons for what has come to be called her ** Do 
Everything Policy." 

Ji. ' ^f When tve: began the delicate,' difficult, and dangeroqs operation of di»-: 


siting out the alcohol nerve how the body politic, we did not realize the 
intricacy of the undertaking, nor the distances that must be traversed, by 
the scalpel of investigation and research. More than twenty years ha]i(^ 
elapsed since the call to battle sounded its bugle note among the homes and 
hearts of Hillslioro, Ohio. One thought, sentiment, and purpose animated 
those saintly * Praying Bands,' whose name will never die out from human 
histor)' : ' Brothers, we brg of you not to drink, and not to sell ! ' This 
was the single wailing nolo of these moral Paganinis, playing on one string. 
It caught the universal ear, and set the key of that mighty orchestra, 
organized with so much toil and hardship, in which the tender and exalted 
strain of the Crusade violin still soars aloft, but uplx)rne now by the clang- 
ing cornets of scienc e, the deep trombones of legislation, and the thunder- 
ous drums of politics and parlies The ' Do Everything Policy* was not 
of our choosing, but is an evolution, as inevitable as any traced by the 
naturalist, or described by the historian. Woman's genius for details, and 
her patient steadfastness in following the enemies of those she loves 
'through every lane ojlife,' have led her to antagonize the alcohol habit, 
and the licpior traffic, just where they are, wherev^er that may be. If she 
does this, since they are every wlu-re, her policy will be. * Do Everything.* 

"A one-si(k<l movement makes one-sided advocates. Virtues, like 
hounds, hunt in |)acks. Total abstinence is not the crucial virtue in life 
that excuses financial crookedness, defamation of character, or habits of 
impurity. The fart that one's father was, and one's self is, a bright and 
shiniuji,^ hj^ht in the total abstintMire galaxy, does not give one a vantage 
ground for hij^h-handed beliavior toward tho,se who have not been trained 
to the special virtue that forms the central idea of the temperance move- 
ment. We have known persons who, because they liad ' never touched a 
drop of licjuor," set themselves up as if they belonged to a roval line, but 
whose tongues were as biting as alcohol itself, and whose narrowness had 
no competitor save a straight line. An all-round movement can only be 
carried forward by all-round advocates ; a scientific age requires the study 
of every subject in its correlation*^. It was once supposed ihat light, heat, 
and ele<:tricity were wholly separate entities ; it is now believed, and practi- 
cally proved, that^ they are but,^jf!crent i|>ode> of motioo. .Stanc^g in X\\^, 


valley, we look up and think we see an isolated mountain ; climbing to its 
top, we see that it is but one member of a range of mountains, many of 
them of well-nigh equal altitude. 

* ' Some bright women who have opposed the * Do Everything Policy,' used 
as their favorite illustration a flowing river, and expatiated on the ruin that 
would follow if that river (which represents their Do One Thing Policy) 
were diverted into many channels ; but it should be remembered that the 
most useful of all rivers is the Nile, and that the agricultural economy of 
Egypt consists in the effort to spread its waters upon as many fields as pos- 
sible. It is not for the river's sake that it flows through the country, but for 
the sake of the fertility it can bring upon the adjoining fields, and this is 
pre-eminently true of the Temperance Reform. 

*' Let us not be disconcerted, but stand bravely by that blessed trinity of 
movements — Prohibition, Woman's Liberation, and Labor's Uplift. 

** Everything is not in the Temperance Reform, but the Temperance 
Reform should be in everything." 

The two grand divisions of the W. C. T. U. forces which are the train- 
ing ground for future standard-bearers and workers are the Young Wo- 
man's Branch, known as the Young Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
and the Senior and Junior Loyal Temperance Legion. 

The Y. W. C. T. U. works on lines calculated to interest young wo- 
men especially in the educational and social phases of the reform, and with 
young men who are honorary members to create public sentiment against 
the legalized saloon. 

The seventh Round the World Missionary who has just returned from a 
four years' absence in Japan, Burma, and China, Miss Clara Parrish of 
Illinois, is from the ranks of the Young Woman's Christian Temperance 

On one of Chicago's busy thoroughfares stands the unique and significant 
gift of the temperance boys and girls of the World's W. C. T. L\, the bronze 
figure of a little girl holding in her outstretched hands a cup of cold water, 
while at her feet are troughs for horses and dogs. The thought of the 
figure was intended to illustrate the giving hands of white ril:)bon children 
when rightly trained to helpful habits by the L. T. L. This fountain was 



executed by Mr. George E. Wade, one of London's best known sculptors, 
and is the children's memorial gift to the city that entertained the Colum- 
bian Exposition. Nearly three hundred thousand pledge cards were signed 
by young people in all countries where the white ribbon work has been es- 
tablished, and sent to the World's Fair as a means of unifying the thought 
and purpose of the children by this united protest against the use of 
alcoholics. These cards were festooned in the Children's Building as well 
as in the section arranged by the W. C. T. U. , and most of the children 
who thus sent their names contributed to the Fountain fund, which 
amounted to over two thousand dollars, although no child was asked for 
more than ten cents. Out of these plans for the World's Fair has grown a 
wide interest in Loyal Temperance Legion methods, leading in many cases 
to the formation of societies for children and notably to a very successful 
work in Norway, over eight thousand cards having been sent from that 
country. England sent forty-seven thousand cards, but had no part in the 
Fountain enterprise, they having contributed their pennies to establish a 
duplicate of the child figure in London. The fountain in Chicago has 
been named " Willard Fountain," in loving and grateful recognition of the 
founder of the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and Great 
Britain's bronze bears the name of "Somerset Fountain," in commemora- 
tion of the gracious leadership of Lady Henry Somerset, president of the 
British Woman's Temperance Association. But these fountains will always 
he known as the children's gifts ; the child's cup bears the badge of the 
Loyal Temperance Legion, and the fountain's base is suitably inscribed, 
showing it to be the children's gift. 

The widest evolution of the work of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, viz., the World's W. C. T. U., has been in organized form since 
I SiS3. 1 n that year It was the privilege of the writer to accompany Miss Willard 
on an organizing tour to the Pacific coast, and this became a memorial 
yrar in W. (\ T. U. annals, as every state and territory in the Union were 
visited that year by the indefatigable National President, who thereby com- 
pleted an itinerary that included every city and town in the United States 
that, by the census of 1880, contained ten thousand inhabitants. 

While in .San Francisco Miss Willard visited the famous ** Chinatown," 


wh^'re she saw' the opium a^ri iiiall.its loathsome c6m{)Iet^n'^ss st^'noiriy: tiex^t 
door to the house of shame. In presence of these two object lessbhfe, fHe 
result of Occidental avarice and Oriental degradation, there came to' Kef a 
distinct illumination resulting in this solemn decision : " But for the Intru- 
sion of the sea the shores of China and the far East would be part and 
parcel of our own. We arc one world of tempted humanity ; the ftiission 
of the white ribbon women is to organize the motherhood of the world for 
the peace and purity, the protection and exaltation, of its homes. We mOst 
send forth a clear call to our sisters yonder and our brothers, too. We 
must be no longer hedged about by the artificial boundaries of states and 
nations ; we must utter as women what good and great men long ago 
declared as their watchward : The whole world is my parish and to do good 
my religion. ' ' 

Plans were immediately made to send out white ribbon missionaries who 
would establish the W. C. T. U. work around the world, and seven women 
thus commissioned have belted the world with the white ribbon. While 
following these missionaries in thought Miss Willard read a book on the 
opium trade in India and China, and under the impulse of its unspeakable 
recitals wrote the Polyglot Petition, feeling, said Miss Willard, " that our 
missionaries must have not only the Crusade story to tell with its crystalliza- 
tion in the W. C. T. U. , the plan of organization to dcscril)e, the white ribbon 
to pin above ten thousand faithful women's hearts, the noon hour of prayer 
to impress upon their spirits the sense of that divine uplift which alone can 
give an enduring enthusiasm in any cause — but they must si>eak to them 
of something to he done and to be clone at once, in which all were alike 
engaged in England, America, the Oriental nations, the islands of the sea 
and so far as possible the continent of luir()|)e, with its great wine-growing 
countries which render it the least and last of all in the temperance reform. 
A petition against the Liquor Traffic and the Opium Trade and asking that 
the statutes of the world should be lifted to the level of Christian morals, 
thus involving that 'White Life for Two* which has now become an 
integral part of our work, realized to my thought 'the tie that hinids' 
thousands of hearts and hands in one common work for the uplrft 6i 


This celebrated petition, which has now received more than Seven rilill- 
lion names, through sfgnatures and indorsements, and has been signed ih 
well-nij^h fifty languages of persons of all races, nationalities, and religions; 
reads as follows : — 


Honored Rulers, Representaiives, and Brothers : — 

We, your petitioners, although belonging to the physically weaker sex, 
are strong of heart to love our homes, our native land, and the world's 
family of nations. 

We know that clear brains and pure hearts make honest IK'es and happy 
homes, and that by these the nations prosper, and the time is brought 
nearer when the world shall be at peace. ■ ' 

Wo know that indulgence in alcohol and opium, and in other Vices 
which disgrace our social life, makes misery for all the world, and mbst 
of all for us and our children. 

We know that stimulants and opiates are sold under legal guaraAtees 
which make the government partners in the traffic, by accepting as revehut 
a portion of the profits, and we know, with shame, that they are often forced 
by treaty u|)on |)opulations, either ignorant or unwilling. ' 

We know that thr law might do much, now left undone, to raise the 
moral tone of society and render vice difficult. 

We have no power to j^revent these great iniquities beneath which the 
whole world groans, but you have power to redeem the honor of the natioils 
from an indefensible complicity. 

We therefore come to you with the imited voices of representative wo- 
men of every land, beseeching you to raise the standard of the law to that 
of Christian morals, to strip away the safeguards and sanctions of the stat6 
from the drink traffic and the o|)ium trade, and to protect our homes by the 
total prohibition of these curses of civilization throughout all the territory 
over which your goMrnment extends. 

This petition has already been presented to the president of the l*nih*fl 
States, a great public demonstration being held in Washington, I). C. , at 
the time, February 15, 1S95. where it decorated the great convention hafl 



holding seven thousand persons, and in the following spring the petition 
was taken to London where it was the central feature of the Third Biennial 
Convention of the World's W. C. T. U. In Royal Albert Hall, where the 
monster demonstration meeting of the convention w^s held, its countless 
folds encircled galleries and platform like a huge white ribbon into which 
had been woven the symbolic badges of the great host of women who in 
every land are publishing the tidings of purity and total abstinence. In 
1897 the great rolls crossed the ocean again to adorn Massey Music Hall, 
Toronto, on the occasion of the fourth World's W. C. T. U. Convention. 
It was Miss Willard's earnest desire to assist in presenting the petiti(m to 
the Canadian government, and one of her last dictated messages during 
her iHness in New York city concerned its future destiny. She has left it 
as a precious legacy to her white ribbon sisters as well as an o!)ject lesson to 
the world of the marvelous dimensions to which an idea may attain. 

Mrs. Margaret Bright Lucas, sister of John Bright and president of the 
British Woman's Temperance Association, was the first president of the 
World's W. C. T. I'., holding the office for six years. Mrs. Lucas had 
given her whole life to the work of philanthropy and reform, being not only 
a devoted temi)erance woman but an equally devoted advocate of woman's 
suffrage. She acxejXed the position of i)residcnt of the world's organiza- 
tion at the earnest recjuest of her American sisters, and after she was seventv 
years of aijc attended the twelfth